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Forex Fundamental Analysis

EUR/CHF Global Macro Analysis – Part 3

EUR/CHF Exogenous Analysis

  • The EU and Switzerland Current Account to GDP differential

The ratio of the current account to GDP helps us determine the level of a country’s participation in the international market. When a country has net exports, it means that it will have a current account surplus; and, the larger the surplus, the higher the current account to GDP ratio. Conversely, a country with higher imports than exports; it means it has a current account deficit, and its current account to GDP ratio will be lower.

The domestic currency will be in higher demand in the forex market when a country is a net exporter.

In 2020, the Swiss Current Account to GDP is projected to reach 7.5% and that of the EU 3.4%. Thus, the current account to GDP differential between the EU and Switzerland is -4.1%. That means we should expect that the CHF will be in higher demand than the EUR. Thus, we assign a score of -5.

The interest rate differential for the EUR/CHF pair determines which of these currencies is preferable to investors and carry traders in the forex market. When the interest rate differential is positive, it means that investors will earn more by buying the EUR. Similarly, carry traders will be bullish on the EUR/CHF pair, thus driving the exchange rate higher. A negative interest rate differential implies that the Swiss Franc will be preferable to investors, while carry traders will be bearish on the pair.

The Swiss National Bank has maintained the interest rate at -0.75% throughout 2020, and the ECB interest rate has been at 0%. The interest rate differential for the EUR/CHF pair is 0.75%. We assign a score of 2.

  • The EU and Switzerland GDP Growth Rate differential

The GDP growth differential is the difference between the rate at which the EU and the Swiss economy are growing. This will help us identify which economy is growing faster. A positive GDP growth differential between the EU and Switzerland will result in a higher exchange rate for the EUR/CHF pair. A negative one will lead to a drop in the exchange rate for the pair.

In the first three quarters of 2020, the EU economy has contracted by 2.9% while the Swiss economy contracted by 1.5%. The GDP growth rate differential is -1.4%. We assign a score of -3.

Conclusion

The exogenous factors between the EUR/CHF pair have a score of -6; which implies that the pair can be expected to be on a downtrend in the short term.

As you can see above, the Technical analysis shows that the weekly chart for the EUR/CHF pair has failed to breach the upper Bollinger band successfully and has bounced off of it supporting our fundamental analysis. All the best.

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

EUR/JPY Global Macro Analysis – Part 1 & 2

Introduction

The global macro analysis of the EUR/JPY forex pair will involve the analysis of endogenous and exogenous economic factors. The endogenous analysis will cover indicators that drive economic growth in the EU and Japan. Exogenous factors will cover the analysis of factors that impact the exchange rate between the Euro and the Japanese Yen.

Ranking Scale

We will use a scale of -10 to +10 to rank the impact of these factors. When the endogenous factors are negative, it implies that they resulted in the depreciation of the local currency. a positive ranking implies that they led to an increase in the value of the domestic currency. The ranking of the endogenous factors is determined by their correlation with the domestic GDP growth.

When the exogenous factors get a negative score, it means they have a bearish impact on the EUR/JPY pair. A positive score implies they’ve had a bullish impact. The ranking of the exogenous factors is determined by their correlation to the exchange rate of the EUR/JPY pair.

EUR Endogenous Analysis – Summary

The endogenous analysis of the EUR has an overall score of -3. Based on the factors we have analyzed, we can expect that the Euro had marginally depreciated in 2020.

JPY Endogenous Analysis – Summary 

A score of -12 implies a strong deflationary effect on the JPY currency pair, and we can conclude that this currency has depreciated this year.

  • Japan Employed Persons

This indicator measures the changes in the number of workers over a particular period. It only tracks the section of the labor force that has attained the minimum working age. Changes in the labor market are seen as leading indicators of economic development.

In October 2020, the number of employed persons in Japan increased to 66.58 million from 66.55 million in September. The number of employed persons in Japan is still lower than the 67.4 million recorded in January. We assign a score of -5.

  • Japan GDP Deflator

The GDP deflator is used to measure the comprehensive changes in the overall inflation of the Japanese economy. Since it measures the price changes of the entire economic output, it is used as a key predictor of future monetary and fiscal policies. An increase in GDP deflator means that the economy is expanding, which may lead to the appreciation of the JPY.

In Q3 of 2020, the Japan GDP deflator dropped to 100.4 from 103.5 in Q2. Up to Q3, the Japan GDP deflator has marginally increased by 0.2 points. We assign a score of 1.

  • Japan Industrial Production

This indicator covers the changes in the output value of mining, manufacturing, and utility sectors. The Japanese economy is highly industrialized. The industrial sector contributes approximately 33% of the GDP. That means the GDP growth rate in Japan is sensitive to the changes in industrial production.

The MoM industrial production in Japan increased by 3.8% in October 2020 while the YoY dropped by 3.2% – the slowest since February 2020. On average, the MoM industrial production in Japan is -0.15%. We assign a score of -5.

  • Japan Manufacturing PMI

About 400 large manufacturers are surveyed monthly by The Jibun Bank. These manufacturers are classified according to the sector of operations, their workforce size, and contribution to GDP. The overall manufacturing PMI is an aggregate of employment, new orders, inventory, output, and suppliers’ deliveries. The Japanese manufacturing sector is seen to be expanding when the PMI is above 50 and contracting when below 50.

In November 2020, the Japan Manufacturing PMI was 49 compared to 48.7 in October. The November reading is almost at par with the January levels. We assign a score of 1.

  • Japan Retail Sales

The retail sales measure the change in the monthly purchase of goods and services by Japanese households. Since it is a leading indicator of consumer demand and expenditure, it is best suited to gauge possible economic contractions and expansions.

In October 2020, Japan retail sales rose by 0.4% from 0.1% recorded in September. YoY retail sales increased by 6.4%, which marks the first month of increase since February 2020. The growth of retail sales is mainly attributed to an increase in motor vehicle sales, machinery and equipment, and medicine & toiletry. On average, the first ten months of 2020 have had a 0.4% increase in MoM retail sales. Thus, we assign a score of 2.

  • Japan Consumer Confidence

This is a monthly survey of about 4700 Japanese households with more than two people. The survey covers the households’ opinion on the overall economic growth, personal income, employment, and purchase of durable goods. An index of above 50 shows that the households are optimistic, while below 50 shows that they are pessimistic.

In November 2020, Japan’s consumer confidence was 33.7 – the highest recorded since March. It is, however, still lower than the pre-pandemic levels of 39.1. We assign a score of -3.

  • Japan General Government Gross Debt to GDP

Prospective domestic and international lenders use the government debt to GDP ratio to determine the ability of an economy to sustain more debt. Among the developed nations, Japan has the highest government debt to GDP ratio. However, it has minimal risk of default since most of the debt is domestic and denominated in Japanese Yen, which poses a low risk of inflating the domestic currency in the international market.

In 2019, the general government gross debt to GDP in Japan was 238%, up from 236.6% in 2018. In 2020, it was projected to hit a maximum of 250%. We assign a score of -3.

In our upcoming article, we have performed an Exogenous analysis of the EUR/JPY Forex pair and gave our optimal forecast. Make sure to check that out. Cheers.

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

EUR/CAD Global Macro Analysis Part 3

EUR/CAD Exogenous Analysis

  • The EU and Canada Current Account to GDP differential

When a country has a high current account to GDP ratio, it means that it is running a current account surplus. That implies that the country is highly competitive in international trade as the value of its exports is higher than its imports. Conversely, a country with a low or negative current account to GDP ratio, is running a current account deficit. It means that the value of its imports is higher than exports.

In 2020, Canada’s current account to GDP is expected to hit -2.7% while that of the EU 3.4%. Thus, the current account to GDP differential between the EU and Canada is  6.1%. This means that the EUR is in higher demand in the international market than the CAD. We assign a score of 5.

In the forex market, interest rate differential helps to show investors and traders which currency will earn them higher returns. In a carry trade, forex traders tend to be bullish on the currency that offers a higher interest rate differential. This means that the currency with the higher interest rate will have a higher demand than the lower interest rate.

The European Central Bank has maintained interest rates at 0% throughout 2020, while in Canada, interest rates were cut from 1.75% to 0.25%. Thus, the interest rate differential for the EUR/CAD pair is -0.25%. We assign a score of -2.

  • The EU and Canada GDP Growth Rate differential

Since countries vary in the economy’s size, it makes it hard to compare them based on absolute GDP. However, the GDP growth rate helps filter out the effects of the economy size and instead compares countries based on their growth.

From January to September 2020, the Canadian economy has contracted by 4.3% while the EU economy has contracted by 2.9%. That means that the GDP growth rate differential between the EU and Canada is 1.4%. i.e., the Canadian economy has contracted more than the EU economy. We assign a score of 4.

Conclusion

The exogenous analysis of the EUR/CAD pair has a score of 8, which means we can expect a bullish trend for the pair in the short-term. This is supported by our technical analysis, which shows the weekly chart bouncing off the lower Bollinger band, implying that an uptrend is looming.

We hope you find this article informative. In case of any queries, please let us know in the comments below. All the best.

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

USD/JPY Global Macro Analysis – Part 1 & 2

Introduction

Global macro analysis of the USD/JPY pair involves the analysis of endogenous factors that impact both the USD and the JPY; and exogenous analysis for the USD/JPY pair.

In the endogenous analysis, we’ll focus on domestic macroeconomic factors that drive the domestic growth in the US and Japan. The exogenous analysis will involve the analysis of global macroeconomic factors that define the dynamics of the USD/JPY pair.

Ranking Scale

We will rank both the endogenous and the exogenous factors on a sliding scale of -10 to +10. Whenever the ranking is negative, it means that the macroeconomic indicator led to the depreciation of the currency. A positive ranking means that the indicator had an inflationary impact.

USD Endogenous Analysis – Summary

A score of -19.1 implies a clear deflationary effect on the US Dollar. This means that USD has lost its value since the beginning of 2020, according to these indicators.

You can find the complete USD Endogenous Analysis here.

JPY Endogenous Analysis – Summary

The endogenous analysis for the Japanese economy resulted in an overall inflationary score of 3. Based on this analysis, we can expect that the JPY had appreciated marginally in 2020.

  • Japan Inflation Rate

The inflation rate in Japan is measured by the consumer price index  (CPI). The CPI weights various consumer expenditures depending on their level of importance. Food is weighted at 25%, Housing 21%, transport and communication 14%, recreation 11.5%, energy and water 7%,  medical care 4.3%, and clothing 4%.

A higher rate of inflation is necessary for economic growth. It also forestalls a possible interest rate hike, which is accompanied by currency appreciation.

In October 2020, the MoM inflation rate in Japan decreased by 0.1% constant change since August. The YoY inflation rate decline by 0.4%, the first decline in about four years.

Based on our correlation analysis, we assign Japan’s inflation rate, a deflationary score of -2.

  • Japan Unemployment Rate

The unemployment rate measures the number of Japanese citizens eligible for employment who are currently seeking gainful employment opportunities.

An increasing rate of unemployment means that more jobs are lost in the economy faster than new jobs are being created. That’s an indicator that the economy is contracting.

In October 2020, Japan’s unemployment rate increased to 3.1%, representing 21.4 million people, the highest recorded since May 2017.

Due to the high correlation between the unemployment rate and GDP, we assign it a score of -5.

  • Japan Manufacturing PMI

The Japan manufacturing PMI is also known as the Jibun Bank Japan Manufacturing PMI. The PMI is compiled through a series of monthly questionnaires surveying about 400 manufacturers. The manufacturers are segregated depending on their industry’s contribution to GDP, and their responses aggregated into a diffusion index. When the index is above 50, it means that the manufacturing activity increased while a below 50 reading implies a slow-down in the manufacturing sector.

Japan is a highly industrialized economy, and its manufacturing activities have a high correlation with its GDP growth rate.

In November 2020, the Japan Manufacturing PMI was 49, inching closer to the highest recorded 49.3 in January. Since the manufacturing PMI has been steadily increasing from the lows of 38.4 in May, we assign it an inflationary score of 6.

This PMI is also known as Jibun Bank Japan Services PMI. It is a survey of over 400 services companies operating in the Japanese services industry. A Survey of the purchasing managers is used to track industry changes in employment, inventories, sales, and prices. Sectors covered by the survey include transport and communication, personal services, financial services, hotel industry, and IT. The responses are weighted based on the sector’s size and aggregated into an index from 0 to 100.

When the index is above 50, it signals that there is an expansion in the services industry, while below 50 shows contraction.

In November 2020, the Japan services PMI dropped to 46.7 from 47.7 in October. Although the index is above the lows of 21.5 recorded at the height of the coronavirus pandemic, it is still lower than the levels observed in the pre-pandemic period.

Based on our correlation analysis, we assign Japan services PMI an inflationary score of 2.

  • Japan Retail sales

The monthly retail sales measure the change in the value of goods consumed directly by households. In any economy, the growth in GDP is primarily driven by the demand by households. Thus, retail sales can be considered a significant indicator of economic growth.

In October 2020, the MoM retail sales in Japan increased by 0.4%, while YoY retail sales increased by 6.4%. The increase in October is the first time the YoY retail sales have increased since February. This shows demand in the Japanese economy is growing after the easing restrictions implemented in the wake of the pandemic.

Due to its high correlation with the GDP, we assign Japan retail sales an inflationary score of 5.

  • Japan General Government Gross Debt to GDP

This is the ratio between the amount of debt, both domestic and foreign, that the Japanese government has accumulated to national GDP. Typically, lenders use this ratio to determine if a country’s economy is overly leveraged and if the government might default in the future.

Note that Japan has the largest national debt to GDP in the world. However, although it is heavily indebted, unlike many other countries, Japanese debt is denominated in Yen. More so, foreigners only hold about 6.5% of the total debt. That is why Japan can continue to accumulate such massive debts without any fears of hyperinflation or default risks. But that doesn’t mean that the debt isn’t weighing down on the economy.

In 2019, the Japan national debt to GDP was 238%, an increase from 236.6% in 2018. In 2020, it is projected to exceed 240% due to the measures implemented to fight the pandemic. Based on our correlation analysis, we assign it a deflationary score of -3.

Please check our next article to find the Exogenous analysis of both USD and JPY currencies. We have also come to a conclusion on whether you should expect a bullish or bearish trend in this pair.

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Forex Economic Indicators

Want to Make a Quick Profit? Watch for These Reports…

As a forex trader, you’ll need to understand what factors drive market prices so that you can make the right financial decisions. In today’s world, forex has blown up into a global marketplace with buyers and sellers from all corners of the world investing in trades that total up to trillions of dollars each and every day. With such a wide range of market participants all over the world, the effect of microeconomic and news events has increased and now plays a large part in the prices you see for different currencies on the forex marketplace. Some of these events don’t have much of an impact on the market, while others play a major role in market prices. Below, we will explain the role of microeconomics in the forex market and review the different economic factors to look out for. 

Here’s a quick overview of the subjects we will cover in this article:

  • Interest Rates
  • Inflation Rates
  • GDP Growth Rates
  • Unemployment Rates
  • Retail Sales
  • Housing Data
  • Political News

Interest Rates

Interest rates have to do with the amount someone must pay to borrow someone else’s money and these prices have an immediate effect on financial markets. In this case, interest rates are related to central banks that need to borrow funds from the Federal Reserve. The federal funds rate, which directly affects the stock market, is adjusted by the Federal Reserve to control inflation. Higher interest rates generally have a negative effect on stock prices, while lower rates have the opposite effect. This is because it costs more money for central banks to borrow money from the Federal Reserve when interest rates are high, causing a ripple effect that goes through the entire economy. 

Inflation Rates

The inflation rate for the economy is measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). While you don’t have to have a deep understanding of the factors that drive inflation rates, it’s a good idea to have some knowledge about how this works. The Index reports the average prices consumers are paying for certain goods in order to point out whether those same goods are costing customers more or less. Central banks then look at this data to help adjust their policies. In the event that inflation is present, interest rates will rise to counter the inflated prices.

GDP Growth Rates

GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product and it is used to estimate an economy’s overall health. A higher GDP growth rate indicates a stronger economy and therefore makes the currency stronger. In order to measure this rate, the most recent quarter of the economy’s performance is compared against the previous quarter’s performance. You can perform a quick search engine search for the current GDP rate in any given country if you’re looking for that information. 

Unemployment Rates

Central banks consider unemployment rates to be a good measurement of the health of an economy, therefore, higher unemployment rates cause banks to increase interest rates in order to balance inflation rates with growth. Labor statistics that are released from the NFP also play a primary role in the central bank’s view of the economy based on employment. 

Retail Sales

Retail sales are considered to be a good indicator of the GDP rate for an economy because people tend to spend more money when they feel that their jobs are safe. Central banks eye spending reports that are released monthly in order to have an idea of how the economy is performing, however, there are other factors that must be considered, like wage increases, which can also lead to an increase in spending. 

Housing Data

Central banks pay attention to housing data because the sector makes up around 15% to 18% of a country’s economy. Although the exact percentage can vary slightly, the figures are usually quite impactful. When the price of houses in a certain country go up, it is a sign that the economy is strong and the building of new homes can also help raise unemployment rates. If people aren’t buying houses and prices are dropping, it’s a sign that the economy isn’t performing well.  

Political News

Different types of political news play an important role in market prices, from government spending, regulation shifts, elections, and referendums. Generally, central banks pay the most attention to fiscal and monetary policies in order to make government influenced decisions that could affect interest rates.

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

Understanding ‘US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions’ Fundamental Forex Driver

Introduction

When foreign investors prefer investing in the domestic economy, they strongly believe that they can get better returns than in any other market. The US is considered the leading economy in the world; therefore, hence US securities are highly trusted by most investors. Similarly, since the USD is the most traded currency in the international market, its value would fluctuate depending on investors’ optimism in the capital and money market of the US.

Understanding US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions

As an economic indicator, the US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions measures the net flow of financial securities in the US economy. The financial securities under consideration include; Treasury and agency securities, corporate bonds, and equities.

Therefore, the ‘net’ in the US TIC Net Long-term Transactions means the difference between US financial securities’ gross purchases and sales by foreign investors. This data provides a vivid overview of the participation of foreigners in the US capital and money markets. When the US TIC net long-term transactions data is positive, it means that more foreigners are buying into the US economy than those selling. Similarly, when the US TIC net long-term transactions data is negative, it means more foreigners are exiting the US economy compared to those buying into the economy.

So, what is TIC? TIC stands for Treasury International Capital, a financial report from the US Department of Treasury. It shows the flow of capital into and out of the US in both the short and long term. The TIC report is published monthly and quarterly; it details the flow of capital explicitly in the sale and purchase of US financial securities.

According to the TIC reports, the classification of foreigners does not necessarily mean individuals and institutions from abroad. Foreigners in this context also include foreign branches of US institutions. For example, if a US bank has a branch in London, that branch is considered a foreigner.

Using US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions in Analysis

The main point of the US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions Report is it shows the demand for USD stocks and investors’ sentiment towards the US economy. Let’s break down the US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions depending on the market.

If the US TIC net long-term transactions, it could signal that the US treasuries and bonds are in high demand. First, you should know why investors would demand more of US treasuries. The US treasuries and bonds are considered to be risk-free. The reason for this is because investors are guaranteed to receive a fixed amount of coupon rate until maturity.

More so, the US treasuries also come with an inherent guarantee that the US government will not default the interest payment and that investors will receive their principal upon maturity. Furthermore, the US’s interest rates are relatively higher than other developed nations; this means that investors in the US government securities stand to profit more by investing in the US.

The level of purchase of the US TIC net long-term transactions also says a lot about the expected inflation. In the long term, most investors worry that if the rate of inflation increases rapidly, it will reduce their profits. Thus, any investor would prefer to invest in a country with stable inflation, which would ensure that their returns are not severely affected.

Therefore, when the US TIC net long-term transactions are positively increasing, it means that foreign investors expect the US economy to be relatively stable over the long term. It is taken as confidence that the Federal Reserve will keep long term inflation in check.

Source: St. Louis FRED

Conversely, if the US TIC net long-term transactions are negative, it implies that there are more sellers than buyers. This scenario could imply that foreign investors believe that the long-term inflation rate will exceed the rate of returns they will receive from their investments. Since their expected real returns will be diminished, they prefer to invest their money in other economies.

The US TIC net long-term transactions can also be used to show impending recessions and optimism about economic recoveries. Let’s use the recent coronavirus pandemic as an example. In the first quarter of 2020, the US TIC net long-term transactions plunged to historic lows. It means that more foreign investors were exiting the US capital and money markets and presumably investing their funds elsewhere. This net outflow was a result of the uncertainty of what the pandemic might bring.

 Source: Trading Economics

In the second quarter of 2020, the US TIC net long-term transactions jumped back to positive territory, implying that foreign investors were pouring back into the US capital and money markets. Note that this net inflow coincides with the passing of the $2 trillion stimulus package. Therefore, we can argue that the net inflow of US TIC net long-term transactions was a vote of confidence by foreign investors that in the long term, the US economy will rebound from the pandemic-induced recession.

Impact of US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions on Currency

The impact of the US TIC net long-term transactions on the USD is pretty straightforward. In the international market, foreigners are obliged to convert their currencies into the USD. Therefore, an increase in the US TIC net long-term transactions means that the demand for the USD increases as well. Consequently, the increase in the demand for the USD makes it appreciate relative to other currencies.

Conversely, when US TIC net long-term transactions show net outflows, the USD will depreciate relative to other currencies. This is because when foreigners sell the US financial securities, they will convert the USD to their domestic currencies when repatriating their money.

Data Sources

The US Department Of The Treasury is responsible for collating and publishing the monthly and quarterly US TIC net long-term transactions. Trading Economics has detailed historical data on the US TIC net long-term transactions.

How US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions Release Affects The Forex Price Charts

The latest monthly publication of the US TIC net long-term transactions was on October 16, 2020, at 4.00 PM EST. The release can be accessed at Investing.com. Moderate volatility on the USD can be expected when the US TIC net long-term transactions report is released.

In August 2020, the US TIC net long-term transactions were $27.8 billion compared to $11.3 billion in July 2020. In theory, this increase should be positive for the USD.

Let’s see how this release impacted the GBP/USD pair.

GBP/USD: Before US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions Release on October 16, 2020, 
just before 4.00 PM EST

Before the publication of the US TIC net long-term transactions, the GBP/USD pair was trading in a subdued uptrend. The 20-period MA was almost flattened with candles forming just above it.

GBP/USD: After US TIC Net Long-Term Transactions Release on October 16, 2020, 
at 4.00 PM EST

After the publication of the US TIC net long-term transactions, the pair formed a 5-minute bearish candle. Subsequently, GBP/USD adopted a bearish trend showing that the USD significantly strengthened against the GBP. The 20-period MA steeply fell as candles formed further below it.

Bottom Line

From this analysis, it is evident that the US TIC net long-term transactions release has a significant impact on the forex market. The report shows the confidence of investors in the US economy and the demand for the US Dollar.

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About ‘Economy Watchers Current Index’ Economic Indicator

Introduction

It has long been posited that in any economy, the first people to experience growth or contraction are those who provide basic-everyday services to the households. These service providers are considered to be “in touch” with the realities of the economy since they directly interact with their customers. While most people do not pay close attention to this index, its fluctuations could provide valuable insights into the economy.

Understanding Economy Watchers Current Index

For this analysis, we will focus on the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index. This index attempts to measure the present economic conditions in Japan, especially from the perspective of households. From its name ‘economy watchers,’ it directly measures the mood of businesses who are in constant touch with the final consumers.

The index is compiled by surveying about 2050 employees in every sector of the economy. Here is the list of the sectors surveyed in the economy.

  • In household activity related sectors
    • Retail establishments like supermarkets and automobile sellers
    • Food and beverage establishments like restaurants
    • Services to households such as transportation, telecommunication, and leisure facility operators
    • Housing services
  • Corporate activity related sectors, including:
    • Operators in the manufacturing sectors
    • Employees and operators in the nonmanufacturing sector
    • Employees in the primary sectors like agriculture, mining, and fishing
  • Employee-related sectors such as;
    • Temporary labour placement agents
    • Job magazine editors
    • Staffing agencies
    • Professionals who understand labour market trends

In all the above sectors, the data is compiled as per the regions in which it was collected. It is to say that the survey is divided based on the area being surveyed in japan. It covers the 11 regions in Japan.

The people who are surveyed are well-placed in positions that enable them to observe first-hand the changes in economic activities. These are the questions that the survey asks.

  • How they assess the current economic conditions and detailed reasons for their answer
  • Their assessment of future economic conditions and their reasons for this assessment

The survey is conducted monthly from the 25th to the end of that month. Note that the Japanese Cabinet Office selects regional research organisations to administer these surveys. Based on the responses obtained, a ‘diffusion index’ is compiled. This diffusion index is then converted into a percentage to give the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index. Here’s how the responses are weighted in the diffusion index.

  • Better is +1
  • Slightly better is +0.75
  • Unchanged is +0.5
  • Slightly worse is +0.25
  • Worse is 0

Using Economy Watchers Current Index in Analysis

Any value above 50 indicates that respondents are optimistic about the future, while values below 50 show that they are pessimistic. Now, note that a rise in the Economy Watchers Current Index doesn’t mean that all sectors of the economy are optimistic. It just means that majority of the sectors in the economy are optimistic.

For example, economy watchers in every other sector might be optimistic, but those in the nonmanufacturing sectors are pessimistic. This scenario means that majority of economy watchers are optimistic. Similarly, when the Economy Watchers Current Index shows pessimism about the economy, it doesn’t mean that every sector in the economy shows pessimism. Some economy watchers could be optimistic.

When the economy watchers are optimistic about the future, it means that they expect the economy to grow. Remember that these economy watchers are sampled from virtually every sector of the economy in every region of Japan. For example, let’s say that economy watchers in the manufacturing sector are optimistic about the economy.

This means that they expect the manufacturing sector to expand, which means that the output from the sector will increase. Going back to the basic knowledge of the economy, we know that suppliers and producers take their cue from consumers. Therefore, an increase in production in the manufacturing sector, or any other sector, means that consumer demand has also increased.

Let’s think of the factors that drive an increase in consumer demand. The primary factor is the increase in money supply in the economy, which is driven by easy access to cheap finance or an increase in the employment rate. Here, consumers have increased disposable income, which means that the economy is expanding.

Conversely, when the Economic Watchers Current Index is decreasing and showing increased pessimism, it could mean that the economy is contracting. Let’s use the example of household activity related sectors. When they are pessimistic, it means that they are experiencing a shortfall in demand for their goods and services. Since we have established that household demand drives these sectors, a decrease in demand could mean that households are cutting back on their expenditures.

This reduction in consumption is a direct consequence of lower disposable income in the economy. When households have reduced disposable income, they will prioritise expenditure on only the most essential goods and services. It means that consumer discretionary industries will take a hit, as will the overall economy – GDP will fall as the economy contracts.

Observe in the graphs below that the fall in the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index corresponds to the drop in Japanese GDP in Q1 2020.

Source: Trading Economics

Source: St. Louis FRED

Impact of the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index on the JPY

We have seen that the Economy Watchers Current Index can directly be linked to the money supply in the economy.; which means it can also be used as a leading indicator of inflation.

When the Economy Watchers Current Index is continually rising, it can be taken as a sign that there is increasingly more money supply in the economy. In this case, governments and central banks might step in to implement contractionary policies like hiking interest rates. In the forex market, this will increase the value of JPY. Conversely, when the Economy Watchers Current Index steadily drops, it might trigger expansionary policies, which will make the JPY depreciate.

Data Sources

The Cabinet Office of Japan is responsible for the survey and publication of the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index. In-depth and historical data is also available at Trading Economics.

How the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index Affects The Forex Price Charts

The recent publication from the Cabinet Office of Japan was on October 8, 2020, at 2.00 PM JST. The release is available at Investing.com. The publication of the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index is expected to have a low impact on the JPY.

In September 2020, the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index was 49.3 compared to 43.9 in August 2020.

Let’s find out how this release impacted the JPY.

AUD/JPY: Before Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index Release on 
October 8, 2020, just before 2.00 PM JST

The AUD/JPY pair was trading in a weak uptrend before the publications of the Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index. The 20-period MA was merely slightly rising with candles forming just above it.

AUD/JPY: After Japanese Economy Watchers Current Index Release on 
October 8, 2020, at 2.00 PM JST

The pair formed a 5-minute “Doji” candles immediately after the publications of the index. Since the index showed pessimism in the Japanese economy, the JPY is expected to be weaker compared to the AUD. As expected, the pair subsequently traded in a renewed uptrend with the 20-period MA steeply rising and candles forming further above it.

Bottom Line

The article has shown the importance of the Economy Watchers Current Index in the Japanese economy. More so, the significance of the index has been evidenced by the price chart analysis. Note that although the index is usually a low-impact indicator. However, its significance is observed in the current coronavirus pandemic since it can be used as a leading indicator of economic recovery.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Does ‘Retail Sales Monitor’ (RSM) Economic Indicator Impacts The Forex Market?

Introduction

The level of demand can be said to be the primary driving factor in any economy. In the long run, the fiscal and monetary policies that are implemented by governments and central banks can be traced back to the aggregate demand within the economy. The consumption by households accounts for over 65% of the national GDP. Since retail sales account for most of the consumption by households, monitoring retail sales data can provide a useful predictor of the GDP and inflation.

Understanding Retail Sales Monitor

The Retail Sales Monitor is a precise measure of the performance in the retail sector. The RSM is measured monthly in the UK by the British Retail Consortium (BRC), whose participating members represent about 70% of the UK’s retail industry.

Source: The UK Office for National Statistics

The BRC is comprised of over 170 major retailers and thousands of independent retailers. The BRC member businesses have sales of over £180 billion and with 1.5 million employees. Since the RSM measures the change in the actual value of same-store sales in BRC-member retail outlets in the UK, the data can be used as a confident measure of the UK’s retail sector health and the broader economy.

In the UK, the retail sector is the largest employer in the private sector, which means that tracking the retail sector changes gives an overview of the economy and business cycles and insights into the labor market.

Using Retail Sales Monitor in Analysis

The RSM data couldn’t be more relevant in the current climate of Coronavirus afflicted economy and post-Brexit operating environment. Here are some of the ways this data can and is used for analysis.

In any economy, growth is driven by demand. Household purchases account for over 65% of the GDP, which makes the RSM data a vital leading indicator of economic health. When the retail sales monitor shows an increase in households’ consumption, it means that more money is circulating in the economy.

Several factors can be attributed to increased demand by households. Firstly, increased employment levels in the economy or an increase in real wages mean that the economy’s overall disposable income also increases. As a result, households can now consume more quantities of goods and services. More so, the increased disposable income tends to lead to the flourishing of discretionary consumer industries and a general rise in the aggregate demand.

An increase in aggregate supply leads to the expansion of production activities hence overall economic growth. Secondly, increased demand can be a sign of easy access to affordable funding by the households. Generally, if households and businesses have easy access to cheaper financing sources, it forebodes an increase in economic activities, which leads to economic expansion.

As an economic indicator, the retail sales monitor can be used as an authoritative leading indicator of recessions and recoveries since its data covers over 70% of the retail sector. For example, when the economy is at its peak, it is characterized by RSM’s historical highs and lower unemployment levels. When the RSM begins to drop consistently, this can be taken as a sign that the economy is undergoing a recession. The period of recession is characterized by an increase in the rate of unemployment and lower disposable income, which makes households cut back on their consumption and prioritize essential goods and services.

Source: Retail Economics

Conversely, when the economy is at its lowest during recessions or depressions, it is characterized by historical lows RSM and a higher unemployment rate. In this scenario, when the RSM begins to rise steadily, it could be taken as a sign that the economy is undergoing recovery. This period will be marked by improving labor market conditions hence increased demand that drives the RSM higher.

Using the RSM as a leading indicator of recessions and recoveries can help governments and central banks implement fiscal and monetary policies. When the RSM drops and shows signs that the economy could be headed for a recession, expansionary fiscal and monetary policies could be implemented. These policies will help to stimulate the economy and avoid depression.

On the other hand, when the RSM is continually rising at a faster rate, contractionary monetary and fiscal policies could be implemented. These policies are meant to mop up excess liquidity of the money supply and increase borrowing costs, thus avoiding an unsustainable rate of inflation and an overheating economy.

Impact on Currency

There are two main ways in which the RSM data can impact a country’s currency. By showing the economic growth and as an indicator for potential monetary and fiscal policies.

When the RSM has been steadily increasing, forex traders can anticipate that contractionary policies will be implemented to avoid unsustainable economic growth. One of such policies involves interest rate hikes, which make the currency appreciate relative to others. Conversely, expansionary monetary and fiscal policies can be anticipated in the event of a persistent drop in the RSM. Such policies include cutting interest rates, which depreciates the local currency.

The currency can be expected to be relatively stronger when the RSM is increasing. In this case, economic conditions are improving, unemployment levels are dropping, and a general improvement in households’ welfare. On the other hand, a dropping RSM is negative for the currency because it is seen as an indicator of a contracting economy and worsening labor conditions.

Sources of Data

In the UK, the RSM data is collated by the British Retail Consortium and KPMG. The data is published monthly by the British Retail Consortium.

How Retail Sales Monitor Data Release Affects Forex Price Charts

The recent publication of the retail sales monitor data was on October 12, 2020, at 11.00 PM GMT and accessed at Forex Factory.

The screengrab below from Forex Factory; as can be seen, a low impact on the GBP is expected when the RSM data is published.

In September 2020, the BRC increased by 6.1%. This change was greater than the 4.7% change recorded in August 2020 and higher than the analysts’ expectation of a 3.5% change. Theoretically, this positive RSM is expected to have a positive impact on the GBP.

Let’s see how this release impacted the GBP/USD forex charts.

EUR/USD: Before the Retail Sales Monitor Release on October 12, 2020, 
Just Before 11.00 PM GMT

Before the publication of the RSM data, the GBP/USD pair was trading in a neutral pattern. As shown by the 5-minute chart above, the 20-period MA had flattened with candles forming just around it.

EUR/USD: After the Retail Sales Monitor Release on October 12, 2020, 
at 11.00 PM GMT

The pair formed a 5-minute ‘Inverted Hammer’ candle after the RSM data publication. However, the release of the data did not have any noticeable impact on the pair. The GBP/USD pair continued trading in the previously observed neutral trend with the 20-period MA still flattened.

Bottom Line

Most forex traders tend to pay attention to the retail sales data, which is usually scheduled for ten days after the RSM publication. The retail sales data are considered to cover the entire economy hence the low-impact nature of the retail sales monitor as an indicator in the forex market.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About ‘Business Investment’ Fundamental Forex Driver

Introduction

The economy is intricately woven. Although consumption accounts for about 70% of the GDP, this consumption wouldn’t be met if the supply was cut short. The point here is – all aspects of the economy are intertwined. Therefore, a change in one aspect of the economy is bound to influence the others significantly. In this article, we will see how investments by businesses influence the economy and how it impacts the forex market.

Understanding Business Investment

In the most basic sense, business investment is defined as spending money to acquire assets, start a business, or expand a business with the anticipation of making profits.

As an economic indicator, Business Investment’ represents the change in capital expenditure in the private sector. This expenditure is an inflation-adjusted value.

Source: Ernst & Young UK

In the UK, for example, business investment data is published quarterly. The data in this report is usually segregated depending on the asset type. These categories include; private sector business investment, investment in transport equipment, investment in ICT equipment and machinery, investment in buildings and structure, and investment in intellectual property products. Cultivated biological resources and the manufacture of weapons are included in the calculation. Note that the following are excluded from the calculation of the data in this report: expenditure on residential dwellings, expenditure on land and existing building, and the cost of ownership or transfer of non-produced assets.

In the calculation of the Business Investment’ in the UK, the data from the Annual Business Survey (ABS) is used to establish a benchmark on investment for various industries.

Using Business Investment in Analysis

As we mentioned earlier, business investment is part of the GDP and is also correlated with other economic aspects. The fact business investment data measures the value of the inflation-adjusted value of capital expenditure gives us a dependable ‘real’ figure of the economic activities over a specific period.

The primary effect of business investment will be on the labor market. When business investment increases, it could mean that new business ventures are being set up or the existing ones are being scaled up and expanded. In both instances, it means that more labor will be required. Remember that business investment encompasses investments made in any profit-making venture; it could be in agriculture, in the financial markets, or the informal sector. As a result, increased business investment lowers the rate of unemployment in the economy.

Furthermore, the increased production leads to the growth of output hence higher levels of GDP.

Source: Ernst & Young UK

Conversely, when business investment decreases, it could imply that economic activities are being scaled down. Scaling down operation implies that less labor will be needed. The result is an increase in unemployment levels. More so, scaling down operations implies low economic outputs hence lower levels of GDP.

Business investment goes hand in hand with the level of demand in the economy. Business investment can be said to be responding to levels of demand. Therefore, when business investment increases, it means that there is a higher demand in the economy. By itself, the increased demand means that other aspects of the economy, such as the labor market, are performing well. On the other hand, decreasing business investment means that demand is falling. Demand Reduction is synonymous to a contracting economy.

The business investment data can also be used to analyze the business cycles and, as a result, help in forecasting recessions and recoveries in the economy. Using historical data on business investment, we can establish a pattern. This pattern will show us periods when business investments were slowing down, when they were stagnating, and when they were rapidly increasing. Naturally, periods when business investments are increasing can be regarded as the expansion stage. The recession stage is characterized by a continuous fall in business investments. When business investments have stagnated, this period could be considered the peak of the business cycle.

In predicting recessions and recoveries, let’s use the example of the coronavirus pandemic. Towards the end of the first quarter of 2020, business investments dropped continuously. The continuous drop in business investment was because investors anticipated the demand in the economy to be severely depressed, especially in the consumer discretion industry. While other sectors of the economy saw some increased investments, most sectors experienced a drastic reduction in business investments. The primary goal when making any investment is to earn profits. In this instance, due to the social distancing rules, massive losses were forecasted across the economy. As a result, business investment reduced as investors looked to reduce their exposure to a contracting economy.

At the beginning of the third quarter of 2020, business investment started increasing. This period signified the beginning of economic recovery from the coronavirus-induced recession. The recovery was prompted by a host of expansionary monetary and fiscal policies implemented by governments and central banks. These policies included lowering interest rates and offering economic stimulus packages of trillions of dollars. These policies signified the revival of the economy to the private sector, hence the increase in business investment.

Impact of Business Investment on Currency

In the forex market, the level of business investment can be used to foretell the policy actions of governments and central banks.

In any economy, the private sector is the single largest employer. Therefore, when the business investment is continuously falling, it can be anticipated that the labor market conditions will worsen, and demand in the economy will be severely depressed. This scenario may trigger expansionary fiscal and monetary policies to stimulate the economy and avoid a recession. Such policies make the domestic currency depreciate relative to others.

Conversely, the currency will appreciate when business investment increases. This increase can sign that the economy is performing well with an increase in the money supply. Contractionary monetary and fiscal policies may be implemented to avoid runaway inflation and prevent the economy from overheating. These policies make the domestic currency appreciate.

Sources of Data

In the UK, the Office for National Statistics publishes the quarterly business investment data. Trading Economics has in-depth and historical data on the UK business investment. It also publishes data on global business investment.

How Business Investment Data Release Affects The Forex Price Charts?

The most recent publication of the UK’s business investment data was on September 30, 2020, at 6.00 AM GMT. The release can be accessed from Investing.com. Moderate volatility is to be expected on the GBP when the data is released.

In the second quarter of 2020, business investment in the UK decreased by 26.5%, which was better than the -31.4% expected by analysts.

Let’s see how this release impacted the EUR/GBP pair.

EUR/GBP: Before the Business Investment Data Release on September 30, 2020, 
just before 6.00 AM GMT

The EUR/GBP pair was trading in a weak uptrend before the publication of the UK business investment data. As shown in the above 15-minute chart, candles are forming just above the 20-period MA.

EUR/GBP: After the Business Investment Data Release on September 30, 2020,
at 6.00 AM GMT

The pair formed a 15-minuted bearish ‘Doji’ candle after the news release. Subsequently, the pair adopted a bearish trend.

Bottom Line

While business investment is a significant indicator in the forex market, we may not entirely know the extent of its impact on the GBP. This is because its publication is scheduled at the same time as the GDP – which is a high-impact economic indicator.

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything You Need To Know About The ‘Jobs to Applications Ratio’

Introduction

For any economy, one of the best indicators of health in the labor market is how quickly the unemployed get absorbed into the job industry. This would indicate if the current economy is expanding at par with the growing number of job seekers. Apart from showing the absorption rate in the job market, it can also be used as a coincident economic indicator.

Understanding Jobs to Applications Ratio

The jobs to applications ratio help to put into perspective the number of job vacancies available vs. the number of job applications made during a particular time.

The job vacancies, in this case, represents the totality of the existing Job Vacancies from the previous reporting period that haven’t been filled and the new vacancies in the current period. For example, the total job vacancies for October 2020 would include the unfilled vacancies from the previous months in 2020 and the vacancies that became available in October 2020. The number of job applications does not necessarily need to be those that directly applied for these vacancies. This number is the totality of job seekers who have registered with employment bureaus across the country seeking employment.

Therefore, the formula of the jobs to applications ratio is 

When the number of active job openings is higher than that of active job seekers, the jobs to applications ratio will be higher than 1. Furthermore, the jobs to applications ratio will increase if the number of job openings increases faster than that of active job seekers. Conversely, if the number of active job seekers is higher than that of active openings, the jobs to applications ratio will be lower. Similarly, when the number of active job seekers grows at a faster pace than that of active job openings, the jobs to applications ratio will decrease at a rapid rate.

In most countries, the number of graduates from tertiary academic institutions is usually high. For this reason, most jobs to applications ratio reports usually exclude new school graduates and part-time job seekers. The primary reason for doing this is to smoothen the data since it is not expected that the labor market will absorb all graduates.

Using Jobs to Applications Ratio in Analysis

The Jobs to Applications Ratio shows the health of the labor market and is also a coincident indicator of economic growth. The best way to use the jobs to applications ratio in the analysis is by viewing it as a time series. It will enable you to compare the change in the economy over time easily.

To understand the implication of the Jobs to Application Ratio, we must first understand how job openings and unemployment come about. When the economy is expanding, the unemployment levels go down. An expanding economy is mainly driven by an increase in demand in the economy. Usually, household demand is the primary driver of the increase in aggregate demand.

When the aggregate demand rises, producers of goods and services must also scale up their operations to take advantage of the increasing demand and to avoid distortion of equilibrium price. When they expand their operations, they will need to hire more workers; this is where the unemployment levels go down. Also, note that when the unemployment rate reduces, it means that households’ expenditure increases, which also leads to the expansion of the economy. It is a feedback loop.

It also means that when the economy is contracting, it is a sign of a decrease in aggregate demand. This decrease force producers of consumer goods and services to cut back their production, which results in fewer job openings and increased unemployment.

Now let’s see what jobs to application ratio has to do with all this. When the Jobs to Applications Ratio is increasing over time, it implies that the number of active job openings is growing faster than that of the active job seekers. If, for example, the jobs to applications ratio has been increasing steadily over the past couple of months or years, it would mean the economy has been expanding. This increase shows that increasingly more jobs have been created in the economy.

Alternatively, it could mean that the rate of job retention in the economy is higher since fewer people lose their jobs and begin seeking employment all over again. Conversely, when the Jobs to Applications Ratio is continually decreasing, it means that the economy is contracting and the economy is creating fewer jobs. It could also mean that more jobs are lost in the economy hence the higher number of new job seekers.

The Jobs to Applications Ratio can also show the business cycles and periods of recession and expansion in the economy. When the Jobs to Applications Ratio continually drops, it implies that the economy has been contracting over an extended period with a growing number of unemployed in the economy. This is a clear sign of economic recession. In Japan, for example, the persistent drop in the job to application ratio coincided with the coronavirus-induced recession of the first half of 2020.

Source: Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training

In times of economic recovery, businesses are presumed to gradually increase their operations, which means that the jobs to applications ratio will steadily increase.

Impact of Jobs to Applications Ratio on Currency

The value of the currency fluctuates depending on the perceived economic growth. Thus, the direct impact that jobs to applications ration has on currency is its inherent ability to show economic expansions and contractions.

The domestic currency will be expected to appreciate when the jobs to applications ratio increases. The increase in the jobs to applications ratio shows that the economy has been growing hence improved living standards.

Conversely, the domestic currency will depreciate when the jobs to application ratio are steadily decreasing. The continual decrease shows that the domestic economy has been contracting.

Sources of Data

In Japan, the Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training is responsible for conducting surveys of the Japanese labor market. The institute publishes the data on Jobs to Applications Ratio monthly.

Trading Economics has a historical review of the Japanese jobs to applications ratio.

How Jobs to Applications Ratio Release Affects The Forex Price Charts

The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training published the latest jobs to applications ratio on October 2, 2020, at 8.30 AM JST. The release is accessed from Investing.com. Moderate volatility is expected on the JPY when the data is published.

In August 2020, the jobs/applications ratio was 1.04 compared to the 1.08 recorded in July 2020. Furthermore, the August ratio was less than the analysts’ expectations of 1.05.

Let’s see how this release impacted the JPY.

USD/JPY: Before Jobs to Applications Ratio Release on October 2, 2020, 
just before 8.30 AM JST

Before the release of the ratio, the USD/JPY pair was trading in a subdued uptrend. The 20-period MA was only slightly rising.

USD/JPY: After Jobs to Applications Ratio Release on October 2, 2020, 
at 8.30 AM JST

The pair formed a 5-minute bearish “hammer” candle immediately after the release of the ratio. Subsequently, it traded in a neutral pattern before adopting a bullish trend.

Bottom Line

The Jobs to Applications Ratio plays a significant role in establishing the health of the labor market. However, in the forex market, the unemployment rate is the most-watched economic indicator when it comes to the health of the labor market.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Should You Know About ‘Mortgage Market Index’ Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

In the recent past, the real estate market has been a critical indicator of economic performance. As with any other aspect of the financial market that intertwines with consumer demand, the significance of the mortgage market cannot be overstated. Knowing if mortgage applications have increased or reduced can tell a lot about the demand in the housing market and households’ welfare. This index can be a leading indicator of demand in the economy.

Understanding the Mortgage Market Index

Primarily, the mortgage market index tracks the number of mortgage applications over a specific period. In the US, for example, the mortgage market index is compiled by the US Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA). The MBA mortgage market index is released weekly. MBA has an association of about 2200 members encompassing the entire real estate financing industry. The companies included in the association are deal originators, compliance officers, deal underwriters, servicers, and information technology personnel. These companies are active in residential, multi-family, and commercial real estate.

Owing to its vast network of real estate companies across the country, MBA is in the best position to provide comprehensive coverage of the mortgage applications made. The published data shows both seasonally adjusted and unadjusted changes in the US’s number of mortgage applications. Furthermore, the report also includes the Refinance Index,  which shows the number of applications made by households wishing to refinance their mortgages. The report also includes seasonally adjusted and unadjusted ‘Purchase Index,’ which shows the number of outright purchases in the real estate sector during that week.

Furthermore, this weekly report analyses the change in the Adjustable-Rate Mortgage (ARM) applications. As the name suggests, the ARM is a mortgage in which the interest rate payable on the balance varies throughout its life. The number of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loans are also included in the report. It further analyses the average contract interest rate for 30-year fixed-rate mortgages with Jumbo loan balances and conforming loan balances. Jumbo loan balances are those above $510,400 while conforming loan balances are less than this amount. Finally, the MBA mortgage market weekly report analyses the change in the average contract interest rate for 15-year fixed-rate mortgages.

Using the Mortgage Market Index in Analysis

The change in the number of mortgages in an economy tells a lot about the prevailing economic conditions. These conditions range from demand in real estate to prevailing monetary policies. Both of these aspects are integral in the growth of an economy.

When the mortgage market index is rising, it means that the number of mortgage applications has increased. The increase in mortgage applications could imply that there is a growing demand for real estate. One thing you have to know, when people decide to invest in the housing market, it normally means that they have increased disposable income and have thus fulfilled all other intermediate needs.

An increase in disposable income in the economy means that more people are gainfully employed or that wages have increased. In both these circumstances, we can deduce that the economy is expanding. The reason for this deduction is because when demand in the real estate market expands, it means that demand in the consumer discretionary industry has also increased. Thus, the output in the economy is higher.

More so, when the mortgage market index rises, it could mean that households and investors in the economy have access to cheap finance. Either they are creditworthiness has improved, or the market interest rates are lower. When the interest rate is lower in the market, it is usually due to the central banks’ expansionary monetary policy.

Such expansionary policies are adopted when the central banks aim to stimulate the growth of the economy. It means that people have access to cheap money and can borrow more. When there is a growing money supply in the economy, households can increase their consumption, and investors can scale up their operations. Overall, the economy will experience an increase in output, thus in the GDP.

Furthermore, it could also mean that households who previously could not afford to service a mortgage can now be able to afford mortgages due to low-interest rates. This scenario played out towards the end of the first quarter of 2020 when the US Federal Reserve made a series of interest rate cuts. The MBA mortgage market index is seen to have hiked. This hike can be taken as a sign that households and investors were taking advantage of the expansionary policies by increasing their holding in the real estate sector.

Source: Investing.com

On the other hand, a drop in the MBA mortgage index means that the demand for demand in the housing market is waning. The decrease in demand could be synonymous with an overall contraction of demand in the economy. The contraction of aggregate demand can be taken as a sign that the overall economy is also contracting. Similarly, it can also be taken as a sign that the public has lost confidence in the housing market as during the 2007 – 2008 housing market crash.

Source: Investing.com

Impact of the Mortgage Market Index on Currency

In theory, the domestic currency should be susceptible to fluctuations in the mortgage market index.

When the index increases, it can be taken as a sign that there is an increased money supply in the economy. Under such circumstances, contractionary monetary and fiscal policies might be implemented, such as hiking the interest rates. When such policies are adopted, the domestic currency tends to increase in value compared to other currencies in the forex market.

Conversely, when the index is continually dropping, it can be taken as an indicator of overall economic contraction. In this instance, expansionary policies might be implemented, like lowering interest rates to encourage consumption and prevent the economy from slipping into a recession. These policies make domestic currency depreciate.

Sources of Data

In the US, the mortgage market index is compiled and published weekly by the Mortgage Bankers Association. A historical time series of the data is available at Investing.com.

How the US Mortgage Market Index Affects The Forex Price Charts

The latest publication by the MBA was on October 21, 2020, at 7.00 AM EST. As seen in the screengrab below, a low impact on the USD is expected when the index is published.

For the one week to October 21, 2020, the mortgage market index was 794.2 compared to 798.9 in the previous publication.

Let’s see how this publication impacted the USD.

GBP/USD: Before US Mortgage Market Index Release on October 21, 2020, 
just before 7.00 AM EST

Before the publication of the US Mortgage Market Index, the EUR/USD pair was trading in a weak uptrend. In the above 5-minute chart, the 20-period MA is almost flattened with candles forming slightly above it.

GBP/USD: After US Mortgage Market Index Release on October 21, 2020, 
at 7.00 AM EST

The pair formed a 5-minute bearish candle after the release of the index. It later traded in a neutral trend as the 20-period MA flattened, and candles formed around it.

Bottom Line

This article has shown that the US MBA Mortgage Market Index plays an essential role as an indicator of demand in the housing market. But as shown by the above analyses, this economic indicator has no significant impact on price action in the forex market.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything You Should Know About ‘Job Cuts’ As A Forex Fundamental Indicator

Introduction

The labor market plays play a crucial role in determining the strength of the economy. Perhaps one of the most closely watched fundamental economic indicator is the unemployment rate since it is one of the leading indicators of demand. The growth of any economy is entirely dependent on the forces of demand and supply. Entire industries have been built by surging demand and crippled by lack of it.

Understanding Job Cuts

Job cuts represent the number of corporate employees who have been laid off over a given period. The job cuts report shows the national number of people who were laid off. This number is further broken down by industry, ranking those with the most job cuts to the least. The job cuts are compared monthly, quarter-on-quarter, yearly, and year-to-date. The report goes further to include the hiring plans announced by the various sectors, thus showing the potential number of job vacancies.

Therefore, we notice that the job cuts report serves to show job losses and future openings. Thus, it is a powerful indicator in the labor market and the economy since it can be used to predict whether recessions are coming, the state of economic recovery, and show the sentiment about the economy from employers’ perspective.

Using Job Cuts Report for Analysis

As an indicator of economic health, job cuts can signal the following.

An increasing number of job cuts is a precursor to higher unemployment levels and signals a shrinking economy. It is considered a leading indicator of unemployment. With more and more people losing their jobs, households’ disposable income will be on a decline. Consequently, the aggregate demand in the economy will decline, and with it, the aggregate supply. These declines imply that producers are scaling down their operations, matching the lowering demand to avoid market price distortion.

Source: St. Louis FRED

Since the job cuts report is categorized by industry, it serves to show which sectors of the economy are performing poorly. Job cuts are a result of the general challenging operating environment. It shows that companies are attempting to reduce operating costs as a result of a decline in demand. With this report, we can analyze which sectors are hard hit by tough economic times and which sectors are resilient. For investors, this analysis is instrumental in deciding which sector to invest in. the report can also be used to show which industries are worse affected by economic recessions.

It will be useful for policymakers to implement sector-specific policies to help cushion the labor market in the future. The job cuts report can be used to establish which economic sectors are susceptible to business cycles by analyzing which sectors have the most cuts in times of recessions. During a recession, the aggregate demand is falling, and when the economy is recovering, the aggregate demand increases. Thus, it is expected for job cuts to reduce in time of recovery and economic expansion.

Similarly, investors can use historical figures to help pinpoint the peak and trough levels of the business cycle. Typically, the economy has the most job cuts when the recession is at its worst. This point can be considered the trough – and it precedes a recovery. Here would be the optimal point of investing for investors who would want to capitalize on the effects of recovery. When the economic recovery is at its peak and unemployment levels are their lowest, it signifies that the economy might overheat.

Source: St. Louis FRED

Together with the analysis of business cycles, the job cuts report can provide a clear picture of the number of temporary workers in the labor market. It goes to reason that in times of recovery, businesses tend to hire more workers. However, businesses most impacted by the economic cycles would opt to engage temporary labor instead. In times of recession, most of these jobs are lost. Therefore, the job cuts report can be used to identify which industries hire the most temporary workers.

Job cuts could also be a result of automation, not entirely because of a decrease in the aggregate demand. It is worth noting that the automation of business processes results in improved efficiency, higher output, and possibly higher quality of goods and services. While all these might be good for the businesses and possibly the economy, the effects of the jobs lost will still be reflected in the economy.

Impact on Currency

When analyzing the labor market, most forex traders concentrate their attention on the employment report. However, job cuts report is released ahead of the employment situation report; it can provide leading insights. Here are some of the ways job cuts can impact the forex market. The job cuts are used to forestall recessions and recoveries.

When the job cuts are increasing, it signals that the aggregate demand in the economy will decline. Businesses scaling down operations implies low investor confidence in the economy, which could mean there is a net outflow of capital. Increasing unemployment levels, a shrinking economy, and more households relying on the government social security programs signal a recession. Expansionary fiscal and monetary policies will be implemented. One such policy includes lowering interest rates, which make the currency depreciate relative to others.

A reduction in the job cuts signals economic recovery, making the currency increase in value relative to others. When job cuts are steadily reducing, businesses are retaining more of their employees as time goes by. This retention is a sign of improving economic fundamentals.

Sources of Data

Challenger, Gray & Christmas publishes the US job cuts data. Challenger, Gray & Christmas is a global outplacement and career transitioning firm. Comprehensive historical coverage of the US job cuts is accessed at Trading Economics.

How Job Cuts Data Release Affects Forex Price Charts?

The most recent release of the US Challenger job cuts was on October 1, 2020, at 7.30 AM ET and accessed at Investing.com. The screengrab below is of the monthly Challenger job cuts.

Low volatility is to be expected when the job cuts report is released.

In September 2020, the number of US job cuts was 118.804K compared to 115.762K in August. In terms of the YoY change, the September job cuts represented a 185.9% change compared to a 116.5% change in August.

Now, let’s see how this release made an impact on the Forex price charts.

EUR/USD: Before the Challenger Job Cuts Release on October 1, 2020, 
Just Before 7.30 AM ET

Before the new release, the EUR/USD pair was trading in a general uptrend. As shown in the above 5-minute chart, the candles were forming above a rising 20-period MA.

EUR/USD: After the Challenger Job Cuts Release on October 1, 2020, 
at 7.30 AM ET

After the US job cuts report release, the pair formed a bullish 5-minute candle as expected, due to the weakening of the USD. Subsequently, the pair continued trading in a subdued uptrend with the 20-period MA flattening.

Bottom Line

The job cuts report plays a vital role in the economy, especially now, by showing the state of economic recovery from the coronavirus-induced recession. However, in the forex market, the job cuts report is a low-impact indicator since most traders and analysts pay the most attention to the employment situation report. The low impact nature can be seen as the release of the Challenger job cuts report failed to advance the bullish momentum of the EUR/USD pair.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About ‘Durable Goods Orders’ Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

Industrial production contributes to over 62% of the jobs in the goods production industry. Therefore, any changes in this sector’s production activity bring forth ripple effects into the overall economy. Owing to the significant role that industrial production plays in the economy, the investment goods bought for use in the industrial sector offer invaluable insights into the changes in the sector. Thus, durable goods orders as an economic indicator can be used to signal economic growth and businesses’ and consumers’ sentiment.

Understanding Durable Goods Orders

Durable goods are expensive and long-lasting items that have a lifespan of at least three years. These goods do not depreciate quickly. They include; heavy-duty machinery used for industrial purposes, computers and telecommunication equipment, raw steel, and transport equipment.

Core durable goods are the totality of durable goods, excluding data from transportation and military orders. The transportation equipment is excluded to ensure smoothening out the effects it would have on the durable goods data as a result of one-time large orders of new vehicles.

Durable goods orders data is, therefore, a monthly survey that tracks the purchase of durable goods. This data is used to assess the prevailing trend in industrial activity.

How to use Durable Goods Orders in Analysis

Since durable goods are expensive and long-lasting, their purchase is made on an occasional basis. For analysis reasons, the durable goods orders are treated as capital expenditure. The durable goods orders are used to signal near-term and future economic prospects. Let’s see what this data tells us about the economy.

Firstly, durable goods are heavy-duty machinery whose assembly and manufacture takes a long time. Therefore, the duration from when the assembly line of these goods begins to the time they are delivered to the buyers shows a period of sustained economic activity.

Capital expenditure in the industrial sector has a multiplier effect. The data on durable goods orders implicitly shows the level of activity in the industries along the supply chain of making and delivering these goods. Higher durable goods orders imply higher commercial activities in the relevant industries, while lower durable goods orders show reduced activities. So, what does this data tell us about the economy? Let’s take the example of increasing durable goods orders.

Higher durable goods orders imply that more jobs are created in the assembly lines, manufacturing, and mining. The resultant increase in employment levels leads to improved living standards and an increase in aggregate demand for consumer products in the economy. The increased aggregate demand for discretionary consumer products will force producers in these sectors to scale up their production, leading to more job creation and economic growth. Thus, the increase in durable goods orders can have both a direct and indirect impact on economic growth and the growth of other consumer industries.

Durable goods are used to further the process of production or service delivery. Therefore, the data on durable goods orders can gauge the sentiment of businesses and consumers. It is fair to say that businesses and consumers purchase durable goods when they are convinced that the economy is on an uptrend. Durable goods orders can thus be used as a testament to improving economic conditions and living standards. It follows the logic that businesses would not be scaling their productions or engaging in capital expenditure if they did not firmly believe that the economy is growing and a future increase in their products’ demand.

Due to their expensive nature, the purchase of durable goods heavily relies on credit financing. Thus, an increase in durable goods orders can be used to show that lending conditions are favorable. This willingness of lenders can be taken as a sign of improved liquidity in the banking sector, which in itself shows that the economy is performing well.

When capital expenditures are made, it is to replace the existing technology with a better one. Therefore, an increase in durable goods orders can be seen as businesses upgrading their current production means. Consequently, improved technology leads to efficiency in the production process and service delivery. This efficiency not only applies to improved quality and quantity of output but also in the allocation of factors of production.

Impact on Currency

In the forex market, the central banks’ perceived monetary policy is the primary mover of exchange rates. Forex traders pay close attention to economic indicators to gauge the health of the economy and speculate on the central banks’ policy decisions. Here’s how the durable goods orders can be used to this end.

Higher durable goods orders are associated with higher employment levels, increased wage growth, and steady growth in the aggregate demand and supply in the economy. When this trend is sustained for an extended period, governments and central banks may have to step in with contractionary monetary and fiscal policies to avoid an overly high inflation rate and an overheating economy. Therefore, sustained growth in the durable goods orders can be seen as a precursor to higher interest rates, which leads to the appreciation of the currency.

Conversely, a continuous decline in durable goods orders is an indication that businesses and consumers have a negative sentiment about the future. This sentiment could result from higher levels of unemployment, dropping levels of aggregate demand, or a stagnating economy. To spur economic growth, expansionary fiscal or monetary policies will be adopted. One such policy is lowering interest rates to encourage borrowing by making the cost of money cheap. Thus, a continuous drop in the durable goods orders can be seen to forestall a drop in the interest rates, which depreciates the currency relative to others.

Source of Information related to Durable Goods Orders

The US Census Bureau collates and publishes the data on the US durable goods orders. An in-depth and historical review of the US’s durable goods orders is found at St. Louis FREDTrading Economics publishes global data on durable goods orders.

We hope you got an understanding of what this Fundamental Indicator is all about. Please let us know if you have any questions in the comments below. Cheers!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Impact Of ‘Money Supply’ Fundamental Indicator On the Forex Price Charts

Introduction

Inflation plays an undeniable role in influencing the fiscal and monetary policies implemented within an economy. These policies’ role is to either mop up money from the economy or inject more money into the economy. Primarily, the rate of inflation tends to fluctuate depending on the amount of money in circulation. When the money in circulation is high, so is the rate of inflation, and when it’s low, the rate of inflation lowers. For this reason, the money supply statistics are vital and can be used as a leading indicator of inflation.

Understanding Money Supply

The money supply is the totality of the cash in circulation within an economy, bank deposits, and other liquid assets that can quickly be converted to cash. Note that the money supply is measured over a specific period, and it excludes any form of a physical asset that must be sold to convert to cash, lines of credit, and credit cards.

There are three commonly used measures of the money supply in an economy. They are M1, M2, and M3.

M1 Money Supply

This measure of money involves the entirety of the cash in circulation, i.e., the amount of money held by the public. This measure includes travelers’ checks, checkable deposits, and demand deposits with commercial banks. The money held by central banks and depository vaults is excluded from this measure. The M1 money supply is also known as the narrow measure of the money supply and can be referred to as the M0 money supply in other countries.

Source: St. Louis FRED

M2 Money Supply

This measure of the money supply is the intermediate measure. It includes the M1 money supply as well as time deposits in commercial banks, savings deposits, and the balance in the retail money market funds.

Source: St. Louis FRED

M3 Money Supply

This measure of the money supply is broad. It includes the M2 money supply as well as larger time deposits depending on the country, shorter-term repurchase agreements, institutional money market funds’ balance, and larger liquid assets. Note that this measure of money mainly focuses on the money within an economy used as a store of value.

Source: St. Louis FRED

Monetary Base

As a measure of money supply, the monetary base measures the entirety of the money in circulation and those held by the central banks as deposits by the commercial banks.

How to use Money Supply in Analysis

As we noted earlier, both fiscal and monetary policies are influenced by the economy’s money supply. For companies and households, the analysis of money supply not only helps predict the interest rates but also to determine business cycles, expected changes in the price levels and inflation.

Money supply in an economy can be used to analyze and identify seasonal business cycles. When the economy is going through a period of recovery and expansion to the peak, the economy’s money supply will increase steadily. During recovery, there is an increase in aggregate demand, unemployment levels reduce, and households’ welfare improves. At this point, the money supply in the economy begins to increase. The supply rapidly increases during the expansion cycle than during recovery. At the peak, the money supply in the economy stagnates, and the increase is lower than the previous two stages.

Similarly, the money supply begins to drop when the economy is going through a recession to depression. These periods are characterized by a decrease in the GDP levels signaling a shrinking economy, accompanied by higher unemployment levels and diminished aggregate demand in the economy.

Furthermore, an increase in money supply in an economy leads to lower interest rates, which means that businesses and households can invest more in the economy. More so, increased money supply stimulates increased demand by consumers, which leads to increased production and demand for labor. The rise in aggregate demand is followed by increased aggregate supply, which leads to economic expansion and growth of consumer discretionary industries.

Impact on Currency

The most notable impact of the money supply is inflation. Inflation is the increase in the prices of goods and services over time.

When the money supply is increasing, it shows that households have more money to spend, which increases the aggregate demand. Since the supply doesn’t change at the same pace as demand, the resulting scenario is an increase in the prices of goods and services. In most countries, the central banks have a target rate of inflation.

Therefore, when inflation is increasing, the central banks will employ deflationary monetary policies, such as increasing interest rates. The deflationary policies are designed to increase the cost of money and discourage consumption. Therefore, in the forex market, an increase in money supply can be seen as a signal of a future hike in the interest rates, which makes the local currency appreciate relative to others.

Conversely, a decrease in the money supply signals an economic recession, loss of jobs, and a shrinking economy. For governments, preventing economic recessions is paramount. Thus, a constant decrease in the money supply will trigger the implementation of expansionary fiscal policies. The fiscal policies can be accompanied by expansionary monetary policies by the central banks. These policies aim to spur economic growth and are negative for the currency. Therefore, a decrease in the money supply implies a possible interest rate cut in the future, which makes the local currency depreciate relative to others.

Sources of Data

In the US, the Federal Reserve publishes the money supply data and releases it monthly in the Money Stock Measures – H.6 Release. An in-depth review of the US’s total money supply can be accessed at St. Louis FRED, along with the historical data on M1 money supply, M2 money supply, and M3 money supply. Trading Economics publishes data on global M1 money supply, global M2 money supply, and global M3 money supply. In the EU, the data on the money supply can be accessed from the European Central Bank.

How the Money Supply Data Release Affects Forex Price Charts

The most recent release of the EU’s money supply data was on September 25, 2020, at 8.00 AM GMT and can be accessed at Investing.com.

The screengrab below is of the monthly M3 money supply from Investing.com. To the right is a clear legend that indicates the impact level of the FI has on the EUR.

As can be seen, this low volatility is expected upon the release of the M3 money supply data.

In August 2020, the M3 money supply in Europe grew by 9.5% compared to the 10.1% increase in July. The August increase was lower than analysts’ expectations of 10.2%.

Now, let’s see how this release made an impact on the Forex price charts.

EUR/USD: Before the M3 Money Supply Data Release on September 25, 2020, 
Just Before 8.00 AM GMT

Before the publication of the M3 money supply, the EUR/USD pair was trading in a subdued uptrend. Candles were forming just above a slightly rising 20-period MA.

EUR/USD: After the M3 Money Supply Data Release on September 25, 2020, 
at 8.00 AM GMT

The pair formed a 5-minute bearish candle after the release of the data. Subsequently, the pair adopted a strong downtrend as the 20-period MA fell steeply with candles forming further below it.

Bottom Line

The money supply data is generally expected to a mild impact on the forex price action. For this release, however, the worse than expected data was more pronounced in the markets. This effect could be attributed to the fact that the markets expected that the ECB’s pandemic stimulus program would have a visible impact on the money supply.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Should You Know About ‘Social Security Rate For Companies’ Forex Fundamental Indicator?

Introduction

Social Security Program is one of the most extensive Government programs in the world that pays out billions of dollars to its citizens each year. Social Security is a macroeconomic program intended to act as a safe-net for active workers of the United States. Changes related to this program tends to affect the majority of the population. Hence, understanding its role and impact on the living conditions of people can give us a better insight into how such programs work.

What is Social Security Rate For Companies?

Social Security Program: The Social Security Program is designed to facilitate retirement benefits, survivor benefits, and disability income for the citizens of the United States. It is run by the federal agency known as Social Security Administration. Social Security is the word used for the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.

The program was born on August 14, 1935, where President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act into law of the United States. Since then, the program has continuously evolved and changed significantly over the years. It is a government insurance program designed to act as a safety net for the working population in the United States.

To be eligible for the Social Security retirement benefits, the worker must have an age of 62 at a minimum and should have enrolled and paid into the program for ten years or more. Workers who wait till later ages like 66 or 70 receive higher and higher benefits accordingly.

Apart from the worker himself, a divorced spouse can also be eligible for benefits provided she has not remarried, and their marriage lasted over ten years. Similarly, children of retirees can also be eligible until the age of 18, which can be longer in the case of disability or child being a student.

Social Security Tax: It is the tax levied upon both the employer and employee to fund the Social Security Program (SSP). It is collected as a payroll tax as mandated by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and the Self-Employed Contributions Act (SECA).

Social Security Rate: For the year 2020, the Social Security Rate is 12.4% that is evenly divided between the employee and the employer. It implies the Social Security Rate for Companies is 6.2%.  Social Security Tax is levied on the earned income of employees and self-employed taxpayers. Employers generally withhold this tax from the employee’s paycheck and forward it to the Government.

It is also worth mentioning that there is a tax cap to the Social Security Fund. For 2020, the Social Security tax cap is $137,700, meaning any income earned above 137,700 is not subject to the Social Security tax.

How can the Social Security Rate For Companies numbers be used for analysis?

Social Security is regressive, meaning it takes a more significant percentage of income from low-income earners than their higher-income counterparts. It occurs because of the tax cap, as mentioned earlier, due to which higher-income earner’s portion of income is not subject to this tax deduction.

The collected funds are not stored for the currently paying employee; instead, they are used for the retirees currently eligible for collection. Some have raised concerns on this way of approach when the baby boomer generation starts to collect its benefits, then the ratio of paying to the collecting people would be tipped off. It would mean that more people are collecting benefits than the people paying into it.

Hence, a common worry in the 21st century is the insolvency of the Social Security Funds due to the increased life expectancy of people and decreasing worker-retiree ratio. Proposed solutions to this from analysts were to increase the current rate to keep the program funded. Still, politicians are hesitant to endorse it due to fear of backlash or negative sentiment outburst from the public.

The 2020 report from the OASDI trustees projects that the retirement funds would be depleted by 2035 and disability funds in 2065. When that occurs, the taxes would not be enough to fund the entire Social Security program, and the Government needs to fill this gap. It may result in higher taxes on workers, fewer benefits, higher age requirements, or a combination of these.

For companies, an increase in Social Security Taxes directly cut down their profit margin, and hiring is more expensive. As a result, companies would be forced to keep employees only when required to avoid losses. Hence, Tax rates have a cascading effect on business profitability for companies as well as employment rates for the United States. When Social Security Taxes increase, the income offered to the employees is also affected, which can discourage personal consumption and spending for the working citizens.

Impact on Currency

The Social Security Rate for the Companies and the employees are revised every year. For consecutive years it tends to remain constant and tends to change in small incremental steps over a few years at a time. Hence, the volatility induced in the currency markets is almost zero to negligible most of the time unless significant changes occur. The changes also would be priced in through news updates into the market long before we receive official statistics.

Hence, Social Security Rate is a low-impact indicator and can be overlooked for more frequent statistics for the FOREX markets.

Economic Reports

The U.S. Social Security Administration provides the complete historical data of the Social Security tax rates for both the employee and employer on its official website. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also maintains the same for its member countries on its official website.

Sources of Social Security Rate For Companies

Social Security Rates for companies can be found on the Social Security Administration website.

Social Security Rates for employees can be found on the OECD’s official website.

Social Security Rates for companies (similar policies with different names) across the world can be found on Trading Economics.

How Social Security Rate for Companies News Release Affects Forex Price Charts

By law, companies are required to contribute half of the social security rate that their employees contribute. In the U.S., this rate for companies in 7.65% for each employee on the payroll for up to $ 137,700 per employee. This rate is reviewed annually and has remained unchanged in the U.S. for the past 25 years. For forex traders, this release of this rate in the U.S. is considered a non-news event since it is not expected to impact the forex market.

The screen capture below shows the current social security rate for companies in the U.S. taken from Trading Economics.

The latest review of the U.S. social security rate was on October 10, 2020, at 4.00 PM ET, and the press release can be accessed here.

Now, let’s see how this news release made an impact on the Forex price charts.

EUR/USD: Before social security rate release October 10, 2020, 
just before 4.00 PM ET

As can be seen on the above 15-minute EUR/USD chart, the pair is on a weak downtrend before the news release. This downtrend is evidenced by the candles forming slightly below the 20-period Moving Average between 12.00 PM and 3.45 PM ET. Furthermore, the Moving Average appears to be flattening.

EUR/USD: After social security rate release October 10, 2020,
at 4.00 PM ET

As expected, there was no market volatility after the news release about the social security rate for 2020. The chart above shows a 15-minute “Doji” candle forming after the news is released. The pair later traded on a neutral pattern as the 20-period Moving Average flattened. The news release about the social security rate for companies did not have any impact on the price action of the EUR/USD pair.

Let’s quickly see how this new release has impacted some of the other major Forex currency pairs.

GBP/USD: Before social security rate release October 10, 2020, 
just before 4.00 PM ET

Before the news release, the GBP/USD pair is on a steady uptrend, as shown by the chart above. An hour to the release, the uptrend became subdued, and the pair adopted a neutral pattern.

GBP/USD: After social security rate release October 10, 2020, 
at 4.00 PM ET

After the news release, the pair forms a 15-minute “Doji” candle. It continues to trade in the neutral pattern observed earlier.

AUD/USD: Before social security rate release October 10, 2020, 
just before 4.00 PM ET

 AUD/USD: After social security rate release October 10, 2020, 
 at 4.00 PM ET

The AUD/USD pair shows a similar neutral trading patter as the EUR/USD and GBP/USD pairs before the news release. This trend is evidenced by the 15-minute candlesticks forming around a flattening 20-period Moving Average between 1.00 PM and 3.45 PM ET. After the news release, the pair forms a 15-minute “Shooting star” candle and continues to trade in the same neutral pattern as before.

From the above analyses, it can be seen that the news release of the social security rate for companies does not have any impact on the price action.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Importance of ‘Wages’ In Determining The Economic Condition of a Nation

Introduction

It is completely fair to say that it would be difficult to sustain a country’s economy in the absence of households’ consumption. The amount of money that employees are typically paid determines their purchasing power and their level of demand. Wages can, therefore, be said to be the best leading indicators of consumer inflation. More so, we can establish a direct correlation between the wages paid and the growth of the economy. For this reason, forex traders need to understand how wages drive the economy and the currency.

Understanding Wages

Wages are compensation that an employer pays their employees over a predefined period. It is the price of labour for the contribution to the production of goods and services. Thus, wages can be regarded as anything of value an employer gives an employee in exchange for their services. Wages include salaries, hourly wages, commissions, benefits and bonuses.

There are two categories of wages: nominal and real wages.

Nominal wages: are the amount of money that an employee is paid for the work done. Nominal wages are expressed in terms of pure monetary value.

Real wages: are the wages received by the employees adjusted for the rate of inflation. Real wages show the purchasing power of money. They are meant to guide on how the overall living standards have changed over time.

Therefore, Real wages = nominal wages – inflation

How Wages can be used for analysis

Their levels of disposable income determine the purchasing power of the households. The disposable income is directly proportional to the wages received. Therefore, the amount of wages paid for labour affects not only the quality of life of the households but also economic growth.

Growth in the wages received can be considered as a source of demand. Wages contribute a significant proportion of income for the middle- and low-class households who do not have other sources of income from investments. Assuming no corresponding increase in taxation, an increase in the wages corresponds to an increase in the amount of disposable income. Higher wages also give households the capacity to borrow more from financial institutions at competitive rates. The cheaper loans significantly contribute to increased aggregate demand. In this case, more goods and services will be demanded. The increase in aggregate demand compels producers to increase their scale of production to match the supply and demand. Consequently, the employment levels increase while the economy expands.

Source: St. Louis FRED

Conversely, decreasing wage growth implies that a decrease in disposable income. A reduction in the aggregate demand and supply will follow. Producers will be forced to scale back their operations, increasing the unemployment rate and consequently a slow-down in the economic growth.

Investments and savings rate rise with the growth in wages. These investments create employment opportunities and spur innovation within the economy. Contrary to this, the decrease in wages forces households to prioritise consumption over investments and saving. The resultant effect is fewer new job opportunities and stifled innovation. As can be seen, changes in the level of wages have a multiplier effect on the economy.

A rise in the rate of inflation is primarily driven by a disproportionate increase in demand driven by a rise in wages. Rising wages lead to a wage push inflation. This particular type of inflation is a result of an increase in prices of goods and services by producers to maintain corporate profits after an increase in the wages. Furthermore, since the responsiveness of supply to an increase in demand is not instant, increasing wages results in inflation since more money will be chasing the same amount of goods.

Impact of Wages on Currency

Forex traders monitor the fundamental indicators to gauge economic growth and speculate on the central banks’ policies. Central banks set their average inflation targets which guide their monetary policies. In the US, the inflation rate target is 2%.

When the wages increase, it forestalls a growth in the economy due to increased investments, aggregate demand and supply. An increase in employment levels also accompanies it. Since the value of a country’s currency is directly proportionate to its economic performance and outlook, wages growth leads to the appreciation of the currency. More so, consistent growth in wages is accompanied by wage push inflation. To keep this inflation under control, the central banks may implement contractionary policies to increase the cost of borrowing money and encourage savings and investments. These policies appreciate the currency.

A decrease in wages implies that the economy could be contracting due to declining aggregate demand and supply within the economy. If the central banks fear that this might result in a recession, they will implement expansionary monetary policies such as lowering interest rates. These policies tend to depreciate the currency.

Sources of Data

This analysis will focus on Australian wages. The comprehensive indicator of wages is Australian Wage Price Index which measures Wages, salaries, and other earnings, corrected for inflation overtime to produce a measure of actual changes in purchasing power. Thus, it measures the change in the price businesses, and the government pay for labour, excluding bonuses.

The real earnings data is released quarterly by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The statistics can be accessed here.

Statistics on the global wages by country can be accessed at Trading Economics.

How Real Earnings Data Release Affects The Forex Price Charts

The most recent real earnings data in Australia was released on August 12, 2020, at 1.30 AM GMT. A summary review of the data release can be accessed at the Australian Bureau of Statistics website. The screengrab below is of the monthly real earnings from Investing.com.

As can be seen, the release of the real earnings data is expected to have a moderate volatility impact on the AUD

The screengrab below shows the most recent change in the Australian wage price index. In the second quarter of 2020, the wage price index grew by 0.2%. This growth is slower than the 0.5% increase in the first quarter of 2020. More so, the change in the second quarter was lower than analysts’ expectations of a 0.3% increase.

In theory, this improvement should lead to depreciation of the AUD relative to other currencies.

Now, let’s see how this release made an impact on the Forex price charts of a few selected pairs

AUD/USD: Before the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release on 
August 12, 2020, Just Before 1.30 AM GMT

From the above 15-minute chart of AUD/USD, the pair can be seen trading in a subdued downtrend before the data release. This trend is evidenced by candles forming just below an almost flattening 20-period Moving Average.

AUD/USD: After the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release 

After the data release, the pair formed a long 15-minute bearish candle indicating the weakening of the AUD as expected. The weak wages price index data resulted in the selloff of the AUD, which led to the pair adopting a steady trend. This downtrend is shown by the steeply falling the 20-period MA with subsequent candles forming further below it.

Now let’s see how this news release impacted other major currency pairs.

GBP/AUD: Before the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release on 
August 12, 2020, Just Before 1.30 AM GMT

The GBP/AUD pair traded in a neutral trend before the wages data release. As shown above, the 15-minute candles are forming just around an already flat 20-period MA. This trend indicates that traders were inactive waiting for the data release.

GBP/AUD: After the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release 

As expected, the GBP/AUD pair formed a long 15-minute bullish candle indicating the selloff of the AUD due to the weaker than expected data. Subsequently, the pair adopted a bullish trend as the 20-period MA steadily rising with candles forming further above it.

EUR/AUD: Before the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release on 
August 12, 2020, Just Before 1.30 AM GMT

EUR/AUD: After the Wage Price Index QoQ Data Release

The EUR/AUD pair traded in a similar neutral pattern as the GBP/AUD pair before the wages data release. 15-minute candles can be seen forming just around a flattened 20-period MA. Similar to the GBP/AUD pair, the EUR/AUD formed a long 15-minute bullish candle immediately after the wages data release. Subsequently, the pair adopted a strong bullish trend as the 20-period MA rose steeply with candles forming further above it.

Bottom Line

From the above analyses, it is evident that the wages data has a significant effect on price action. Although the wage price index is categorised as a medium-impact indicator, its impact was amplified by the ongoing effects of the coronavirus pandemic. The worse than expected wages data indicated that the Australian labour industry is yet to recover from the economic shocks of Covid-19.

Therefore, traders should avoid having significant positions open with pairs involving the AUD before the release of the quarterly wage price index.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Impact of ‘Employment Rate’ Economic Indicator On The Forex Market

Introduction

Employment is crucial for consumer spending, which makes more than two-thirds of the GDP for many countries. Understanding the employment rate and the cascading effect it has on the economy is paramount for fundamental analysis. The factors affecting the employment rate and business cycle patterns all inherently impact economic growth and currency valuation. Hence, understanding employment as an economic indicator will strengthen our analysis.

What is Employment Rate?

Employment Rate:  It is defined as the ratio of employed to the total available labour force. Here the labour force is defined as the sum of employed and unemployed persons. It is also considered as a measure of the extent to which the labour force is being used.

Unemployment is a state where an individual is actively searching for employment but cannot find work.

Unemployment Rate: It is defined as the percentage of unemployed people to the available labour force. It is the other half of the employment rate. Employment and unemployment rate combined should yield results as 100% as it equals the total available labour force.

How can the Employment Rate numbers be used for analysis?

Employment and unemployment can be considered as the two sides of the same coin. We can derive our fundamental conclusions from either direction. Employment Rate is essential for our analysis because it has a direct and cascading impact on consumer spending. In the US, consumer spending accounts for about 70% of the total GDP.

A high employment rate indicates that more people in the labour force have income that they can spend on purchasing goods and services. When consumer spending is on the rise, businesses flourish, leading to better wages, or even more employment. Overall, employment in one sector has an indirect positive effect on dependent sectors and a direct positive effect on the economy.

The Government is also politically committed to ensuring a low unemployment rate; otherwise, citizens will not favour them in the next elections. By providing proper support to local businesses, the Government can increase employment in the short run.

A high unemployment rate is very damaging to the economy. As more people are unemployed, there is a direct negative effect on consumer spending. In this scenario, also the cascading effect works and makes the situation worse. It also hurts the employed people.

Increased unemployment in the economy can bring down the employed morale, making them feel guilty for being employed while their colleagues are unemployed. It can also make employed people feel less secured and discourage their spending habits, and they may end up saving for a rainy day. Employed people may feel lucky enough to have a job that inhibits them from applying for better opportunities amid high unemployment.

Employment and Unemployment rates can also help investors to keep a pulse on the health of the economy. Overall it is essential to make sure the employment rate is always high and does not take a dip. Even when the unemployment rate rises linearly, it has an exponential impact on economic growth, and hence the central authorities try to avoid it at all times.

It is also essential to understand that employment rates are sensitive to business cycles in the short run. Hence, seasonally adjusted versions of the same are more useful for analysis. In the long run, the employment rates are significantly affected by government policies on higher education and income support. Policies that focus on the employment of women and disadvantaged groups also help increase the employment rate.

Both developing and underdeveloped countries’ governments have to focus on education policies and employment opportunities for their labour force if economic growth is the primary concern. Literacy and higher education in underdeveloped and developing nations have helped the economies grow stronger year-on-year.

Employment rates are coincident indicators and can also be used to predict or confirm oncoming recessionary or recovery periods, if any. The onset of a recession is accompanied by a massive unemployment rate or decreased employment rates. Hence, despite the propaganda of the media and Government, we can use employment data actually to confirm whether the economy is growing or stagnating. Accordingly, during recovery periods, employment rates start on a recovery trajectory back to its previous normal.

Impact on Currency

As an increase in employment rate points towards a growing economy, a high employment rate is good for the GDP and the currency. Hence, the employment rate is a proportional coincident indicator. An increase or decrease in employment rate is suggestive of improving or deteriorating the economy, respectively.

The forex market watches the unemployment rate more closely than the employment rate itself. Significant changes in the employment rate or the unemployment rate tend to have a considerable impact on market volatility. Still, generally employment rate in itself is a low impact indicator compared to the unemployment rate.

Employment change, initial jobless claims also precede unemployment rates, and the desired effects are already factored into the market before the employment rates are released. Hence, overall it is a low impact indicator.

Economic Reports

In the United States, the BLS surveys and tracks monthly employment and unemployment within the country. It classifies them based on geography, sex, race, industry, etc. The Employment Situation report is also published by the BLS, and it goes as far back as the 1940s. It is released by BLS on the first Friday at 8:30 AM Eastern Standard Time every month.

Sources of Employment Rate

The US BLS publishes monthly employment and unemployment reports on its official website. We can also find the same indexes and statistics of various categories on the St. Louis FRED. We can also find employment rate statistics published by the OECD countries here. Consolidated reports of employment rates of most countries can also be found in Trading Economics.

How Employment Rate News Release Affects The Price Charts

As we have already established, an increase or decrease in the employment rate can be used to gauge whether the economy is performing well or poorly. For forex traders, it is therefore imperative to understand how the news release of this macroeconomic indicator will impact the price action on various currency pairs.

In the US, employment reports are released monthly, usually on the first Friday after the month ends. The latest, expected, and all historical figures are published on the Forex Factory website. We can find the most recent release here. Below is a screengrab of the US unemployment rate from the Forex Factory website. On the right, we can see a legend that indicates the level of impact the Fundamental Indicator has on the corresponding currency.

As shown, the unemployment rate is a high impact indicator. The snapshot below shows the change in the US unemployment rate as released on August 7, 2020, at 1230GMT. For July 2020, the unemployment rate declined from 11.1% to 10.2%, beating the 10.5% decline forecasted by analysts.

Now, let’s see how this news release made an impact on the Forex price charts.

EUR/USD: Before Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, Just Before 1230GMT

The 30-minute EUR/USD chart above shows the market is on a downtrend from 0200 to 1200 GMT with the candles forming below the 20-period Moving Average. More so, the market was trading within a narrow price channel of between 1.1850 and 1.1810, indicating a calm market with traders waiting for the latest employment data to gauge the economic recovery.

EUR/USD: After Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, 1230GMT

As can be shown on the chart above, immediately after the news release, we can observe a sudden downward spike with a retraction. This spike indicates the market is having mixed reactions to the positive employment news hence the strong USD.

After the initial spike, the market can be seen to ‘absorb’ the positive news. The pair adopted a bearish outlook with the price breaking and staying below the earlier observed 1.1810 resistance level.

Since the pair had not shown any unexpected sudden swings before and after the new release, trading the news would have been profitable. For such a high impact economic indicator, it is advisable to open positions after the news release to avoid being caught on the losing end of the trend.

Now, let’s quickly see how this new release has impacted some of the other major Forex currency pairs.

GBP/USD: Before Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, Just Before 1230GMT

GBP/USD: After Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, 1230GMT

The GBP/USD pair showed a similar trend as the one observed with EUR/USD. The pair can be seen to have traded within a narrow price channel of 1.3122 and 1.3071 from 0700 to 1200 GMT. After the economic data release, the pair similarly had a sudden spike. It later adopted the same bullish stand as the EUR/USD pair, with price breaking and trading below the observed resistance level.

AUD/USD: Before Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, Just Before 1230GMT

GBP/USD: After Employment Data Release August 7, 2020, 1230GMT

Similar to the EUR/USD and the GBP/USD pairs, the AUD/USD traded within a price channel of 0.7221 and 0.7196 and no unexpected spikes before the news release. After the news release, a sudden spike can be observed with an accompanying retraction, and later the pair adopted a bullish stance breaking below the observed resistance level.

From the above analysis, the subdued market volatility before the release of the employment data and the subsequent volatility, it is evident that the employment rate is high impact indicator anticipated by forex traders.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About Deposit Interest Rate as a Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

Deposit Interest Rates play a crucial role in controlling the flow of money within the economy and the international market. The interest rate differentials have always directed the flow of speculative money in and out of countries, thereby affecting the currency exchange rates. Hence, it is crucial to understand Deposit rates as an economic factor in the FOREX industry.

What is Deposit Interest Rate?

Deposit Interest Rate: It is the money financial institutions pay the depositing party. The deposit account holders put some money in the bank for which the bank pays out interest. Deposit accounts can be a savings account, Certificates of Deposit (CD), and self-directed deposit retirement accounts.

Banks give loans to its customers at a higher rate than the interest they pay out on their deposit accounts. It is this spread between the lending rate and deposit rate that banks make their profit and is called Net Interest Margin.

How can the Deposit Interest Rate numbers be used for analysis?

Potentially, banks are free to set their deposit rates at whatever rate they desire, but they have to keep competition and business into account. Deposits provide financial institutions with the necessary liquidity to maintain business and give out more loans. Banks need to give out loans to make a profit, but also needs to have depositors to provide the required liquidity. Within the country, when the deposit interest rates are low, people would be more interested in investing their money in stocks or other money markets where there is a possibility of a higher return on their capital.

Conversely, banks may increase their deposit rates to attract investors to deposit their capital providing banks with the necessary liquidity to fund their loans. Investors see bank deposits as a safe bet against the risky stock or money markets where they are subjected to a potential loss. Customers are also encouraged to save more and spend less when they get a higher return on their deposits. In the international markets, investors check and compare the lending and deposit rates of major banks in different countries. When the deposit rate of a bank in one country is higher than the lending rate of a bank in another country, there is a chance of making money.

Investors, traders, or some institutions may borrow money from a low-interest rate country and deposit in another country where the rates are high. This difference in the lending and deposit rates amongst banks of different countries is called Interest Rate Differential or ‘Carry.’ For example, let us assume when the deposit rate in Australia is 5%, and the lending rate in the United States is 3.5%. The difference of 1.5% return will move the speculative or “hot” money out of the United States and into Australia. When the Australian Dollars start to flow into the country, the global FOREX market is deprived of the AUD currency, and, hence, it is appreciated.

The below plot also shows the historical difference between the interest rates differential (AUS IR – USA IR) and the AUD USD exchange rate. As we can see, whenever the difference between the interest rates rises in favour of AUD, the exchange rate tends to follow. There is a good correlation between both in the long run. Whenever the direction changes in favour of the United States, so does the exchange rate.

Hence, the “carry” essentially directs the flow of “hot” money in and out of countries whenever there is an increase in interest rates differentials. The larger the difference and consistent the direction of the differential in the plot (positive or negative) more will be the inflow of money in that direction.

When the differential is near or close to zero, then the speculative money may be forced into other options to generate revenue. The interest rate differential may be prominent when paired against small and developing countries to that of developed countries in general. As most of the developed economies are struggling to maintain their growth and have been forced to keep interest rates low, it indeed is a little tricky to find currency pairs to generate a significant carry.

Impact on Currency

Deposit rates have a definite impact on the currency markets. It is one half of the money flow equation. When the lending rates and deposit rates are checked and compared, money flow starts in favour of the higher deposit rate country that appreciates the currency value and vice-versa.

Therefore, deposit rates alone do not determine currency value fluctuations. But in general, it is safe to say that higher deposit rates tend to appreciate currency’s value as the market is deprived of that currency. Conversely, low-interest rates on deposits discourage saving and thereby go into spending, which contributes to inflation and currency depreciation.

Economic Reports

The deposit interest rates of local banks can be found on the respective banks from which we would want to borrow money. But in general, the deposit rates and lending rates due to market forces are subject to be close to the country’s Central Bank’s target rate.

For the United States, it is the Fed Funds target rate, and the actual rate is called the effective Fed Funds rate. The Federal Reserve publishes Monday to Friday the daily Interest Rates in its H.15 report at 4:15 PM on its official website. Weekly, Monthly, Semi-annual and Annual rates of the same are also available.

Sources of Deposit Interest Rate

The United States Fed Rates are available here. The monthly effective Fed Funds rates are available in a more consolidated and illustrative way for our analysis in the St. Louis FRED website. Consolidated Deposit Interest Rates of different countries are available here.

How Deposit Interest Rate Affects Price Charts

For forex traders, monitoring other economic indicators is usually meant to help them predict what interest rates are going to be in the future. However, since the deposit interest rates largely depend on the federal funds rate, they rarely have any significant impact on the forex markets by itself. It is worth noting that the US FOMC only meets eight times in a year to determine the federal funds’ target rate. This explains the lack of impact by the deposit interest rate.

In the US, the Fed Funds target rate, on which deposit interest rates are based on, are published every weekday at 4.15 PM ET. Below is a screengrab of the Fed Funds target rate from August 11 to August 17, 2020.

As can be seen, the rate has remained the same at 0.1%. The screenshot below is from Forex Factory, showing that the latest FOMC decision recommended that the Fed Funds target rate remains between 0% and 0.25%.

Now that we’ve established the impact that the deposit interest rate has on the economy and the currency valuation let’s see how it impacts the price action of some select currency pairs.

EUR/USD: Before Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17, 
2020, Just Before 4.15 PM ET

The 15-minute EUR/USD chart above shows that the market between 10.15 AM and 4 PM ET on August 17, 2020, had no specific trend. The market has adopted an almost neutral stance with the candles forming just around the flattening 20-period Moving Average.

EUR/USD: After Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17, 
2020, 4.15 PM ET

As can be seen on the chart above, immediately after the daily update on the Effective Fed Funds rate, there is a slightly bullish 5-minute candle forms. The news, however, is not significant enough to the market to cause any spikes or change the prevailing market trend. As can be seen, the pair continued with its neutral trend and a flattening 20-period Moving Average.

Let’s see how this new release has impacted some of the other major Forex currency pairs.

GBP/USD: Before Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17,
2020, Just Before 4.15 PM ET

The neutral trend observed with the EUR/USD pair before the daily release of the Effective Fed Funds Rate can be seen on the GBP/USD chart above. The candles formed just around the flattening 20-period Moving Average.

GBP/USD: After Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17, 
2020, 4.15 PM ET

After the news release, a 15-minute bullish candle forms. However, the same neutral trends persist with the pair indicating that the news was not significant enough to move the markets and cause a change in the trend.

AUD/USD: Before Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17, 
2020, Just Before 4.15 PM ET

AUD/USD: After Effective Fed Funds Rate Release August 17,
2020, 4.15 PM ET

Unlike with the EUR/USD and the GBP/USD pairs, the AUD/USD pair had a clear uptrend before the daily release of the Effective Fed Funds Rate. This uptrend was not a steady one since the candles formed just above an almost flattening 20-period Moving Average. After the news release, a bullish 15-minute candle is formed. The news was, however, not significant enough to alter the prevailing market trend.

While the deposit interest rate is vital in determining the flow of money in an economy, it plays an almost insignificant role in moving the forex markets. Cheers.

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is Business Confidence & How Does Its News Release Impact The Forex Market?

Introduction

Business Confidence is the most important leading indicator for economic growth that is closely watched by traders, investors, economists, and even policymakers. Business Confidence survey provides the take of the business sector on their near-term prospects that helps us understand what the oncoming quarterly conditions will be.  Business Confidence Indexes are crucial for fundamental analysis.

What is Business Confidence?

The economy can be broadly categorized as the private and public sectors. The public sector involves all the government and central bank-related offices and industries. The private sector is composed of two main participants: Businesses and Consumers. In the United States, Businesses make up 34% of the private sector. The business sector is again broadly divided based on output as the Manufacturing Industry and Services Industry. The Manufacturing Sector is primarily related to industries that manufacture and sell physical goods. The Services Sector deals with the Services that are essentially non-physical and are challenging to quantify.

The Manufacturing Sector makes up 20% of the GDP, and the remainder 80% is attributed to the Services Sector. Since the business industry is the real economic wealth of the nation, it is the primary source of the Gross Domestic Product. Hence, Business Confidence Indexes can give us an excellent assessment of the upcoming economic trends in the Industry.

Business Confidence Indexes are based on surveys taken from some of the largest industries in both the manufacturing and services sector, asking them about their current business conditions and their outlook about business activity in the coming 2-3 months.

In the US, the publishing of the Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index is done by the institute of supply management every month. It is a survey of about 400 largest manufacturers in the United States of America. It also publishes a Non-Manufacturing Index, which is the same index associated with the Services Industry.

Note

The approach may vary amongst the surveying companies. For example, the National Australia Bank Business Confidence Index is computed on a net balance basis.  In it, the surveyed companies are asked whether there is a positive or negative outlook. Their question would be per se, “Excluding normal seasonal changes, how do you expect business conditions of your industry to change in the next three months?”. The result is calculated as positive, less negative responses, which is the net balance.

How can Business Confidence numbers be used for analysis?

The question that is generally asked in the study is related to MOM changes in the Business Activity, New Orders, Production, Employment, Deliveries, and Inventories with equal weightage.

The Manufacturing PMI and Services NMI ratings lie within the range of 0-100. A score above 50 implies an expansion in the economic activity, and a score below 50 implies contraction. Although across the globe, different survey companies follow different metrics, like the NAB Business Confidence Index follows a zero-based scale, where a score above zero indicates positive sentiment and less than indicates a bearish sentiment.

Business Confidence or Business Sentiment is analogous to Consumer Sentiment, except that the figures are more fact-oriented, as it takes into account the business inventory count, estimates, current production levels, etc. It is asking the business owners about their outlook on the economic prospects in the short-term.

Business Confidence Surveys are very important for policymakers also. They use these statistics to intervene by fiscal and monetary policy reforms to combat deflationary threats, if any.

Impact on Currency

Historically, in the United States, PMI and NMI have predicted GDP growth with 85% accuracy 12-months ahead of time, as illustrated in the below ISM PMI plot against quarterly Real GDP growth. The correlation of business confidence with economic growth is strong, and hence, it is an important leading economic indicator.

Market volatility is sensitive to Business Confidence Indexes. Significant moves in the index cause volatility in the market. It is a high impact leading indicator. High business confidence translates to improving economic prospects, which will translate to higher GDP prints and currency appreciation.

Business Confidence Announcement – Impact due to news release

Till now, we have comprehended the Business Confidence economic indicator. It is essentially used to monitor output growth and to anticipate turning points in economic activity. Numbers above 100 suggests increased confidence in near future business performance, and numbers below 100 indicate pessimism towards future performance. Therefore, investors give a reasonable amount of importance to the data while analyzing a currency.

In today’s lesson, we will look at the NAB Business Confidence Index that is a key measure of Busines Confidence in Australia, published monthly and quarterly by National Australia Bank (NAB). The survey is that is carried out covers hundreds of Australian companies and few banks which measures business conditions in the country. A positive reading can be interpreted as good for the currency and equities, while a negative reading can be interpreted as a warning sign to the government, which leads to a build-up of bearish positions in the currency.

AUD/USD | Before the announcement

We shall start with the USD/JPY pair to observe the change in volatility due to the news release. The above price chart shows the state of the market before the news announcement, where we see the market is in a strong downtrend and the price currently is at the lowest point. We need to wait for a price retracement to the ‘resistance’ to take a ‘sell’ position in the currency pair. Until then, we will see what impact the news makes on the chart.

AUD/USD | After the announcement

After the news announcement, the price moves lower and volatility increases to the downside. The Business Confidence reading was better than last time, but it was good enough to drive the price higher. Therefore, traders sold Australian dollars soon after the release and weakened the currency. In order to take a ‘sell’ trade, as mentioned earlier, we need a price retracement before we can join the trend.

AUD/NZD | Before the announcement

AUD/NZD | After the announcement

The above images represent the AUD/NZD currency pair, where we notice a resilient move to the downside a few minutes before the news announcement. Currently, the price is at a point from where the market had reversed earlier to the upside. Thus, this could serve as a strong ‘support’ area from where we can again expect buying pressure. Depending on the change in volatility due to the news release, we will take an appropriate position.

After the news announcement, the price sharply drops, and we witness a big fall in the market. We can ascertain that the market was a much better Business Confidence reading, which is why traders went ‘short’ in the currency. However, this was immediately retracted by a bullish candle that recovered all the losses.

EUR/AUD | Before the announcement

EUR/AUD | After the announcement

The above images belong to the EUR/AUD currency pair. We can see that before the news release, the market is in a strong uptrend signifying the great amount of weakness in the Australian dollar since it is positioned at the right-hand side of the currency. Since it is an uptrend, we will look to buy the currency pair after the price retraces a ‘support’ or ‘demand’ area.

After the news release, the market continues to move higher, and the ‘news candle’ closes with some bullishness. We observe a similar impact of the Business Confidence numbers announcement on this pair as well, which initially weakens the currency but finally strengthens it. All the best!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is ‘GDP from Mining’ and What Should You Know About This Economic Indicator?

Introduction

The tracking of GDP from Mining can give us many economic conclusions. GDP from Mining’s importance comes from the fact that the final output of Mining Production is the primary input for many industries. Therefore, it is the core part of the business activity related to many industries.

Fluctuations in the GDP from Mining data will eventually translate to all the industries that are dependent on Mined resources for their production process. This effect can be many-fold, and hence it is a vital economic indicator for investors, economists, and government authorities.

Mining Production

It refers to the entire process of searching for, extraction, beneficiation (purification), and processing of naturally occurring minerals from the Earth. Minerals that are typically mined can be Coal, metals like Copper, Iron, Zinc, or industrial minerals like limestone, potash, and other crushed rocks.

Coal is considered as one of the primary sources of energy across the world. Metals like Iron, Bauxite, and Copper have a wide range of usage in various industries. Limestone and other rocks are being used in cement industries, which contribute a lot to the construction and related industries.

How can the GDP from Mining numbers be used for analysis?

The developing economies are primarily achieving their growth through exports of essential commodities like Food, Minerals, etc. For example, Australia primarily exports Iron Ore and Coal, due to which the economic growth and currency value are tightly linked to the Mining of these natural resources. When the GDP from Mining starts to recede, currency devaluation and slowing economic growth are inevitable.

Developed economies are more resilient to changes in GDP from Mining, as their growth is tied to multiple sectors and are not heavily dependent on any individual sector. The availability of modern technology and skilled labor contribute to the GDP from Mining figures positively. Mining is a labor-intensive task. Hence, it is obvious that Mining lies at the heart of all industrial activities. A decrease in GDP from Mining can adversely affect all the dependent industries, and correspondingly the effects will pass onto unemployment, layoffs, wages, economic slowdown, etc.

Impact on Currency

The GDP from Mining is a low impact indicator, as the Mining Production reports are published monthly by the Federal Reserve in the United States that are leading indicators. It is a proportional and lagging indicator. Hence, changes in GDP from Mining would have already been priced into the market through monthly Mining Production reports.

Also, GDP from Mining numbers does not give us a complete picture of the economy. However, it can be an important tool for the Central Authorities to keep track of the performance of the Mining Sector and its implications for the economy. As established, the Mining Sector is a significant contributor, due to many industries dependent on its output.

Hence, changes in this sector widely affect the overall economic health, and all the dependent industries therein. In general, Higher GDP from Mining is good for the economy and its currency, and vice-versa.

Sources of GDP from Mining

For the US, the BEA reports are available here – GDP -BEAGDP by Industry – BEA. For the world data below, two are useful references – Mineral Rents  – World % of GDPGDP from Mining – Trading Economics. The monthly Mining Production statistics can be found on the official website of the Federal Reserve for the United States, which can be found here – G7 Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization

GDP from Mining Announcement – Impact due to news release

Mining is an extremely important economic activity in any country. The benefits of Mining have been widely promoted by the industry and institutions such as the World Bank. In several low and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel resources, Mining makes significant contributions to the national economic development as measured by the Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr).

The contribution of Mining and Minerals to GDP reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Now, the figures indicate a decline in the Mining’s contribution but are still considerably higher than before. This is one of the reasons why it not a major determinant of economic growth. Thus, investors do not give importance to the mining data when it comes to investing in an economy.

In today’s lesson, we will try to examine the impact of GDP on various currency pairs and see the volatility change due to the news release. The below snapshot shows the previous, predicted, and actual GDP data of Switzerland released in the month of March. As this is the quarter on quarter GDP data, we can expect moderate to high volatility in the currency during the announcement.

GBP/CHF | Before the announcement

Let’s review the GBP/CHF currency pair to observe the impact of the news release. We see that the market has made a ‘descending triangle‘ candlestick pattern before the news announcement, which essentially is a trend continuation pattern. Depending on the impact of the news release, we will take a suitable position in the currency pair.

GBP/CHF | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see a sudden surge in the price indicating bullishness in the currency. The bullish ‘news candle’ suggests a negative reaction to the GDP data as it was on expected lines with no major increase or decrease. The market appears to have broken above the ‘descending triangle’ pattern, which is why we should need to wait for clear signs from the market with respect to the direction it is heading.  

CAD/CHF | Before the announcement

CAD/CHF | After the announcement

The above images represent the CAD/CHF currency pair, where we see that the market seems to be in a downward channel before the news announcement with the price at the bottom of the channel. Since the impact of GDP is high, there is a high chance that the news release could result in a break down if the data comes out to be weak for the economy. Therefore we need to wait for confirmation from the market before we can take a trade.

After the news release, the price moves higher and volatility increases on the upside. Since the GDP data was pretty much equal to the forecasted number, it did not result in bullishness in the currency, and it ultimately weakened the currency for a while. One who takes a ‘buy’ trade should take profits at the top of the channel and not wait for too long. 

AUD/CHF | Before the announcement

AUD/CHF | After the announcement

The above charts belong to the AUD/CHF currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market is moving within a ‘range.’ This means the price is not moving in any single direction, which can make trading a bit challenging in such an environment. The news release can effectively move the market in any direction, which is why we need to wait for the announcement to happen in order to get clarity.

After the news release, the price moves lower, but this gets immediately bought, and the ‘news candle’ closes with a wick on the bottom. We witness buying pressure in the market soon after the news release. we to be cautious before taking a ‘long’ position since the price is at the top of the ‘range.’ All the best!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Does The ‘GDP Growth Rate’ Forex Driver Say About A Nation’s Economy?

Introduction

GDP Growth Rate is the most critical fundamental macroeconomic indicator for measuring economic prosperity. It is the number one macroeconomic indicator, and all other leading, coincident, and lagging indicators are all trying to predict what GDP Growth Rate would be. Our fundamental analysis revolves around predicting the growth rate before the GDP Growth Rate reveals it. It is the de facto measure of economic growth for all countries worldwide.

The importance of this economic indicator cannot be understated. GDP Growth Rate figures move the markets like no other, be it the currency or the stock markets. Hence, understanding the significance of this macroeconomic indicator is paramount for traders and investors.

What is the GDP Growth Rate?

Gross Domestic Product

It is a measure of the total economic output of a country. It is the total monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the country regardless of citizenship (resident or foreign national). The commonly used term “size of the economy” refers to this economic indicator. The US is the world’s largest economy, and it means it has the highest nominal GDP or highest economic output.

GDP Growth Rate

GDP Growth Rate is the measure of the rate of economic growth. In other words, it tells the pace at which an economy is growing. Generally, developing or emerging economies like China, India, or Japan will have a higher GDP growth rate than the mature or developed economies like the United States, United Kingdom, etc.

Mathematically, it is the percentage change of Gross Domestic Product with regards to the previous quarter. Although the GDP Growth Rate is reported quarterly, it is annualized for better analysis and comparison. It means that the quarterly GDP is scaled to a year to compare the Growth Rate with the previous year and understand whether the economy is growing faster or slower compared to the previous year. 

The other reason is that the GDP Growth Rate changes according to the business cycle and is usually very high during the last quarter, accounting for holiday shopping from consumers driving up the GDP. Hence, annualizing with seasonal adjustment makes it more accurate for analysis. The Real GDP Growth Rate accounts for inflation and is the most-watched GDP statistic.

The GDP Growth Rate is affected by the four components of the GDP:

A | Consumer Spending: It is also called Personal Consumption. It represents spending associated with the end-consumers or the general population. The Personal Consumption Expenditure reports, Retail Sales, are all different economic indicators representing Consumer Spending. It makes up about 69% of the total GDP in the United States.

B | Business Investment: Economic Output of the Business Sector makes up 18% of the total GDP in the United States. Business Surveys like Purchasing Manager’s Index, Industrial Production, etc. help assess the Business Sector’s contribution to economic output.

C | Government Spending: It involves all the expenditures incurred by the Government to maintain and stimulate economic growth and run its operations. In the United States, significant proportions of Government Spending go to Social Security, Medicare benefits, and Defense Spending. It accounts for 17% of the total economic output for the United States.

D | Net Exports: It is the difference between the total exports and imports. Revenue is generated from exports and depleted from imports. Developing economies will mostly have positive Net Exports as it is an integral part of their revenue generation. The United States has -5% Net Exports of the total GDP, meaning it is a net importer.

How can the GDP Growth Rate numbers be used for analysis?

When the economy is growing or expanding, the GDP Growth Rate is favorable. When the GDP Growth Rate is increasingly positive, businesses, jobs, and personal income all grow followingly. Developing economies grow faster than mature economies (as the developed economies are already more saturated compared to developing ones). It is generally standard for matured economies to peak out at 3-4% GDP Growth Rate and developing economies can have anywhere between 5-20%.

When the economy is slowing or contracting, businesses will halt new investments and plans to avoid deflation. New hiring is also postponed; people will save more than spend to prepare for the oncoming deflationary conditions. The economy comes to a slowdown. The Government intervenes through fiscal and monetary levers to stimulate economic growth and bring it back to normal conditions and maintain the growth rate. Overall, the GDP growth rate tells us the economy’s health.

Impact on Currency

The GDP is a lagging macroeconomic indicator that has high-impact on the market volatility. Investors’ decisions are based on the GDP growth rate. It is a proportional indicator. High GDP Growth Rates are suitable for the economy overall and vice-versa.

Though it is a lagging indicator, it has many implications for the economy. It is the most extensive measure of economic activity and the primary gauge of the economy’s health. GDP Growth Rate comparisons amongst different economies are vital for currency markets, and hence, it has a very high impact on the currency market.

Economic Reports

For the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis releases quarterly GDP Growth Rate figures on its official website every quarter. The release schedule is already mentioned on the website and is generally released one month after the quarter ends. 

Major international organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, OECD, etc. actively maintain track of most countries on their official website: 

Sources of GDP Growth Rate

For the United States, the BEA reports are available here.

The St. Louis FRED keeps track of all the GDP and its related components in one place on its official website. You can find that information in the sources mentioned below.  

GDP & GNP – FRED 

GDP Growth Rate – World Bank

GDP Growth Rate – IMF

Impact of the “GDP Growth Rate” news release on the Forex market

In the previous section of the article, we explained the GDP Growth Rate fundamental indicator and saw how it could be used for gauging the strength of an economy. The GDP Growth Rate indicates how quickly or slowly the economy is growing or shrinking.

It is driven by four components of GDP, the largest being personal consumption expenditures. But economists prefer using real GDP when measuring growth because it is inflation-adjusted. When the economy is improving, the GDP Growth Rate is favorable. If it is contracting, businesses hold off investing in new technologies. If GDP Growth Rate turns, then the country’s economy is in a recession.

In the following section, we will analyze India’s GDP Growth data and observe the change in volatility due to the news announcement. The below image shows the fourth quarter GDP Growth data of India, where there has been a fall in the value compared to the previous quarter. The most critical and highest contributor to the growth of the Indian economy is services. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data.  

USD/INR | Before the announcement:

We shall start with the USD/INR currency pair to study the impact of GDP Growth Rate on the Indian Rupee. The above image shows the ‘Daily’ time-frame chart of the currency before the news announcement, where we see that the market is moving within a ‘range’ and currently the price seems to have broken out of the ‘range.’ The volatility is high on the upside, indicating that the Indian Rupee is weakening. Depending on the GDP Growth Rate data, we will take a suitable position.  

USD/INR | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see a sudden rise in the volatility to the upside. The price moves higher initially, but selling pressure from the top makes the ‘news candle’ to close with a wick on the top. This was a result of the harmful GDP Growth data where there was a reduction in the Growth Rate from last quarter.   

INR/JPY | Before the announcement:

INR/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images represent the INR/JPY currency pair, where it is clear from the first image that the price was moving in a ‘range’ before the announcement, and presently it has broken the ‘support’ with a lot of strength. This is the first sign of weakness in the Indian Rupee that could probably extend. If the price remains below the moving average, a ‘sell’ trade can be initiated.

After the news announcement, the price crashes lower but immediately gets reversed, and the ‘news candle’ closes with a wick on the bottom. The initial reaction was a result of the weak GDP Growth Rate, which lead to the further weakening of the currency. Volatility increased to the downside due to the news announcement, which was on expected lines.

AUD/INR | Before the announcement:

AUD/INR | After the announcement:

The above images are that of AUD/INR currency, where we see before the news announcement, the market is in a downtrend, and currently, the price is at its lowest point. Technically, we should be looking to sell the currency pair after a price retracement to the nearest’ resistance’ level or an appropriate Fibonacci ratio. Therefore, depending on the volatility change due to the news release, we will take a pair.

After the news announcement, the volatility emerges to the upside, and we see a sudden rise in the price that also goes above the moving average. This was a result of the weak GDP Growth Rate that made traders to ‘long’ in the currency pair by selling Indian Rupees. The news release hurts the currency where the weakness persists for a while, but later, the downtrend continues.

We hope you understood the concept of “GDP Growth Rate” and its impact on the Forex price charts after its news release. All the best. Cheers!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is ‘GDP From Public Administration’ Forex Fundamental Driver All About?

Introduction

Public Administration is a critical aspect that drives overall economic growth. GDP from Public Administration can give us insights into the strength of the current central authorities’ efficiency in governance. Public Administration is the levers to the economic engine, and it can put brakes or accelerate the economy to sink into a recession or propel to economic growth. Hence, understanding Public Administration and its contribution to GDP will help us better understand its role in society’s functioning as a whole.

What is GDP from Public Administration?

Gross Domestic Product

GDP is the measure of a country’s total economic output. It is the total monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the country regardless of citizenship (resident or foreign national).

It is the market value of all the finished goods and services within a nation’s geographical borders for a given period. The period is generally a quarter (3 months) or a year.

The commonly used term “size of the economy” refers to this economic indicator. The USA is the world’s largest economy, and it means it has the highest nominal GDP or highest economic output.

Public Administration

It is the implementation of government policies. Public Administration is a part of every economy. Policies can be either monetary policy or fiscal policy.

Public Administration is concerned with the operations of government that run the nation. It is centered around the structuring of the Government policies and programs and government officials’ conduct to implement the same.

Public Administration’s definition and goals are vast subjects. In our analysis, we will only focus on the economic impact of Public Administration. 

How can the GDP from Public Administration numbers be used for analysis?

An analogy to understand the importance of Public Administration would be if an economy or nation is viewed as a car or engine. Public Administration would be the brake, gear, and acceleration levers. Levers determines whether the car moves forward or backward, and also the pace of movement.

Similarly, Public Administration determines what direction the economy’s growth is going towards and at what rate. Monetary policy is associated with the Central Bank of a nation. Fiscal Policies are associated with the Central Government. 

Officials working as per the Public Administration policies are called Civil Servants, together the Governing body and its policy determine how effectively the opportunities are maximized to satisfy the public demands and lead to overall economic wellbeing.

Policy reforms and effective Administration can reduce economic disparity amongst different classes of people, increase employment, wages, and business prosperity. Government Spending, Tax programs, Outlays, allowances, funding programs are all part of the Government policy. Public Administration determines how effectively such policies are implemented.

Public Administration provides the foundation for economic activity through laws and as a catalyst to economic wellbeing through its services. 

Without firm laws and regulations and active civil servants, the nation is in jeopardy. Weak governance and policy can sink the nation where corruption, political instability, riots, public protests, etc. can creep in. 

Services like transportation, maintaining law and order, road construction, police, jails, tax exemptions, medicare, social security, etc. directly may or may not generate revenue for the government but indirectly helps other sectors to boost overall economic prosperity.

When a nation’s government fails to stimulate the economy, there is a probability that it will continue for its elected period. Hence, International Investors can glean such clues from GDP from Public Administration figures. They can understand the behavioral nuances of the government and its probable impact in the upcoming quarters.

The government impacts the people and the business. On an absolute basis, the government has complete control over the nation for the elected period. It can bring about any policy reforms they see fit. It can help businesses or impede businesses. It can control money flow through the economy, and how much people pay taxes.

It is also essential to perceive that the GDP from Public Administration is only part of the government’s revenue. It assists in the functioning of other sectors through its public services that are not accounted for in the GDP. 

Hence, GDP from Public Administration itself does not tell us the real contribution of Public Administration in growth. The functions of a government span across various sectors and vary from region to region based on the economic region’s requirements.

Impact on Currency

The GDP from Public Administration is a low impact indicator, as the broader measures like Real GDP and GDP Growth Rates are more important for the Currency Markets. 

GDP from Public Administration does not paint the full picture of the economy, but it tells us the effectiveness of the current government and its policies. Still, for the International Currency Markets, it does not serve as a useful indicator.

It is a proportional and lagging indicator. Higher GDP from Public Administration is good for the economy and its currency, and vice-versa.

Economic Reports

For the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis releases quarterly GDP figures on its official website every quarter. The release schedule is already mentioned on the website and is generally released one month after the quarter ends.

In the full report, we can extract the GDP from Public Administration figures. We can also go through GDP by Industry to get the Public Administration performance in the report. Below is a sample of the same:

World Bank actively maintains track of GDP by Sector figures of most countries on their official website. Public Sector 

Sources of GDP from Public Administration

For the United States, the BEA reports are available here.

We can use the GDP by Industry to see the government’s contribution to GDP here. 

Different metrics like Public Debt, Expenditure, etc. are all categorically available here.

We can also find GDP from Public Administration for different countries here.

Impact of the ‘GDP From Public Administration’ news release on the price charts 

In the previous section of the article, we understood the importance of Public Administration in an economy and how it impacts economic growth. It plays an essential role in overseeing and shaping new impact market strategies. It is the responsibility of public administrators, whether policymakers or non-profit executives, to make use of the opportunity to ensure that the economy flourishes.

Profound policies are needed to facilitate private-sector investment in socially beneficial concerns. All this is in the hands of public administrators and the government. Therefore, the department has a fair amount of contribution to the GDP and the economy. When it comes to investing based on this information, investors do not make investment decisions based on the contribution from different sectors. They look at the final GDP and take a position in the currency.

In today’s lesson, we will analyze the impact of GDP on different currency pairs and see the volatility created after the news release. The below image shows the first-quarter GDP data of Singapore, where we see a significant drop in the GDP value compared to the previous quarter. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data. 

USD/SGD  | Before the announcement

 

Let us start with the USD/SGD currency pair, where the above image shows the state of the chart before the news announcement. We see that the market is moving in a small ‘range,’ and just before the release, the price is at the top of the ‘range.’ This means we can expect selling pressure from this point that can take the price lower. However, it is better to take a position based on the volatility caused by the news announcement. 

USD/SGD  | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see that the price moves lower, and the market falls considerably. The market reacted oppositely to what was expected as it resulted in the strengthening of the Singapore dollar even though the GDP data was negative. The volatility increased to the downside, and eventually, the market turns into a downtrend.    

SGD/JPY | Before the announcement

SGD/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the SGD/JPY currency pair, where we see that the price is precisely at the ‘support’ before the news announcement. There is a high chance that the buyers might come back in the market and go ‘long’ in the currency pair. Since economists forecast a lower GDP for this quarter, it is advised not to take a ‘short’ position before the news release.

After the news announcement, the price initially moves higher, but this gets immediately sold into, and the candle closes with a large wick on the top. We witness a fair amount of volatility in the currency, and finally, it gets extended to the downside. One can take a ‘short’ position in the currency after noticing trend continuation patterns in the market and after confirmation from technical indicators.     

GBP/SGD | Before the announcement

GBP/SGD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/SGD currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market has reversed to the upside, and currently, the price has reacted strongly from the ‘demand’ area. This indicates a high amount of bullishness in the currency pair and weakness in the Singapore dollar since it is on the left-hand side of the currency pair.

After the news announcement, the market falls lower, and the volatility slightly increases to the downside. The Singapore dollar gets more influential after the news release, despite reporting weak GDP data. Thus, we can conclude that there is some confusion in the market and hence it moves in both the directions. Traders should technically analyze and take positions accordingly. 

That’s about ‘GDP From Public Administration’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. In case of any questions, let us know in the comments below. Good luck!  

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

‘GDP From Manufacturing’ – Understanding The Macro Economic Indicator & Its Impact

Introduction

GDP from Manufacturing is significant for many developing economies. It is their primary driver for economic growth to improve the standard of living and generate wealth. Manufacturing Sector has supported a large share of jobs in the economy. 

Manufacturing Sector has helped many economies to come out of underdeveloped status to developing nation status. Hence, understanding GDP from Manufacturing has varying significance in different countries is suitable for macroeconomic view in the international markets.

What is the GDP from Manufacturing?

Gross Domestic Product

GDP is a basic measure of a country’s total economic output. It is the total monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the country regardless of citizenship (resident or foreign national).

It is the market value of all the finished goods and services within a nation’s geographical borders for a given period. The period is generally a quarter (3 months) or a year. The commonly used term “size of the economy” refers to this economic indicator. The USA has the world’s largest economy, and it means it has the highest nominal GDP or highest economic output.

Manufacturing

It is producing goods for use or sale labor, processing equipment, or machinery. It is a process that could be physical, chemical, or mechanical. The manufacturing sector mainly uses raw materials to make finished goods for consumption by end customers or intermediate goods for other manufacturing industries. For example, a car Manufacturing company could import raw iron ore metal, and process it to produce metal car body parts.

In the lifecycle of a finished good, the Manufacturing comes in as the second stage in the supply chain right after the source of raw materials. The manufacturing sector includes plants, factories, mills, and generally use power-driven machinery in their process. The manufacturing sector can also include small businesses, or home startups like bakeries, candy stores, or custom tailors, etc.

How can the GDP from Manufacturing numbers be used for analysis?

Manufacturing is an essential component of GDP. In the United States, it contributed 11.6% of total GDP. Manufactured products make up half of the total United States exports. In the United States alone, the Manufacturing Sector has 12.85 million jobs, about 8.5% of the total workforce. The importance of the Manufacturing Sector is evident from the rapidly developing economies like China, Japan, and India. 

The industrialization has been the main propellent for economic growth in these countries that put them back on the map. With export-led growth, China has primarily used Manufacturing Sectors to achieve growth rates of 10% and above to catch up with the advanced economies like the United Kingdom, and the United States. Manufacturing Sector is a labor-intensive sector, and it requires skilled labor. Despite the advent of modern technologies, equipment, and automated machinery, it still requires skilled laborers to fill the gaps.

Developing economies do not have a competitive edge over the developed economies in the services sector. But they do have the advantage in the Manufacturing and Industrial Sectors due to the availability of cheap labor. The low costs associated with a low standard of living and maintenance attracts business to establish their production centers in such countries. For example, an autoworker in Detroit makes 58 dollars an hour compared to 8 dollars in Mexico.

With an improved standard of living in developed economies like the United States, the cost of labor is high in comparison. It is the primary reason for the decline in the Manufacturing Sector growth in the developed economies for over two decades, paired with rapid growth in developing economies during the same period. 

With many developed economies transitioning more into the services sector, the Manufacturing Sector has lost its fair share in developed economies while developing ones like China have significantly increased their Manufacturing Industry production levels. 

About Thirty percent of the GDP of China comes from the Manufacturing Sector alone. Hence, we can understand that the Manufacturing Sector is the primary source of growth for many developing countries. The above plot shows the increase in Manufacturing Production in China. It is steady and steep growth. The vertical axis is plotted in CNY HML (Chinese Yuan Hundred Millions).

As the countries develop, they start to get involved in the Service sector by investing the wealth generated from the Manufacturing Sector to come on par with developed economies and establish a total equilibrium. But there is a long way to go before all developing economies become developed.

Impact on Currency

The GDP from Manufacturing in itself is not a high impact indicator, as the broader measures like Real GDP and GDP Growth Rates are more important for the Currency Markets. GDP from Manufacturing does not paint the full picture of the economy. It can be an essential tool for the Central Authorities to keep track of Manufacturing Sector performance and its implications to the economy.

As established, the Manufacturing Sector is a significant contributor to economic growth for developing economies. Hence, changes in this sector widely affect the overall economic health, and all the dependent industries therein. It is a proportional and lagging indicator. Higher GDP from Manufacturing is good for the economy and its currency, and vice-versa.

Economic Reports

For the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis releases quarterly GDP figures on its official website every quarter. The release schedule is already mentioned on the website and is generally released one month after the quarter ends.

In the full report, we can extract the GDP from Manufacturing figures. We can also go through GDP by Industry to get the Manufacturing Industry performance in the report. The World Bank actively maintains track of GDP by Sector figures of most countries on its official website.

Sources of GDP from Manufacturing

For the United States, the BEA reports are available below: 

World Bank also maintains the Manufacturing Sector’s contribution as a percentage of GDP on its official website, as given below for reference. ‘GDP From Manufacturing’ of various economies can be found here.

Impact of the ‘GDP from Manufacturing’ news release on the price charts

The manufacturing sector is crucial for the development of a country. The growth of machinery output and technological improvements are the main drivers of economic growth. The service sector, too, is dependent on most of the manufactured goods. Manufacturing also revives the economy by creating tens of millions of new jobs, eradicating recession.

Therefore, the manufacturing sector contributes a significant part of the GDP of a country. When we drill down to the fundamental analysis of the currency, investors do not look at the manufacturing sector’s contribution alone but consider the distinct GDP as the leading indicator of economic growth.

For example, we will be analyzing the influence of GDP on various currency pairs and see the impact it makes on the value of a currency. The below image displays the previous and latest GDP in the United Kingdom released in May, where we see a significant drop in the GDP compared to the previous month. Let us find out if the market reacts positively or negatively to the news release.  

GBP/USD | Before the announcement:

We shall start our analysis with the GBP/USD currency pair, where the above image shows the properties of the pair before the news announcement. We can see in the above image that the market is in a downtrend, and recently the price has been moving within a ‘range.’ Since the GDP announcement is a high impact event, we should wait for the news release to clarify the direction of the market.  

GBP/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we witness a slight amount of volatility in the currency pair where the price initially goes up, and later it closes with a wick on the top. We do not observe the kind of impact that was expected due to the news release may be because the market had already priced in a negative outlook. Since the impact was less, we should look to trade the currency pair based on technical indicators and chart patterns.     

GBP/CAD | Before the announcement:

GBP/CAD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/CAD currency pair, where we see in the first image that the market seems to be resuming the downtrend after a price retracement to the resistance. Given that the impact of GDP announcement is high, we will look to take a ‘short’ only after confirmation from the market. There is a probability that the market may turn to the upside from this point if the news comes out to be positive for the British Pound.

After the news announcement, we see that the price rises above the moving average, and it closes with some bullishness. Even though the GDP data was fragile, traders bought British Pound and strengthened the currency. One of the reasons could be that the market has factored in the negative expectations, which led to a positive reaction after the news release. One should analyze the pair technically before taking a position in the currency.  

EUR/GBP | Before the announcement:

EUR/GBP | After the announcement:

The above images are of the NZD/GBP currency pair, where we see that the market is in a steady uptrend before the news announcement, signifying the enormous amount of weakness in the British Pound. Ideally, we will be looking to buy the currency pair after a suitable price retracement to the ‘support’ or ‘demand’ area. By the way, we should also not forget that the news release can reverse the trend.

After the news announcement, we see that the market reacts negatively to the news release but positive for the British Pound since it is on the right-hand side of the currency. The volatility slightly increases to the downside, which is evident from bearish ‘news candle.’

That’s about ‘GDP from Manufacturing’ and its influence on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Does ‘Gross Fixed Capital Formation’ Economic Indicator Tell About A Nation’s Economy?

Introduction 

Gross Fixed Capital Formation can help us as a leading indicator of economic growth. GFCF figures increase when growth is forecasted, be it for companies, governments, or organizations, etc. Understanding this macroeconomic indicator can help us understand the level of economic activity going on the global scale and forecast the changes in the rate of growth for different economies, as indicated by the Gross Fixed Capital Formation figures.

What is Gross Fixed Capital Formation?

Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) is a measure of gross net investment into fixed capital goods by companies, governments, and households within the economy for a specific period. It is also called investment in short, or business investment generally.

Capital Goods: These are tangible assets that are used by companies to produce consumer goods and services. In simpler words, it refers to the physical goods required by a company to run its business. For example, a transportation company will have trucks as its capital assets that enable them to run its business and generate revenue. An IT company would have computers that would be its capital assets or goods that help it run its business. Any tangible (or physically quantifiable) good required in assisting the company production is termed as Capital Goods. Hence, Capital Goods can be tools, equipment, raw materials, transportation assets, power supply, etc.

Hence, GFCF is a measure of how much a company invests in acquiring capital assets to maintain or enhance its production capacity and efficiency. Capital Formation is a necessary component for any business or government operation. 

It is called “Gross” because it does not take into account the adjustments to consumption associated with the fixed capital, i.e., depreciation of the fixed capital assets that occur over time due to normal wear and tear. 

GFCF is not a gauge of total investment. It only measures net addition to fixed assets, and all financial assets are excluded along with inventory stocks and other operating costs. Among all these exclusions, the essential exclusion is that of real-estate (land sales and purchases). Real estate transactions only mean that land has been only transferred in ownership from one organization to another and is only included when a new land that did not exist before was created and added into the economy.

How can the Gross Fixed Capital Formation numbers be used for analysis?

As the capital goods wear out over time and a decrease in value, companies that cannot afford new capital goods will observe a reduction in production output. Also, a company that plans on expansion would be required to acquire new capital assets to increase its production capacity.

The difference in the Capital Formation figures for different countries reflects the economic development rate and the catch-up process amongst the compared economies. Higher investment rates into capital goods in less developed economies will lead to improved living standards in the long term on account of accelerated economic growth and improved equipment for the workforce with modern technology. 

GFCF is, in a way, a measure of how much of the revenue is invested back into its growth. The higher the investment into its growth, the more accelerated growth the economy undergoes in the long-run. Of course, when a portion of the revenue goes back into the business itself, it leaves lesser revenue for the shareholders or the business owners in the short run, but it pays off in the long run.

Changes in GFCF is indicative of fluctuations in business activity, business confidence, growth pattern. During economic uncertainty or a recession, business investment is reduced, as decreased revenue is consumed for immediate needs and maintenance operations. On the other side, during times of consistent economic growth and stable market, there is a general increase in GFCF as it is more likely to yield favorable returns in the future. It is less risky to invest in a stable market environment.

The below snapshot of the GFCF for the United States establishes our analysis point above:

Impact on Currency

GFCF is a proportional macroeconomic indicator. It is very suitable for macroeconomic analysis and is more suited to the regional or international level analysis of market conditions. While the increase in the GFCF figures is good for the economy in the long run, it is an especially useful indicator for long term traders and investors. It is not a very reliable measure for short-term currency market volatility assessment.

It is a quarterly report, and hence, other monthly indicators would be more appropriate for traders looking to stay ahead of the fundamental trends. But this GFCF is a leading indicator for companies, or economic growth both and can act as a double-check for our fundamental analysis.

Hence, in the currency markets, the GFCF figures bear low impact due to the frequency of release, and its long-term trend indicative nature makes it a less favorable indicator for day and swing traders.

Economic Reports

The GFCF figures are macroeconomic indicators and are generally available on the official websites of international organizations like the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), World Bank, or IMF (International Monetary Fund). The reports are released quarterly and annually for most countries, as data becomes available from different countries’ respective reporting institutions.

Sources of Gross Fixed Capital Formation

For the United States, the St. Louis FRED maintains the OECD data of GFCF here

You can find the GFCF data for all the OECD countries on its official website here.

You can find the GFCF list for various economies in the sources mentioned below. 

GFCF – Trading Economics

GFCF – World Bank

GFCF – United Nations

GFCF – IMF

Impact of the” Gross Fixed Capital Formation” news release on the Forex market

In the above section of the article, we defined the Gross Fixed Capital Formation economic indicator, which estimates the value of acquisitions of new or existing fixed assets by the business sector, governments, and households. When this value is subtracted from the fixed assets, we get the Gross Fixed Capital. Investors around the world consider this indicator to be an essential determinant of the GDP of a country. This value is directly reflected in the GDP as it measures the total assets owned by the government and individuals. 

In today’s article, we will be analyzing the impact of Capital Formation on the value of a currency and watch the change in volatility due to the news announcement. For that purpose, we have collected the previous and latest Capital Formation data of Japan as it is shown in the below image. A higher than expected number is considered to be bullish for the currency while a lower than expected number is considered bearish. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data.

USD/JPY | Before the announcement:

The first pair we will be reviewing is the USD/JPY currency pair, where the above image shows the characteristics of the price before the news announcement. It is very clear from the chart that the market is in a strong downtrend with no retracement. This means the Japanese Yen is stable, and we might not see price retracement until strength comes back in the U.S. dollar.    

USD/JPY | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, volatility increases to the upside, and the price shows signs of bullishness. Since the Japanese Yen is on the left-hand side in this pair, and increasing price signifies the weakening of the currency. The market reacted negatively to the news release due to the weak numbers. However, we see that weakness does not sustain, and the volatility increases to the downside after a couple of candles.

GBP/JPY | Before the announcement:

GBP/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the GBP/JPY currency pair, where we see in the first image that the market is in a strong downtrend indicating that the Japanese Yen is stable. As there is a lot of bearishness in the market concerning the British Pound, an ideal trade plan would be to take a ‘short’ trade as the price pulls back to a ‘resistance’ or ‘supply’ area. Until then, we cannot position ourselves in the currency pair. After the news announcement, the price initially moves higher, owing to weak Capital Formations data where there was a reduction in the total assets compared to the previous quarter. Due to the selling pressure witnessed from the top, the weakness in Japanese Yen does sustain, and the ‘news candle’ closes with a wick on the upper side. The market fails to retrace even after the news release, and the price continues to move lower.       

CAD/JPY | Before the announcement:

CAD/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images represent the CAD/JPY currency pair, where the characteristics of the chart appear to be similar to that of the above-discussed pairs. The price is violently moving lower before the news announcement with almost no retracement of any kind. We will be looking to sell the currency pair only if we geta price retracement due to the news release or any other release.

After the news announcement, we see the volatility increases to the upside for some time, and the ‘news candle’ closes with some bullishness. The market goes up as a consequence of the below than expected Capital Formation data where there was a reduction in the Capital Formation during the fourth quarter. Cheers!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Knowing The Significance Of ‘Gross National Product’ Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

The two most important metrics of economic growth are the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Product (GNP). Up until 1991 the United States primarily measured its economic growth in terms of the Gross National Product and switched to Gross Domestic Product to make it easy for comparison with other countries, since many other countries were measured through the same.

But in practice, it is always necessary to assess a country’s growth in both the GDP and GNP terms to better understand the overall economic output. Hence, GNP also forms an excellent fundamental indicator of economic growth, almost as important as the GDP.

What is the Gross National Product?

Gross National Product, also called GNP, is the total monetary value of all goods and services produced by the country’s residents and businesses, irrespective of the production location. It means a business earning revenue in a foreign land is included in the domestic country’s GNP. 

Gross National Product defines the economic output based on citizenship, or that country’s native people. Hence, a citizen having an extra income source in any monetary form overseas is factored into the GNP. GNP is higher for countries that have many of their businesses established in a foreign land. Accordingly, any output generated by foreign residents within the country is excluded out from the GNP.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) v/s Gross National Product (GNP)

It is essential to understand the difference between GDP and GNP during our analysis. GDP and GNP both measure economic output for a given period but differ in how they define the economy’s scope.

Gross Domestic Product is the total value of all goods and services produced by the nation. Here, GDP limits its assessment to the nation’s geographical borders and does not take into account the overseas economic activities of its nationals.

GNP does not restrict itself to the geography of the nation but limits itself in terms of citizenship. GDP does not reflect determinant in nationality. As long as the finished goods and services are within the country’s borders, it is included. On the other hand, GNP will not include any of the domestic borders’ revenue if it is from a foreigner.

The formula for GNP is given as:

GNP = Consumption + Investment + Government + Net Exports + Net Income

In the above equation,

  • Net Exports stands for the difference between the revenue generated from Exports and revenue going out for imports.
  • Net Income stands for the income of domestic residents from overseas or foreign investments minus net income of foreign residents from domestic investments.

The GNP is very indicative of the financial well-being of a country’s nationals and its country-based multinational corporations. From a relative perspective, it does not tell us much about the country’s health, as the GDP does. GNP is a more realistic measure of a country’s Income than its production.

To clarify the role of each metric better, consider the below examples:

Microsoft is the United States-based multinational company. It has a branch in India. The revenue generated from the Microsoft-India branch will be included in the GNP of the United States, but not in India’s GNP. On the other hand, Microsoft-India’s revenue is not included in the GDP of the United States but is included in India’s GDP.

How can the Gross National Product numbers be used for analysis?

It is essential to understand that GNP does not reflect the domestic (geographical basis) conditions well. If a natural disaster were to occur within the United States, then the GNP would not be as affected as the GDP, as the foreign revenue by its residents would not depend on the domestic situations. Hence, GDP is a more accurate measure of economic activity. On the other hand, its citizens’ financial well-being is more accurately measured through GNP than GDP.

GDP is a measure of economic health, while GNP is a measure of a nation’s Real Income. Both are different but related. A country like China, where many companies from other countries have their business has higher GDP than GNP, on the other hand, the United States, which has many of its firms’ production houses outside its land, has higher GNP than its GDP. Significant differences between the GDP and GNP values can be accounted to the openness of the countries to International Trade and Global Markets.

Impact on Currency

The Gross National Product is itself susceptible to the currency and exchange rate. When the currency falls, the Gross National Product increases due to the strengthening of other countries’ currencies where the domestic firms are doing business. The health of the economy is not gauged by the GNP accurately. Currency movements are not as driven by the GNP as they are by the GDP. Hence, it is more critical as a financial indicator than as an economic indicator in our analysis.

It is a lagging and proportional indicator, and hence the impact of the GNP is not as pronounced as the GDP, as all other countries use GDP as their primary measure of economic health. Investors, economists, policymakers, and traders all use GDP primarily over GNP to assess the economy’s current health and direction. Hence, it is a low impact indicator of our fundamental currency analysis.

Economic Reports

For the U.S., the Bureau of Economic Analysis releases quarterly reports of the Gross Domestic Product, which contains the GNP information. The St. Louis FRED consolidates the same data and maintains it on its website.

Sources of Gross National Product

The St. Louis FRED website holds the GNP data that is very easy to access and analyze, and the link is here.

GNP data for various countries can be obtained here

Impact of the “Gross National Product” news release on the Forex market

In the above section of the article, we defined the Gross National Product (GNP) and described the analysis method. We will extend our discussion and understand the impact of the Gross National Product news announcement on the value of a currency. The GNP gives an estimate of the total value of all the final products and services rolled out in a given period utilizing production owned by a country’s residents.

The GNP includes personal consumption expenditures, domestic investment, government expenditure, net exports, and Income from foreign investments. A small distinction between the GNP and GDP is that GDP measures the value of goods and services produced within the country’s borders. In contrast, GNP calculates the value of goods and services produced by the country’s citizens only both domestically and abroad. However, GNP is also one of the most commonly used indicators for measuring the country’s economy.    

In today’s example, we will analyze the impact of the United Kingdom’s GNP on the value of the Great British Pound. The below image shows the GNP in the U.K. during the fourth quarter, which was higher than the third quarter. Let us find out the impact.  

GBP/USD | Before the announcement:

We will begin our discussion with the GBP/USD currency pair to observe the change in volatility after the news announcement. The earlier image shows the state of the chart before the news announcement, where we understand the market is in a strong downtrend, and recently the price seems to be moving upwards. This could be a possible price retracement that could lead to the continuation of the trend and an opportunity. 

GBP/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the market gets very bullish, and we see a sharp rise in the price. The positive reaction from the market is a result of the upbeat GNP data, which was better than expectations. This brought cheer among the market participants who took the price higher by strengthening the British Pound. We should not take any ‘short’ position until we notice trend continuation patterns in the market.

GBP/CAD| Before the announcement:

GBP/CAD| After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/CAD currency pair, where in the first image, we see that the market appears to be moving within a ‘range’ with the price currently at the bottom of the ‘range.’ Before the news announcement, the currency pair is very volatile, suggesting that there is a lot of trading action in this pair. In such high volatile environment, we recommend waiting for the news release and then taking a suitable position in the pair.

After the news announcement, the price suddenly moves higher and volatility expands on the upside. The bullishness in the British Pound is a consequence of the optimistic GNP data, which showed a growth in the economy during the fourth quarter. Since the price is at the bottom of the ‘range,’ one can take ‘long’ in this currency pair with a target until the ‘resistance.’

EUR/GBP | Before the announcement:

EUR/GBP | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the EUR/GBP currency pair, where we see that the market is in a strong uptrend before the news announcement, signifying the enormous amount of strength in the British Pound, since the currency is on the left-hand side of the pair. Depending on the outcome of the news and change in volatility, we will analyze the currency pair accordingly.

After the news announcement, market crashes, so much that the price goes below the moving average. The ‘news candle’ closes, forming a reversal candlestick pattern that could lead to the beginning of a downtrend. The volatility increases to the downside as the GNP data was reasonably good.

We hope you understood what ‘Gross National Product’ is and its impact on the Forex price charts. Cheers!

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

How Important Is ‘Corporate Profits’ Economic Indicator In Determining A Nation’s Economy?

What is Corporate Profit?

Corporate profit is the money left after the company pays all its expenses and taxes. The money that is collected by the company after selling all products and services during the specified period is considered as line revenue. From this revenue, various deductions happen in the form of tax and salaries, to name a few. Money left over after all the expenses are paid considered to be the company’s profit. The profit earned by the company is an important parameter when it comes to the fundamental analysis of a company.

How is Corporate Profit measured?

The corporate profit economic indicator calculates the net income of a company that is measured by considering the following factors:

Profits from present production – This type of profit is gained from two components. First, the income that is gained after inventory replacement is included in this, and secondly, the income statement depreciation is considered. This type of profit is also known as operating or economic profit.

Profit on books – The profit earned from net income minus inventory and depreciation adjustment is known as book profits.

Profit after-tax – Book profit after the tax deduction is called profit after-tax. This type of profit is believed to be the most relevant number when calculating corporate profit.

Real Corporate Profit

Corporate profits are one of the most studied data of a company. It also plays a major role in other financial measures of the country. Profit is not a measure of the amount of cash a company earned in a given period. We need to understand the income statement that includes non-cash expenses as well. It is also important to understand the changes in accounting methods that have influenced the profit margins.

These are some hidden charges that are directly deducted from the net profit. Therefore, it is often more appropriate to consider profit as a percentage of sales when comparing one company to another. Remember, a comparison between companies should be made among companies within the same industry, and the net profit should be seen in this context.

Analyzing corporate profits

Corporate profit is nothing but a company’s income and the one that is directly reflected in the official statement. Hence, they are one of the most important things to consider when investing in the shares of a company. Increasing corporate profits means either increasing corporate spending, growth in retained earnings, or increasing dividend payments to shareholders. All of these are positive steps taken by a company indicating growth.

The corporate profits data is most useful for an investor rather than a trader. It involves buying the shares of a company and holding them for a minimum of 3 months. An investor may also use this number to do performance analysis. If an individual notices an increase in the profit of a particular company while the overall corporate profits are declining, it could signal company strength. Alternatively, if an investor notices that the company’s profits are declining while overall profits are increasing, i.e., of the sector, a structural problem may exist in the company.

Economic reports

Corporate profits are through statistical reports that are published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). It is a comprehensive report comprising of the company’s net revenue, earnings before tax, earnings after tax, corporate profits, expenditure, etc. Finally, the report summarises the net income of corporations in the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA). One thing we have to make a note of here is that the corporate profit numbers derived from the NIPA, which is dependent on the GDP growth, are different from the profit statements released by the companies. So, while analyzing the data, we need to be cautious by looking at both the numbers and rely on the ones where the difference is not huge.

Impact on Currency

There might not be a direct relationship between corporate profits and the value of a currency as the former is more company-specific and represents a very small portion of the economy. However, an overall corporate profit that is a collective data of all companies affects the stock market. If the data is good, it means the manufacturing is growing and that domestic companies are generating profits. This, in turn, has a positive impact on the currency and leads to an appreciation of the domestic currency. However, if the collective data is negative, it can lead to depreciation of the currency in the long term.

Sources of information on Corporate Profits

Corporate tax data is released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) quarterly on the official website. Another reliable source of information on corporate profits is the press release by the respective companies. The press releases can be found on the website of the stock exchange. Links to Corporate Profits sources

GBP (Sterling) – https://tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/corporate-profits

AUD – https://tradingeconomics.com/australia/corporate-profits

USD – https://tradingeconomics.com/united-states/corporate-profits

CAD – https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/corporate-profits

EUR – https://tradingeconomics.com/germany/corporate-profits

JPY – https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/corporate-profits

Corporate profits are a closely watched economic indicator by institutional investors. Profitability provides a summary of the company’s financial health and serves as an essential indicator of economic performance. Profits are retained earnings, providing much of the capital for investing in productive capacity. The estimates of profits and related measures are used to evaluate the effects on corporations of changes in economic policy and the financial condition of the country.

Impact of the ‘Corporate Profits’ news release on the Forex market

Corporate profit, also called net income, is the amount remaining within the company after all costs such as interests, taxes, and other expenses are deducted from total sales. It is also referred to as net profit or net earnings. A high cumulative corporate profit generally indicates that a company is running efficiently, providing value to its shareholders, and contributing towards the growth of the manufacturing sector.

It is significant because it shows how well the company has managed its costs. The corporate profit data is not that important for traders as it does not have a direct impact on the value of a currency. Hence, we should not expect high volatility in the currency after the news announcement.

In the following section of the article, we will be analyzing the impact of Corporate Profit on various currency pairs and analyze the change in volatility due to the news release. The below image shows the latest quarter’s corporate profit in Canada that was released in June. We see a major drop in profits compared to the previous quarter, which means companies were unable to make huge profits in this quarter. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data.

USD/CAD | Before the announcement

We will first examine the USD/CAD currency pair to observe the impact of corporate profit on the Canadian dollar. The above image shows the state of the chart before the news announcement. We see that the pair is in a strong uptrend, and recently the price seems to be retracing. Our approach should be to ‘buy’ the currency pair as the major trend is up, but the price needs to retrace to an important technical level before we can buy. Let us see that if ‘news’ gives us that opportunity.

USD/CAD | After the announcement

After the news announcement, the price goes lower, and volatility increases to the downside. Even though the Corporate Profit data was awful for the economy, traders went ‘long’ in the Canadian dollar by selling U.S. dollars. The bearish news candle shows that the news candle did not have any adverse effect on the currency. Few hours after the news announcement, volatility continues to increase on the downside, and we witness large selling pressure in the market.

GBP/CAD | Before the announcement

GBP/CAD | After the announcement

The above images represent the GBP/CAD currency pair, where we see that before the news, the market is moving in a ‘range,’ and recently, the price has moved higher after reacting from the support. Since the impact of corporate profits is least on the currency, traders shouldn’t be scared of the news release and can take a position in the market according to their strategy.

After the news announcement, the market slightly moves lower, or even one could argue that the news release had a major impact on the currency. The corporate profit data had a minor impact on the currency pair, which lasted for a few minutes. Traders should analyze the pair technically and not be worried about news data.

CAD/CHF | Before the announcement

CAD/CHF | After the announcement

The above images are that of CAD/CHF currency pair, where we see that the market in a strong downtrend with some minor price retracement at the moment. We should be looking to go ‘short’ in the currency pair after the occurrence of the price continuation pattern in the market. However, if the price continues to move higher, the sell trade is off the table. Conservative traders can wait for the news release and then take a position based on the impact of the news.

After the news announcement, the price moves higher, and volatility expands on the upside. The small up move gets completely retraced by the immediate next candle, and the market continues to move lower. Hence, it is evident that the news has a negligible impact on the currency pair, where the overall trend of the market dominates the move after the announcement.

We hope you understood this Fundamental Indicator and its relative impact on the Forex price charts. All the best!

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Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

Understanding The Importance Of ‘Terms Of Trade’ As A Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

Terms of Trade is a direct and useful measure of an economy’s International Trade health and gives us a good measure of how fast capital is moving in or out of the country. Terms of Trade make analyzing Balance Of Payments and, more specifically, Current Account Balance easier. Understanding of Terms of Trade can help us better analyze the current liquidity of the economy and its changes in a more crude way.

What are Terms Of Trade Indices?

Terms of Trade is the ratio of its Export Prices and Import Prices. It is the ratio of money received on exports to money spent on imports. If there is an individual’s analogy to be made, then it would be the ratio of an individual’s monthly income to his monthly expenses. Mathematically, it would be the number of export goods that can be purchased per unit of import.

Terms of Trade ratio expressed in percentages, and hence the ratio is multiplied by a hundred. A TOT figure above100 indicates that the country is receiving more on its exports than on its income and vice-versa.

When a country has a TOT figure of more than 100, it means that it is receiving more capital on exports compared to sending capital out on imports. Hence, on an overall basis, capital is flowing into the country. Higher the ratio, the faster the rate at which capital flows into the country. It ultimately translates to the pace at which a country is becoming wealthy and liquid.

When a country has a TOT figure less than 100, it means capital is flowing out of the economy, and its import expenses exceed that of its export revenue generated. Continued periods of TOT figures less than 100 will drive the economy to a vicious debt cycle from which recovery may be difficult. The ratio will tell us how fast the capital is depleting from the economy and is nearing a financial crisis. Countries prefer to have a ratio above 100.

The ratio tells us the rate at which the economy is accumulating capital. On the global market place and International Trade, the ratio will determine what portion of the world’s wealth goes to each country. In other words, based on the demand and supply on the international markets, the ratio will tell us how profits from international trade will be distributed amongst the participating countries.

How can the Terms Of Trade numbers be used for analysis?

Since TOT is a ratio change in TOT, figures can imply multiple things. An improvement in TOT figure could mean:

  1. Export prices have increased in contrast to Import prices being stagnant or dropped.
  2. Export prices would have dropped but not as sharply as import prices. Both dropped but not to the same degree.
  3. Export prices would have stayed the same while Import prices would have dropped.

All the above scenarios can lead to an improvement in the TOT figure. Hence, simple changes in TOT figures cannot be directly used to draw economic conclusions. It is crucial to understand the factors that have resulted in a change in TOT numbers. It is crucial to know whether the change is a consequence of a short-term shock or development or a consistent long-term trend that will persist throughout the coming periods.

TOT is susceptible to multiple economic factors, some of which are:

Exchange rate: A decrease in exchange rate adversely affects imports and benefits exports and vice versa. Imports become costly, and exports become cheap, adversely affecting TOT.

Inflation: The inflation rate across different economies and different sectors affect different economies having different export and import portfolios. For example, a sharp increase in Iron Ore prices can greatly benefit Australia, whose chief exports are Iron Ore, while it can affect importing countries like China and Japan adversely. So inflation across sectors have different impacts across economies and within the country amongst different sectors.

Demand and Supply: Increase in demand, coupled with the availability of those resources also affects TOT as exports and imports are a function of demand and supply. Scarcity increases prices and oversupply decreases the same.

Quality of Produce: Size and quality affect the pricing of products. A high-quality product is likely to cost more and benefit the exporter more. Hence, the portfolio of the country’s exports and imports determines the TOT fluctuations of different product grades.

Trade Tariffs: Protectionist strategies from Governments lead to putting trade barriers on imports. The political and trade ties between countries can also affect the long term trend of TOT figures for a given economy.

Portfolio of Exports and Imports: What types of Goods and Services a country exports and imports also matter. Countries that export goods and services that are more of primary importance (ex: food and energy) tend to always have high demand and TOT ratio more than 100 both within the economy and on the global economy.

Impact on Currency

When the TOT figure is above a hundred, it implies domestic currency is flowing into the country and creating a deficiency in the global market. Hence, higher TOT figures will increase its currency demand and thereby leading to currency appreciation. On the other hand, a continued TOT less than 100 indicates the world is being supplied with domestic currency and therefore leads to currency depreciation.

It is a coincident indicator and is more useful as a long-term trend indicator rather than short-term changes. The indicators affecting TOT would have been identified through Trade agreements or other media sources in general and hence, is a mild-impact indicator.

Economic Reports 

The Bureau of Economic Analysis publishes its TOT figures in the National Income and Product Accounts every quarter of the year on its official website. Below is a figure for an illustration of the same:

We can also find the aggregated TOT reports for the OECD countries on the official website. The World Bank also aggregates and maintains TOT data for most countries on its official website.

Sources of Terms Of Trade

For the US, we can find the Terms of Trade in their National Income and Product Accounts here:

BEA – National Income and Product Accounts

OECD – Terms Of Trade

World Bank – TOT

We can also find Terms of Trade Index for many countries categorized here.

Impact of the ‘Capacity Utilization’ news release on the price charts

In the previous section of the article, we learned the Terms of Trade economic indicator and understood its significance in an economy. The ToT Index measures the ratio of an export to the price of an import, per commodity. A country that heavily relies heavily on exports, this number gives an important hint of the nation’s growth. Even though the Terms of Trade is useful in determining the balance of trade in a country, it does not have a major influence on the GDP of the economy. Therefore, investors don’t give much importance to the data during the fundamental analysis of a currency.

Today, we will be analyzing the impact on Terms of Trade on different pairs and witness the change in volatility due to the news release. The below image shows the latest Terms of Trade data of New Zealand that indicates an increase in the value compared to the previous quarter. A higher than expected reading is considered to be positive for the currency while a lower than expected reading is considered as negative. Let’s see how the market reacted to this data.

NZD/USD | Before the announcement:

We shall start with the NZD/USD currency pair to examine the impact of Terms of Trade on the New Zealand dollar. In the above price chart, we see that the market is in a strong downtrend before the news announcement with increased volatility. Currently, the price is at a key technical area, which is known as the ‘demand’ area, and hence we can expect buyers to come in the market at any moment. Thus, once needs to be cautious before taking a ‘short’ trade.

NZD/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the market moves lower and volatility increases to the downside. The Terms of Trade data showed an increase in the total percentage, but this was not good enough for the market players who apparently took the price down and weakened the New Zealand dollar. Although the ‘News Candle’ closes in red at the time of release, it gets immediately taken over by a bullish candle, as this was a ‘demand’ area.

NZD/JPY | Before the announcement:

NZD/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images represent the NZD/JPY currency pair, where we see that the characteristics of the chart are similar to that of the above-discussed pair. Before the news announcement, here too, the market is in a strong downtrend, and the volatility appears to be high on the downside. One thing that is different in this pair is that the price is presently at its lowest point and seems to have made a ‘lower low.’ This means New Zealand is weaker in this pair.

After the news announcement, market crashes and the price drops sharply. The Terms of Trade has a similar impact on the pair, where we see a further increase in volatility to the downside. Again. the weakness does not sustain, and the price shows a large bullish candle after the ‘news candle.’

NZD/CAD  | Before the announcement:

 

NZD/CAD  | After the announcement:

Lastly, we shall discuss the impact on the NZD/CAD currency pair and observe the change in volatility. Here, we see that the market is continuously moving lower before the news announcement indicating a great amount of weakness in the New Zealand dollar. Just before the news release, the price seems to be approaching the ‘demand’ area, which can possibly change the trend for a while by initiating some bullishness in the pair.

The Terms of Trade news announcement gets lukewarm from the reaction where the price initially moves higher little and finally closes forming a ‘Doji’ candlestick pattern. The news release leads to further weakening of the currency where the volatility expands on the downside.

That’s about ‘Terms Of Trade’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is ‘Services PMI’? How Important Is It In Assessing A Nation’s Economy?

Introduction

The Services Purchasing Manager’s Index is an excellent leading or advanced macroeconomic indicator, which is used widely to predict economic expansion or contractions. It has various applications for economists, investors, and traders. This indicator predicts inflation, GDP, and the unemployment rate of an economy. Hence, understanding of Services PMI can be hugely beneficial for a trader’s fundamental analysis. 

What is Services PMI?

The Services Purchasing Manager’s Index, also called the Non-Manufacturing Index (NMI), is a survey of about 400 largest non-manufacturers in the United States of America. The word non-manufacturing here implies that the study is associated with the industries that do not produce physical goods; instead, they provide services. Non-physical goods mean the services provided by the IT and software giants like Microsoft and Google etc. The services PMI has fewer survey questions than the manufacturing PMI as some questions, such as inventories, not being relevant to many service providers.

The Services PMI was born more out of a need to accommodate the changing world due to the technological advancements in the last few decades. For most developed nations like the United States, the Service sector contributes more than the Manufacturing industry due to which it had to be taken into account to predict economic trends more accurately.

Purchasing Managers in a company are the purchasing and supply executives associated with procuring the required goods and services that are necessary for running the company. For example, A software company’s Purchasing Manager would typically be in charge of contacting and getting the best internet service provider for the entire company at the lowest or best prices from the market.

They may also be responsible for tie-ups with fellow software companies to get the required software to run their operations. The purchasing Managers have a decent idea of what a company needs, and during what periods these requirements change.

How is the Services PMI calculated?

The Services PMI hence is a compilation of the survey answers given by the Purchasing Managers of the largest 400 non-manufacturing companies of about 60 sectors in the USA. The questions typically asked in the study are related to month-over-month changes in the Business Activity, New orders, Deliveries, and Inventories with equal weightage, as shown in the table below:

All the four categories, as seen when putting together, form the NMI. These four components are enough to ascertain a growth or contraction in the business activity of that company.

The rating of Services PMI range between 0-100. A score > 50 indicates an expansion of economic activity in the non-manufacturing sector. Likewise, a score < 50 indicates contraction.

How can the Services PMI be Used for Analysis?

The data of ISM NMI Reports on Business goes back to 2008 due to which the levels of confidence in the data set may be lower than that of Manufacturing PMI; nonetheless, it is no less effective in ascertaining economic figures like GDP, inflation and employment, etc.

The Non-Manufacturing sector of the United States makes up 80% of the total GDP, and hence the Services PMI is a significant economic indicator in that regard. The Non-Manufacturing sector primarily drives the macroeconomic numbers like the GDP. Together the NMI and PMI cover more than 90% of the industrial sectors that contribute to GDP; hence Services PMI is a must for fundamental analysis.

The correlation between the ISM NMI Data and real GDP is about 85%, which is pretty good. The main advantage of studying Services PMI is that it is an advanced economic indicator. It predicts the real GDP a year ahead, which is commendable.

Below is a snapshot of Services PMI plotted against the real GDP growth rate historically, and we can see the strong correlation existing between them. This explains the importance of these leading indicators in the fundamental analysis of traders.

Impact on Currency

The impact of Services PMI on the currencies is as same as the impact of Manufacturing PMI. You can find this information here.

Sources of Services PMI Reports

We can monitor the NMI reports on the official website of the ISM official website. We can also go through the NMI of other countries from the IHS Markit official website on a subscription basis.

Impact of the ‘Services PMI’ news release on the price charts

The Flash PMI, like Manufacturing PMI, measures the activity level of purchasing managers but that in the services sector. This report is based on surveys taken by the officials covering 300 business executives in the private sector services companies. Traders keep a close watch on the services PMI data as the decisions of Purchasing managers give early access to data about the company’s overall performance, which in turn acts as an indicator of the economy.

Since the services PMI only gives an insight into the performance of the service sector, it does not directly affect the economy. Therefore, the impact of the data on currency is quite less. But traders, build and liquidate some positions in the market based on the PMI data.

The below image shows the previous and latest Services PMI data of Australia, where we see a decrease in the value of the same for the month of February, and now we will analyze the impact it created on the Australian dollar. A higher reading than forecasted is considered to be bullish for the currency while a reading lower than what is forecasted must be considered negative.

AUD/JPY | Before the announcement:

We begin with the AUD/JPY currency pair, where, in the above image, we see that pair is an uptrend before the news announcement. The volatility is high, and the price is making a new ‘higher high.’ As the impact of the PMI data is less, positive data should take the currency higher, and negative PMI data might result in a short-term downtrend. It is preferable to trade the above pair if we come to encounter the second situation as it could essentially result in a retracement of the uptrend, which can be used to join the trend.

AUD/JPY | After the announcement:

After the PMI data is released, owing to a decrease in the PMI number and this immediately is followed by some buying pressure. This is where we can understand the impact of the indicator on a currency where initially due to poor PMI data, the price falls, but it could not even go below the moving average. Thus, one can take this opportunity to join the major trend by trading the retracement, which was brought in due to the bad news. Since the uptrend is strong, one can hold on their trades as long as the market shows signs of reversal.

EUR/AUD | Before the announcement:

EUR/AUD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the EUR/AUD currency pair, and the reason why the chart is going down is that the Australian dollar is on the right-hand side. The chart characteristics almost appear to be the same as in the above pair, but the volatility on the downside is more violent and strong, indicating more strength in the Australian dollar. The only way to trade the pair is the market pulls back and gives us an opportunity to enter, which is the typical way of trading a trend.

After the news release, volatility expands on the upside due to weak PMI data, and the market moves higher. This change in volatility can be used as an opportunity to enter for a ‘sell’ expecting a continuation of the downtrend. This is how the impact of the news can be used to our advantage.

AUD/HKD | Before the announcement:

AUD/HKD | After the announcement:

The next currency pair we will be discussing is the AUD/HKD, and since the Australian dollar is on the left-hand side, the market should move up if the currency gets strong. But here the market is more range-bound, and there is no clear trend. Before the news announcement, price is exactly at the ‘resistance’ area, and soon after the outcome, the price could either try to break out or fall from the ‘resistance.’

After the news announcement, we see that volatility increases on the downside, and later it slows down. This low impact could be signing that traders may not sell at the ‘resistance,’ and thus, it can breakout. If you are an aggressive trader, consider going ‘long’ in the market with a tight stop loss below the recent ‘low.’

That’s about ‘Services PMI’ and the relative impact of its news release on the Forex market. Good luck!

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Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Importance Of ‘Steel Production’ & Its Impact On The Forex Market

Introduction

Steel is a commodity of paramount importance in today’s international economy. Steel is a staple for the modern economy, and its wide range of usage from the tiniest needles to the largest bridges and tallest buildings makes it an essential commodity for economic prosperity.

Steel is no less critical than Food and Energy for today’s modern world. The far-reaching utility and demand thereof of Steel makes it a good economic indicator for us to understand its impact on exporting and importing economies.

What is Steel Production?

Iron and alloying elements like carbon, chromium, manganese, nickel, and vanadium are added to produce different types of Steel.  Steel industry began in the late 1850s before which it was an expensive commodity that was exclusively used for armors and cutleries primarily.

After the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth process, Steel Production became easier. By the 1860-70s, the steel industry started to grow rapidly and continues to do so even today. Steel is the most sought after commodity for its durability and strength. It is used for building heavy machinery in the world, like in cars and engines. The natural abundance of Iron and Carbon makes it an affordable commodity for large scale production and supply.

Today Steel is mainly produced through techniques called basic oxygen steelmaking and Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) in an electric arc furnace. Steel’s unique magnetic properties make it an accessible material to recover from the waste for recycling. Steel retains its properties even after undergoing many recycling processes. Hence, it is reusable and economical.

How can the Steel Production numbers be used for analysis?

On a standalone basis, the steel industry directly contributes about 3.8% to the total global GDP as per 2017 research. The indirect impacts meaning the industries that depend on steel production, contribute 10.7% to the global GDP.

The importance of Steel Production apart from its utility is that the supply chain of Steel is very long. The number of dependent industries way more than any other industry. As per 2017’s research by Oxford Economics for every two jobs added in the steel sector, 13 additional jobs are supported through its worldwide supply chain. About 40 million people work in this supply chain of Steel. Indirectly it supported 259 million jobs worldwide and was worth 8.2 trillion dollars in 2017.

Steel is a critical input in the work of many other industrial sectors that produce items essential for the economy to function like hand tools, complex factory machines, Lorries, trains, railway tracks, and aircraft. It is apart from the countless items from day-to-day life like cutlery, tables, cars, bikes, etc. Hence, the economic activity goes beyond the steel-producing locations to multiple sectors across countries. Some of the primary industries that use Steel are Construction, Electronic, Transportation, Automotive, Mechanical Equipment, Energy Production and Distribution, Food and Water, Tools, and Machinery industries.

As the demand for Steel continues to rise, the exporting countries would be at a more significant advantage in terms of economic growth, as evident by below ongoing historical trend.

(Source – worldsteel.org)

Below are the rankings of major economies ranked in terms of exports and imports

(Source – worldsteel.org)

Hence, countries that are net exporters of Steel would be at a higher economic advantage in terms of its own consumption needs and revenue generation through exports. As economies continue to improve the standard of living of their population, the demand for Steel will continue to increase.

Developing economies like China and India have tapped into this market and increased their Steel production over the last decade to achieve export-led-growth. As evident from the above statistics, the developed economies like the United States and the European Union continue to be a net importer while developing economies China and Japan are the leading exporters of the same.

Significant changes in the Steel Production figures will, therefore, have adverse effects on the exporting and importing economy. Hence, Steel Production directly influences economic performance and, therefore, the currency value of that economy.

Impact on Currency 

Steel production is a proportional indicator. An increase in production is beneficial for the economy and thereby for the currency. Steel is a global commodity produced worldwide. Hence, Steel Production figures are useful in identifying the long term megatrends and newly developing Steel industries that will have long term impact.

The short-term fluctuations within the Steel Industry itself would be recorded through other more extensive indicators like Industrial Production (IP) Index in the United States. It is a low impact indicator and is more useful for making long-term sector-wise investment strategies.

Economic Reports

The World Steel Association represents about 85% of the total steel producers across the world. It aims to find global solutions to the environmental challenge to identify trends and bring together regional and national steel producers.

It publishes monthly and annual reports on steel production figures comparing economies in terms of exports, imports, contributions to global GDP on its official website. The monthly reports are usually published in the last week of a month for the previous month.

Sources of Steel Production

The WSA monthly press releases are available here. Statistical figures of global economies are available here and here. The worldwide statistical figures are also available here. The economic impact of Steel is also reported by the American Iron and Steel Institute here.

Impact of the ‘Steel Production’ news release on the Forex market

We saw how Steel Production plays a vital role in an economy with both economic and social impact. Steel is one of the essential materials for the construction of buildings and the manufacturing of many other materials. It creates opportunities in the innovation sector and in research & development projects around the world. Given such a wide range of applications, it is apparent that it has a fair amount of impact on the economy and on the currency. An in-depth analysis revealed that in 2017, the steel industry sold 2.5 trillion worth of products and created U.S. $500 billion value. The steel industry also supports and facilitates 96 million jobs globally.

In this article, we will be analyzing the impact of U.K. Steel Production on the British Pound and witness the change in volatility during the official news announcement. The below image shows the latest Steel Production data in the U.K. produced in the month of April. A higher than expected reading is taken to be bullish for the currency. Contrarily, a lower than expected reading is considered to be negative.

GBP/USD | Before the announcement:

We shall start with the GBP/USD currency pair for examining the impact on the British Pound. In the above price chart, it is clear that the overall trend of the market is down, but recently the price has pulled back quite deep. This is an indication that the downtrend may be coming to an end, and this could turn into a reversal. We will take a suitable position in the market based on the news release.

GBP/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, volatility increases on the downside in the beginning, but later, the price reverses and closes in the green. The buyers push the price higher owing to positive Steel Production data, and the price forms a ‘hammer’ candlestick pattern. The Steel Production news release produced moderate volatility in the currency pair and, lastly, strengthened the British Pound. We need to be careful before taking a ‘buy’ trade as the major trend is down, and the impact of this news is not long-lasting.

GBP/AUD | Before the announcement:

GBP/AUD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/AUD currency pair. Before the news announcement, the market is in a strong downtrend, and recently the price has pulled back is very gradual in nature. The price action suggests that the market might continue its downtrend and so we will be looking to sell the currency pair after noticing some trend continuation patterns.

After the news announcement, the price reacts mildly to the news data where it nor sharply moves higher nor crashes below. The Steel Production has a slightly positive impact on the pair and lately the volatility to the upside. One should not forget that traders do not give much importance to this data, so one cannot expect the market to continue moving higher. As long as we don’t see trend reversal patterns in the market, an uptrend is far away.

GBP/CHF | Before the announcement:

GBP/CHF | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the GBP/CHF currency pair, where we see that the market is in a downtrend, and lately, the price is has retraced to the ‘resistance’ area. With this, the market has also shown some trend continuation patterns indicating that the downtrend will continue at any moment. If the news release does not change the structure of the chart, this can be an ideal chart pattern for taking a ‘short’ trade.

After the news announcement, the price initially falls lower, but buyers immediately take the price higher, and the candle closes with a wick on the bottom. Although the volatility is low after the announcement, the market is moving on both the directions and produces a neutral effect on the currency pair.

That’s about ‘Steel Production’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

How Does The ‘Private Sector Credit’ Data Impacts The Foreign Exchange Market?

Introduction

Changes in Private Sector Credit and the nominal values can be used to assess the recent economic stability and oncoming trend. It is an indicator of economic health and can be used as a broad metric to know the overall economy’s liquidity and rate of economic growth. Hence, Private Sector Credit can be utilized as an economic indicator for our fundamental analysis to double-check our current assessments and forecasts.

What is the Private Sector Credit?

As the name suggests, Private Sector Credit refers to the financial resources provided to the Private Industry in the form of loans, securities, or other forms of capital by the financial institutions like Commercial banks, finance companies, or other financial institutions, etc.

How can the Private Sector Credit numbers be used for analysis?

Private Sector Credit is affected by the following factors:

Interest Rates – Higher interest rates from financial institutions can discourage private business firms from taking credit. As the credit becomes “expensive,” it drives out the small businesses’ chances of obtaining credit. Only the top-tier institutions may be able to borrow the credit. The Interest Rates that are prevalent in the market is influenced by the Central Bank’s interest rates. In the United States, it is called the Fed Funds Rate. Hence, Central Authorities also play a key role in loan affordability for the private sector.

A loose monetary policy, where Central Banks inject money into the market through open market operations (purchasing bonds, securities), increases the liquidity of the banking sector, which slowly passes on to other sectors of the economy. It decreases the overall Bank Lending Rates and encourages people and businesses to avail credit. It is generally called a dovish approach.

In a tight monetary policy, Central Banks withdraw money from the economy by selling bonds, securities to decrease liquidity. It results in Banks increasing their short-term interest rates. It encourages people to deposit and save more than borrow and spend. It is generally called a hawkish approach.

Credit Rating – Every individual and corporation has a credit rating that tells the worthiness of the candidate for credit. It measures the risk associated with defaulting on the credit. A high credit rating indicates the risk of default is very less, and banks would be willing to lend more, and even in some cases, at a lower rate. A bad credit rating, in most cases, prevents banks from lending, while some institutions may prefer to lend less, or at a higher interest rate than the market rate for the risk associated.

The Credit Rating is backward-looking; it looks at the candidate’s credit history. The good performance of the business is possible in a healthy economy and vice-versa. Hence, past economic health also influences current credit scores. Economic health, business performance, and credit ratings are interlinked, in a feedback loop, one affects the other.

Property Prices – Since Credits are mostly backed by collateral in the form of assets like real estate, or houses, an increase in the property prices creates a wealth effect. It gives a positive sentiment for the financial institutions to lend resources to the private sector, be it consumers or business firms.

Government Backing – When businesses are backed by Government support, lending is also easy. It is more observable in developing economies, where Governments actively support private businesses to boost employment rates, wage growth, and overall economic growth. The government in developing economies may assist in land acquisition for business set up or disburse loans at cheaper rates to the corporate firms.

Increase in Private Sector Credit indicates the financial institutions are confident about the past and current economic conditions and predict that the economic stability shall continue for the near future, at least. When the confidence of financial institutions is deteriorated by inflation fluctuations, unstable markets, banks increase deposit rate interests, to promote saving, thereby increasing their liquidity, and refrain from lending to a significant extent.

Tight lending environments are symptoms of a weak economic growth rate. An increase in the real GDP growth rate has been observed to be followed by increased Private Sector Credit. In turn, this increased credit helps businesses to increase employee staff, improve productivity. It overall increases economic activity and further assists in the GDP growth rate. Hence, both feed-off each other. Slowdowns also feed-off each other, and it accelerates the stagnation or economic downturn. In such cases, the Government or Central Bank intervention is crucial to keep the economy going.

Impact on Currency

In the context of currency markets, Private Sector Credit figures would be a backward-looking indicator (lagging or coincident indicator) as credit is issued if past business performance and current economic conditions are favorable. Hence, Private Sector Credit is a coincident indicator reflective of the current economic conditions.

The Private Sector Credit is not market sensitive, changes in the figures build up over time, and hence, it is a low impact indicator for predicting short-term currency moves within a 1-2 month time horizon. It is useful for assessing a long-term economic trend, though.

Economic Reports

The World Bank maintains the Domestic Credit to Private Sectors in the form of an online database on its official website. Statistics are added once individual countries’ statistics are reported.

For the United States, a weekly report of the Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States is released by the Federal Reserve, from which we can derive the Private Sector Credit information. The report is released every Friday at 4:15 PM.

Sources of Private Sector Credit

For the United States, Private Sector Credit data is maintained by the St. Louis FRED, and that information can be found here. World Bank Private Sector data is available here.

We can find Private Sector Credit statistics for many countries in nominal terms and as percentages of GDP here.

Impact of the ‘Private Sector Credit’ news release on the price charts

Now that we have a clear understanding of the Private Sector Credit economic indicator, we will now watch the impact of the news announcement on various currency pairs and analyze the data. Private loans measure the change in the total value of new loans issued to consumers and businesses in the private sector. To an extent, the allowances will determine the growth of the private sector.

Thus, the higher the government and banks lend to companies, the greater will be the development. The investor considers this data to be an important parameter when making large investment decisions in a currency or in the stock market. However, when it comes to short term movement of the currency, traders don’t pay a lot of attention to the data.

In today’s example, we will be analyzing the Private Sector Credit in the Eurozone and examine the change in volatility in major Euro pairs due to the announcement. A higher than expected reading should be positive for the currency while a lower than expected reading should be negative for the currency.

EUR/USD | Before the announcement:

We shall begin with the EUR/USD currency pair and examine the impact on this pair. In the above image, we see that the pair is in an uptrend, and just before the news announcement, the price has is at its highest point. Depending on the reaction of the market to the Private Sector Credit news, we will be able to take a position in the market.

EUR/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we witness a lukewarm reaction from the market, and there is hardly any change in volatility. This is because the Private Sector Credit was nearly the same as before with an increase in a mere 0.1%. This cannot be considered as a major boost to the private sector as the government and banks did not increase lending of loans by a vast percentage. As the impact was least, one can trade the pair on the ‘long’ side by joining the uptrend.

EUR/AUD | Before the announcement:

EUR/AUD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the EUR/NZD currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market has displayed reversal patterns, and there is a possibility that the market might turn into a downtrend. If the news announcement does not increase the volatility to the upside and price does not cross above the moving average, one can some ‘short’ positions expecting a further downward move.

After the news announcement, the price moves higher by a tad bit, and the ‘news candle’ displays little volatility. As the price remains below the moving average and impact was not great, one can take a risk-free ‘short’ trade in the market with a stop-loss above the recent ‘high.’

EUR/CHF | Before the announcement:

EUR/CHF | After the announcement:

Finally, we will discuss the impact on the EUR/CHF currency pair. Here, we see that the overall trend of the market is up and recently the price has started moving in a ‘range.’ Before the news announcement, the price is at the bottom of the range, and thus a buying pressure can come back into the market at any moment. As the impact of Private Sector Credit is less, aggressive traders can ‘long’ position in the market as the price is at the lower end of the range.

After the news release, volatility expands on the upside, and the price closes with a huge amount of bullishness. The Private Sector Credit data proved to be very positive for this pair, which resulted in a sharp rise in the price to the higher side. After the close of ‘news candle,’ traders can go ‘long’ with stop loss below the support and a ‘take-profit’ at the resistance of the range. We cannot have a much higher ‘take-profit’ as the impact will not last long.

That’s about ‘Private Sector Credit’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

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Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About ‘Exports’ & The Impact Of Its News Release On The Forex Market

Introduction

Exports make one half of a country’s International Trade Balance. In today’s modern economy, with many countries pursuing their economic growth through the main focus on their exports, we must understand Export and its implications on the domestic as well as the global economy. The big words that are thrown around in the media like “Currency Wars,” “Trade Wars,” etc. all revolve around the exports among countries. A thorough understanding of the International Trade and Balance of Payments of countries can help us gauge economic growth on a macroeconomic level very well.

What is Exports?

The sale of locally produced goods to foreign countries is called Exports. Goods and Services produced in one country only when sold to other countries it is called an Export. Countries generally export goods and services that they have a competitive advantage over other countries. For example, Germans export Cars, America export Capital Goods, China export electronic goods, Jamaica exports Coffee, etc.

The advent of Globalization led to an increase in international trade opening doors for domestic industries to tap into the global market. The journey has not been smooth, during the Great Depression, and the following World War II slowed down international trade where many countries closed off their doors to foreign goods as part of protectionist strategies.

Before the 1970s, countries were following an import substitution strategy for growth where countries believed in self-sustenance by producing their goods and services without relying on foreign countries. After the 1970s, the countries began to realize the failure of import substitution and started opting for Export-led growth strategy, and that has been the case to date.

In general, a trade surplus, i.e., a country’s exports, exceeds its imports, is good for the economy. Although, it may not always be necessary as countries may import more than their current exports to build future and long term projects that will assist them in their economic prospects in the long run. In today’s world, China, the United States, Germany, Japan, and the Netherlands are the biggest exporters in the world in terms of revenue.

How can the Exports numbers be used for analysis?

Exports are crucial for today’s modern economies because of the many-fold that it brings with it to the exporting country. The following are the benefits and impacts of exports on the economy:

Broader Market – Companies always want to sell more and increase their profits. By exposing them to a broader range of audience gives them a much better chance of making profits than with a limited audience. By tapping into foreign markets, the domestic companies have to evolve to meet the local demands of other nations and learn how to mix what they sell and what is required by the world well. All this makes the companies grow more robust and overall increases their size and revenue a lot faster than what they would have achieved through operating domestically.

Wealth – Exports increase demand and, consequently, profits. It ultimately leads to employment, increases in wages, and ultimately raises the standard of living. Governments actively promote and encourage exports by reducing tariffs and use protectionist strategies like import barriers to protect their domestic business.

Foreign Reserves – As the trade happens between two countries with different currency regimes, where the payment can be in the domestic or foreign currency, this increases the Central Bank’s currency reserves. With sufficient currency reserves, the Government can manipulate exchange rates to control inflation and deflation by increasing or decreasing currency volume in the global market whenever needed.  During times of substantial exports, countries intentionally peg their currency value lower to make their products appear cheaper and increase the returns on their exports. China has been accused of this low pegging their currency in their favor. Subsequently, other countries have retaliated by lowering their currencies as well. It is what is being called “Currency Wars.”

Trade Surplus – It is always better to be owed money than to owe money as an individual. The same, in general, applies to countries that want to be net creditors to the world than net debitors. Increasing trade deficits can pile up the country’s debt, which can multiply over the years and can be very difficult to overcome. A healthy level of exports, in general, brings more money into the country and keeps the economy going at a steady and healthy growth rate.

Impact on Currency

Today’s global currency markets are free-floating and self-adjusting. Any sudden surge in exports will be followed by a rise in the currency value to compensate for the increased demand on the global market for its currency. A decline in exports will be followed by decreased demand for the currency, and accordingly, the currency depreciates.

Although the market forces are self-adjusting, frequent Government interventions to speed up the correction process to keep the output of the business constant is common.

Economic Reports

Exports form part of a country’s Trade Balance, which is reported under the Current Account Section of the International Balance of Payments Report of the country. The Balance of Payments reports is released quarterly and annually for most countries. The Trade Balance reports are published every month, which consists of Exports and Imports figures.

For the United States, the Bureau of Economic Analysis publishes the monthly Trade Balance reports on their website in the 1st week of every month for the previous month.

Sources of Exports

Impact of the ‘Exports’ news release on the price charts

In the previous section of the article, we understood the importance of Exports in an economy and saw how it contributes to the growth of the country. Exports are nothing but goods and services that are sent to the rest of the world, including merchandise, transportation, tourism, communication, and financial services. A nation that has positive net exports experiences a trade surplus, while a negative net exports mean the nation has a trade deficit. Net exports may also be called the balance of trade. Economists believe that having a consistent trade deficit harms a nation’s economy, creating pressure on the nation’s currency and forcing lowering of interest rates.

In today’s lesson, we shall analyze the impact of Exports data on different currencies pairs and observe the change in volatility due to the news release. A higher than expected number should be taken as positive for the currency, while a lower than expected number as negative. The below image shows the total Exports of Australia during the month of March and April. It is evident that there was an increase in Exports in the current month by 20%. Let us look at the reaction of the market to this data.

AUD/USD | Before the announcement:

We shall begin with the AUD/USD currency pair to witness the impact of Exports on the Australian dollar. The above image shows the state of the chart before the news announcement, where we see that the market is in a downtrend, and recently the price has displayed a reversal pattern indicating a possible reversal to the upside. Based on the Exports data, we will look to position ourselves in the currency.

AUD/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the market moves higher and volatility increases to the upside. The sudden rise in the price is a result of the extremely positive Exports data where there was a rise in the value by 20% compared to the previous month. This brought cheer in the market, making traders to ‘buy’ Australian dollars and thus, strengthening the currency. One can go ‘long’ in the market after the news release with a stop loss below the recent ‘low.’

AUD/NZD | Before the announcement:

AUD/NZD | After the announcement:

The above images are that of AUD/NZD currency pair, where we see that the market is in a downtrend that began just a few hours ago, and recently the price has shown sharp reversal from its recent ‘low.’ Technically this is an ideal reversal pattern that signals a reversal of the trend. One can take a risk-free ‘long’ position if the news announcement does not change the dynamics of the chart.

After the news announcement, the price sharply rises and closes, forming a strong bullish candle. As the Exports were exceedingly high, traders bought Australian dollars and increased the volatility to the upside. This could be a confirmation sign of the trend reversal, where we can expect the market to move much higher.

EUR/AUD | Before the announcement:

EUR/AUD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the EUR/AUD currency pair, where the first image shows the state of the chart before the news announcement. From the chart, it is clear that the overall trend of the market is up, but recently the price has shown a strong reversal pattern to the downside. Looking at the price action, we will prefer taking a ‘sell’ trade depending on the impact of the news release.

After the news announcement, the price falls lower, with an increase in volatility to the downside. The bearish ‘news candle’ is a consequence of the upbeat Exports data, which came out to be exceptionally well for the economy. Since the Australian dollar is on the right-hand side of the pair, traders sold the currency pair in order to strengthen the Australian dollar. This is a perfect ‘sell’ for all.

That’s about ‘Exports’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

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Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Importance Of ‘Government Revenue’ As An Economic Indicator

Introduction

Government Revenue is one half of the Government Budget that will shape the economic growth for the fiscal year. It is closely watched statistic by traders and investors to analyze the policy maker’s behavioral trends, actions, and corresponding economic consequences for the current fiscal year.

What is Government Revenue?

Government revenue is the money received from tax receipts and other non-tax sources by a government that allows the Government to maintain the economy, finance its functions, and undertake government expenditures. The Federal Government receives income through a variety of sources which are as follows:

Taxes

Taxes are the most important source of Government revenue, with various forms of tax income coming to the Government. The personal individual income tax makes a significant part of the tax revenue of the Government. Other forms of tax like business or corporate tax, consumption tax, value-added land tax, tax on city maintenance and constructions, enterprise income tax, resource tax, etc. are other forms in which the Government collects taxes. Taxes are a compulsory payment from the consumers and businesses of the economy without any quid pro quo (i.e., getting nothing in return for tax payments from the Government).

Rates or Rental Incomes

These refer to local taxations. The rates are usually proportional to the rentable value of a business or domestic properties. It can take the form of Government-owned lands and buildings leased out for businesses or organizations.

Fees

These are the income the Government receives for its services. These could include services like public schools, insurance, etc.

License Fees

These are the payments received for authorizing permission or privilege. For example, issuing a building permit, or driving license, etc.

Public Sector Surplus

Revenue generated through sales of goods and services like water connection, electricity, postal services, etc.

Fines and Penalties

This is not intended to generate revenue but to make the public adhere to the law. Examples would include parking tickets or speeding tickets.

Gifts

These are the donations received from non-government members of the country and form a small portion of the Government’s revenue. These are usually received to help the Government during wars or emergencies.

Borrowing

This is the least preferred way to raise capital. The Government can borrow from investors in the form of bonds to finance its operations, and this method, although prevalent, is not preferable.

Below is a snapshot of the Federal Government’s Revenue from various sources:

(Picture Source – Fiscal Treasury)

How can the Government Revenues numbers be used for analysis?

The amount the Government receives in revenues determines how much it can spend. The revenue generated is directly correlated to the GDP. The GDP is directly influenced by how much the Government spends on the economy to spur growth. Both are linked in a feedback loop. By effectively drafting out the Federal Policy for a fiscal year, the Government can increase or decrease their tax revenues.

When the Government increases tax revenues, it may receive more than its fiscal expenditures, but that would burden the consumers and business. When taxes are increased, it leaves less money for people to spend, and people prefer to save than invest. It slows down the economy, and correspondingly a deflationary environment begins to start, and the economy risks going into a stagnation or worse a recession. During these times, the GDP will fall, and correspondingly the next fiscal year’s revenue would decline.

When the Government cuts back on taxes levied, the revenue decreases for the Government, but consumers and businesses would have more disposable income on their hand, which would encourage spending and thus stimulating the economy. It would keep the GDP growth positive and maintain a reasonable inflation rate. Consequently, this leaves little room for Government expenditures. When the expenditure is low, the stimulus is low, which results in a slowdown in the economic activity in the next business cycle.

Hence, Government Revenue and Government Expenditure both are two levers that have to be carefully adjusted to achieve an optimal balance for the healthy functioning of the economy. Too much spending with little revenue results in deficits that piles up debt burden in the long run. Too much revenue with little spending slows down the economy.

In recent times, most of the developed economies’ Governments have been failing to maintain steady growth without low tax and increased spending that has resulted in substantial deficits for the Government. Hence, monitoring Government revenue and its corresponding expenditures in the fiscal policy has become essential for traders and investors in the recent times, as the deficits increase Sovereign Credit Risk (defaulting on debt), or threaten the economy into a recession.

Impact on Currency

In an ideal situation, where a Government has zero debt and has a balanced budget (taxes and spending equal) would contribute to a steady and stable economy. An increase in tax revenues would indicate high GDP prints indicating a growing economy.

But in the real world, most of the Governments are debt-ridden, and an increase in tax revenues means the burden on the citizens and businesses,  which deflates the economy as it takes money out of the economy the currency appreciates and vice versa. Hence, Government revenue is a proportional indicator where decreased revenue deflates the economy and currency appreciate in the short-run (for the fiscal year) and vice versa.

More importantly, Government Revenue is half of the equation, what the Government spends on is the second half. It is, therefore, beneficial to keep both figures in consideration to assess economic growth in the near term.

Economic Reports

For the United States, the Treasury Department releases monthly and annual reports on its official website. The treasury statements detailing the Fiscal Policy containing Government revenue and expenditures are released at 2:00 PM on the 8th business day every month. The World Bank also maintains the annual Government Revenue and Spending data on its official website, which is easily accessible.

Sources of Government Revenues

United States Monthly Fiscal Policy statements can be found below.

Monthly Treasury Statement – United StatesGovernment Revenue as a percent of GDP

We can find Government Revenues for the OECD countries below.

Government Revenues – OECDWorld Bank – Government Revenue data

We can find the monthly Government Revenue statistics of world countries here –

Trading Economics – Government Revenues

Impact of the ‘Government Revenues’ news release on the price charts

After getting a clear understanding of the Government Revenue economic indicator, we will now extend our discussion and find the impact it makes on various currency pairs. The revenue of a government is used for multiple reasons, that directly or indirectly facilitates the growth of the country. Revenue is basically the amount of money that is brought into the Government’s kitty through various activities.

These revenues are received from taxation, fees, fines, inter-government grants or transfers, security sales, resource rights, as well as any other sales that are made. However, investors believe that the data does not have a major impact on the currency and is not of great value when it comes to fundamental analysis.

Today, we will be analyzing the impact of Government Revenue data of Brazil on the Brazilian Real. We can see in the snapshot below that the Brazilian Government received less revenue in the month of March compared to its previous month. A higher than expected reading should be taken as positive for the currency while a lower than expected reading is taken as negative. Let us find out the reaction of the market.

Note: The Brazilian Real is an illiquid currency, and hence there will be lesser price movement on charts.

USD/BRL | Before the announcement:

We shall start with the USD/BRL currency pair to examine the change in volatility due to the announcement. The above image shows the characteristics of the chart before the news announcement, where we see that the market is in a strong uptrend with gap ups every subsequent day. This means the Brazilian Real is extremely weak, and there is no price retracement until now. Technically, we will be looking to buy this currency pair after the price retraces to a key ‘support’ or ‘demand’ level.

USD/BRL | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the market moves higher and volatility expands on the upside. The Brazilian Real weakened further as a result of weak Government Revenues data where there was a reduction in net revenues for the current month. Traders bought U.S. dollars after the news release, which took the price much higher. The bullish ‘news candle’ is an indication of the continuation of the trend, but still, we need to wait for a retracement to enter the market.

EUR/BRL | Before the announcement:

EUR/BRL | After the announcement:

The above images represent the EUR/BRL currency pair that shows the state of the chart before and after the announcement. In the first image, it is clear that the market is again in a strong uptrend, and the price has recently broken out of the ‘range.’ Since the market is violently moving up, we should wait for the price to pull back near a ‘support’ area so that we can join the trend. We should never be chasing the market.

After the news announcement, the market reacts positively to the news data, and the price closes as a bullish candle. The increase in the volatility to the upside is a consequence of the poor Government Revenue data, where the Government collected lesser revenue in that month. The news release has a fair amount of impact on the pair that essentially weakened the currency further.

BRL/JPY | Before the announcement:

BRL/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the BRL/JPY currency pair, where we see that the market is a strong downtrend before the news announcement and is currently at its lowest point. Since the Brazilian Real is on the left-hand side of the pair, a down-trending market signifies a great amount of weakness in the currency. We need to wait for the price retracement to a ‘resistance’ area so we can take a ‘short’ trade.

After the news announcement, the volatility expands on the downside, and the market moves further down. The ‘news candle’ closes with signs of bearishness, and later too, the price continues to move lower. This was the impact of the news on this pair. We should wait for the price to retrace to join the downtrend.

That’s about ‘Government Revenues’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Importance of ‘Fiscal Expenditure’ as a Macro Economic Indicator

Introduction

Fiscal Expenditure is one half of the Fiscal Policy that will shape the economic growth for the fiscal year. It is a closely watched statistic by traders and investors to analyze the policy maker’s behavioral trends, actions, and corresponding economic consequences for the current fiscal year.

What is Fiscal Expenditure?

Fiscal Policy

It is a strategy or scheme followed by the Government to manage its tax revenues and allocate those funds appropriately as Government spending to manage economic conditions for a fiscal year. Fiscal Policy is the action plan of a Government that decides how the inflow of the Government from tax revenue is channeled into different Government Spending programs. Fiscal Policy is analogous to Monetary Policy.

Monetary Policy is an economic lever used by the Central Bank of a nation using Money Supply and Interest Rates to influence the economy. Whereas, Fiscal Policy is an economic lever used by the Central Government of a nation using Taxation Policies and Public Spending to influence and manage the economy.

The revenue received through taxes is called Federal Receipts, and Government Spending is called Federal Outlays. The difference between the two is called the Federal Deficit or Surplus. When the spending exceeds the revenue, the Government is said to be running a deficit, and when the revenue exceeds the spending, it is said to be running a surplus.

It is preferable to balance out the spending and receipts for optimal growth. Excess revenue by holding down spending slows down the economy, and excess spending accumulates debt.

Fiscal Expenditure

It is a one-half component of the Fiscal Policy, and it refers to the outlays part of the Fiscal Policy. The proportion of revenues allocated to different sectors within the economy determines the amount of stimulus and support from the Government, helping them become profitable quickly. Fiscal Expenditure is public spending by the Government.

How can the Fiscal Expenditure numbers be used for analysis?

Apart from the mandatory spending like Medicare, Social Security, etc. the remainder of the revenue and the additional debt taken by the Government to invest in public spending to keep the economy vibrant determines the growth rate and GDP print for the year.

The Central Authorities can manipulate the taxation rules to increase its revenue, which generally puts the burden on the citizens. The second lever is the Fiscal Expenditure, where the Central Authorities may decide based on the economic situation to borrow money to finance its Public Spending programs.

When the Government Spending is increased, through forms like, for example, building a bridge. Such a project would increase employment, increase spending as more people are employed, pumping more money into the economy, and thereby making the economy stimulated. The Government can also implement tax cuts, as that leaves more money in the consumer’s hands and encourages spending and hence, stimulating the economy.

Tax Cuts and Fiscal Expenditure are both levers that the Government has to influence the economy. But these are no hard-and-fast guarantees of economic stimulation. The effectiveness of the Fiscal Expenditure lever depends on what the current economy is going through. It is useful for a stagnant economy that has slowed down. Spending acts as a fuel to the fire and rekindles the business environment in the economy, thus keeping the GDP print back on track. As shown below, during recent times, the Government has tried to increase its spending by creating deficits through increased Fiscal Expenditure.

On the other hand, Fiscal Expenditure can be reduced, coupled with increased tax cuts to curb inflation and faster than the normal growth rate. It is a cool down measure used by the Government when the economy is hyper-inflating, which leads to too much money in the economy, and goods and services prices inflate quickly beyond their value. The Government’s Debt also plays a vital role in Fiscal Expenditure. After the mandatory payments, the interest payments for the Debt and Debt itself are what takes a portion of the pie (Government revenue).

The higher the amount dedicated to service interest and debt payments, the lesser the spending for the economy. It leads to a slowdown in the economy, and deflationary conditions start to appear in the economy. When the interest rates are either low or kept low (by suppressing interest rates lower through Central Banks), it leaves a more significant room for spending on public welfare that gains favor amongst the citizens but piles up debt for the future.

In this way, the Government is stuck between a rock and a hard place. A slowing economy and piling debt. It is the case with most developed economies where their spending outstrips their revenue and thereby run large deficits running huge debts that have to be serviced in the future. As the Government keeps stimulating the economy by spending beyond its means, the Government and the country is slowly being cornered into a debt trap that can be avoided through only a massive surge in GDP prints.

The only way to manage debt is to increase revenue through GDP that has proven to be difficult in recent times for most mature economies. Hence, Fiscal Policy and mainly its components revenue and Fiscal Expenditure are being closely watched by investors today to predict economic growth and assess the risk of default by the Governments.

Impact on Currency

Fiscal Expenditure is an inverse leading indicator meaning that the currency appreciates when Fiscal Expenditure depreciates in the short-term. When money is infused into the economy in the form of Fiscal Expenditure, it stimulates the economy, prevents deflation (inflationary conditions), leading to currency depreciation in the short-term.

While the Government chooses to avoid deflation and keep the economy going by paying the price in terms of currency depreciation as people and economy take precedence over the currency.

Economic Reports

For the United States, the Treasury Department releases monthly and annual reports on its official website. The treasury statements detailing the Fiscal Policy containing receipts and outlays are released at 2:00 PM on the 8th business day every month.

Sources of Fiscal Expenditure

United States Monthly Fiscal Policy statements can be found in the below-mentioned sources – Monthly Treasury Statement – United StatesFederal Surplus or Deficit – St. Louis FRED

The monthly Fiscal Expenditure statistics of countries across the globe can be found here.

Impact of the ‘Fiscal Expenditure’ news release on the price charts

After getting a clear understanding of the Fiscal Expenditure fundamental indicator, we will now extend our discussion and discover the impact of the news release on different currency pairs.  Fiscal Expenditure refers to the sum of government expenses, including spending on goods, investment, and transfer payments like social security and unemployment benefits. This indicator is very useful in measuring the steps taken by the Government for the welfare of the country. Investors consider this data to be an important determinant of the growth of the economy.

In today’s lesson, we will be looking at the Fiscal Expenditure of New Zealand that was published on 8th October 2019 and analyze the impact on the New Zealand dollar. The below image shows an increase in government expenditure for the previous fiscal year. A higher than expected number is considered to be positive for the currency while a lower than expected data is considered as negative. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data.

NZD/USD | Before the announcement:

We will start will the NZD/USD currency pair for examining the change in volatility due to the announcement. In the above chart, it is clear that the market is in a strong downtrend, and recently the price seems to have a retraced near the ‘resistance’ area. Technically, we will be looking to sell the currency pair after the appearance of suitable trend continuation patterns. However, it is possible that the news announcement can cause a reversal of the trend.

NZD/USD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the market initially reacts positively to the news data and shows some bullishness, but later the sellers take the price a little lower and close the ‘news candle’ with a wick on the top. The volatility is seen in both the directions of the market, but the price manages to close in ‘green.’ We still cannot say if the positive news outcome will cause as reversal as the price has not indicated any reversal patterns in the market. This is how technical analysis should be combined with fundamental analysis.

GBP/NZD | Before the announcement:

GBP/NZD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/NZD currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market is in an uptrend, and recently, the price has pulled back to the ‘support’ area. There is a high chance that the price will bounce on the upside from here and continue the trend. Technically, this is an ideal place for joining the trend by going ‘long’ in the market, but depending on the news data, we will decide if we can do so.

After the news announcement, the price falls lower, and volatility increases to the downside, which is the consequence of positive Fiscal Expenditure data. Since the Fiscal Expenditure was increased in that month, traders sold the currency and bought New Zealand dollars, thereby strengthening the quote currency. Now that the price is exactly at the ‘demand’ area, one needs to be very careful before taking a ‘short’ trade.

NZD/JPY | Before the announcement:

NZD/JPY | After the announcement:

Lastly, we discuss the NZD/JPY currency pair and observe the change in volatility due to the announcement. From the first image, it is clear that the market is in a strong downtrend, and presently the price is at its lowest point. Since, at this point, buyers took the price higher last time, we can expect the buyers to activate again. Thus, aggressive traders can take a few ‘long’ positions with strict stop loss.

After the news announcement, the price goes higher in the beginning but immediately comes lower and closes near the opening price. We witness a fair amount of volatility on both sides of the market, and finally, the ‘news candle’ closes, forming a ‘Doji’ pattern. Since the news release did not have any major impact on the currency pair, one can go ‘long’ under such situations.

That’s about ‘Fiscal Expenditure’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Significance of ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ In Determining A Country’s Economy

Introduction

With the advent of Globalization, nations started collaborating, and economies began to develop and grow at a faster pace. In today’s modern world, Foreign Direct Investment is one key result of Globalization. FDI is very helpful for boosting the pace of economic growth for emerging nations like India, China, and Japan, etc. Understanding this phenomenon and its long and short term impacts can help investors, economists, and traders predict long term economic trends and make critical investment decisions.

What is Foreign Direct Investment?

An individual or a corporation investing and owning at least ten percent of a foreign company is called Foreign Direct Investment. When a growing company decides to invest in a business outside of its own country for expansion or increasing revenue purposes, it is called FDI. If the investment is less than 10 %, then it is treated as a stock portfolio.

When an investor owns equal to or more than 10%, it does not give him a controlling interest but allows the investor to influence the company’s running operations. The investor’s proposals, views, and opinions are taken into account in the management’s actions and policies. For this reason, the governing bodies of the nation track the FDI in their country’s business.

FDI is implemented in one of two ways:

Greenfield Investment: This is a process when a company decides to expand its operations globally in the form of franchises. A typical example would be that of the McDonald’s franchise, and they expand their operations by taking care of building and operating the franchise from the ground-up.

Brownfield Investment: It occurs through mergers and acquisitions, where a company acquires or merges with an already established company in another country. A recent example would be that of Tata Motors of India bought the Ford’s Land Rover and Jaguar. FDI is also categorized as Horizontal and Vertical FDI. A horizontal FDI is when a company invests in the same business in another country.

In contrast, a vertical FDI is when a company invests in another company that supplements the existing business operations. For example, if a car manufacturing company acquires a transportation company for its manufactured car transports, it is a Vertical FDI.

How can the Foreign Direct Investment numbers be used for analysis?

FDI is beneficial for the investors as it helps them to diversify their portfolio, meaning that their income sources are varied. The advantage would be that if their country or any of their invested company’s country is facing a political tension or recessions, it does not cripple their income as the other sources of their investments make up for these losses. Investor’s golden rule: “Do not keep all eggs in one basket” is applicable here.

If the investor is a corporate company, they might choose to acquire or merge with another company to enhance and trade each other’s expertise. Emerging economies have open trade policies and loose tax rules compared to developed nations, which is very attractive for foreign investors as they get a higher yield on their investment. Lower wages and higher than average growth are key benefits of investing in emerging businesses.

Developed and mature companies offer their expertise, resources, and funds to emerging businesses to generate lasting interests and a long-term partnership. This adds to the revenue of the mature companies and boosts the growth of the developing economies as they experience increased fundings, support. This leads to improved standards of living in emerging economies.

A typical example would be the IT boom in India when the silicon-valley tech giants started expanding their operations onto the southern parts of India that gave a massive boost in employment and wage growth in India. Today, cities like Bangalore and Hyderabad have become Indian silicon-valleys with such rapid FDI.

The FDI is susceptible to trade laws, taxation rules, political situations, and ease-of-doing-business factors. For example, The recent decreasing trend in the global FDI is mainly due to President Donald Trump’s Tax cut that led to major companies to repatriate their foreign accumulated wealth back.

Impact on Currency 

In the initial stage, a definite rise in GDP is seen because of the FDI itself, but that is followed by a positive amplifying effect later, which is higher than the initial injected FDI. Increased jobs, productivity, and efficiency due to access to sophisticated technologies and management from the investing companies all promote growth. All this is appreciating for the economy and hence, the currency of the FDI receiving economy.

Developed economies may be resilient towards decreased FDI, but developing nation’s GDP rates fluctuate on a greater magnitude based on FDI changes. Emerging economies need the funding and expertise offered through FDI to boost their economy.

The FDI numbers are representative of long term growth, and the boost or slow down may be apparent only after certain months or years. The FDI trails news releases associated with trade agreements or press releases from companies and hence is a lagging or reactionary indicator for traders. It is more helpful for economists and analysts of the Governments to assess their economic growth.

Economic Reports

The following four significant organizations keep track of the Foreign Direct Investments:

  • The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD): It publishes quarterly FDI aggregate reports for countries throughout the world and is available on its official website under the World Investment Reports category.
  • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): It releases its quarterly FDI statistics that include both inflowing and outflowing FDI statistics in its reports but does not include FDIs between the emerging markets themselves.
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF): It publishes annual reports of FDI Investment trends, data availability, concepts, and recording practices. It covers FDI reports of 72 countries and is made available as an online database.
  • The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA): It tracks the inflowing and outflowing FDI within the United States. It is an annual report released in July every year.

Sources of Foreign Direct Investment

The UNCTAD FDI reports are available here – UNCTAD – FDIUNCTAD – FDI – 2019

The OECD FDI statistics are available for analysis here – OECD – FDIOECD – FDI – OCTOBER -2019

The BEA FDI releases are available here – BEA – NEW FDI

Impact of the ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ news release on the price charts

The crucial factors in the economic growth of any country are the commercial transactions and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The FDIs increase the exporting capacity in the host country and lead to an increase in profit at the foreign exchange market. There is widespread belief among international institutions, researchers and, policymakers that FDI has a great impact on the economic growth of a country. Thus, every country puts out various measures and schemes to boost Foreign Direct Investment in the country and increase the buying pressure on the currency.

In this section of the article, we will study the impact of FDI announcement on the value of a currency and examine the change in volatility. For this, we will be analyzing the year-on-year FDI data of Canada, where the latest data available with us are the investments by foreign institutions in the year 2018. The below image shows that FDI rose by $42,099 million dollars in 2018 compared to the previous year. Let us find out the reaction of the market.

Note: It is worthwhile to mention here that the FDI news announcement was followed by another major news event, which has a significant impact on the currency. Therefore, during continuous news announcements, markets should be analyzed based on collective volatility and not just single data.

EUR/CAD  | Before the announcement:

Let us first look at the EUR/CAD currency pair, where, in the above chart, we see that the volatility has increased on the downside, which could possibly turn into a reversal. If the news announcement turns out to be negative for the Canadian economy, the price can shoot up, thereby ruling out the reversal of the trend. However, a positive news outcome is an ideal case for going ‘short’ in the pair. But we should not forget about another news announcement right after the FDI. However, the FDI release will always be not be accompanied by a news release, and thus the above explanation holds in such cases.

EUR/CAD  | After the announcement:

After the FDI data is released, we see that the market crashes below, and there is a sudden drop in price. This is the result of the positive FDI data for the current year, where there was an increase in Investments by foreign institutions. The bearish candle indicates that the FDI data was bullish for the Canadian dollar, and traders were delighted with the data. One should trade the pair after the volatility settles down after the continuous news announcements.

USD/CAD | Before the announcement:

USD/CAD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the USD/CAD currency pair. Before the announcement, the market is an uptrend indicating weakness in the Canadian dollar. As the uptrend is very strong, one should be cautious before taking a ‘short’ trade in the pair as there are high chances that the news announcement may result in a spike below and not a reversal of the trend.

After the news announcement, we see that there is a drop in price, but the market does not collapse. The possible reason for low volatility after the release is that the market was expecting better FDI data and also due to the prevailing uptrend. One should go ‘long’ in the pair after the market shows signs of trend continuation.

CAD/JPY | Before the announcement:

CAD/JPY | After the announcement:

Lastly, we discuss the impact of FDI on CAD/JPY currency pair, where, in the first image, we see that the market is in a strong downtrend, pointing towards weakness in the Canadian dollar. As the Canadian dollar is on the left-hand side of the pair, in order to buy the currency, one should go ‘long’ in the pair, unlike in the above pair. Only if the positive FDI data is able to cause a perfect reversal of the trend, one can buy the currency pair else should trade with the trend.

After the announcement, the market moves initially moves higher owing to upbeat FDI data but gets immediately sold into and closes as a bearish candle. Thus, we can say that the impact was least on the pair, and there was no considerable change in volatility.

That’s about ‘Foreign Direct Investment’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

Importance Of ‘Government Spending’ & It’s Relative News Impact On The Forex Market

Introduction

Government Spending is an essential determinant of the economy’s growth. The portion of GDP that is allocated to Government Spending can primarily set the pace of economic growth. Increased Government Spending has been a critical lever to stimulate the economy during times of recession.

Government Spending numbers also determine whether the Government is elected by people next time or not. Hence, Government Spending numbers also can help or hurt the Government in elections. Thus, this can be considered a critical macroeconomic indicator for economists, analysts to predict upcoming trends.

What is Government Spending?

The Government Consumption Expenditures and Gross Investment are together, forming what is called Government Spending in general. Both of these are the final expenditures accounted for by the governing sector. Government Consumption Expenditures contains Spending by the governing body to produce and provide goods and services to the public. Expenditures would typically include National Defense and Public School Educations, etc.

Gross Investments includes the Spending by Government for fixed assets that directly benefit the general public. Investments can consist of road construction, public transports, or procuring military equipment. Hence, overall Government Spending refers to the money spent on the acquisition of goods and services such as education, health, social protection, and defense. When the Government procures products and services for current use to directly benefit an individual or collective requirements of the community, it is called Government final consumption spending. When the same is done for future use, it is classified as Government investment.

Government Spending assists businesses and people economically in many ways. Unemployment compensation, Child Nutrition, Student Loans, retirement and disability programs, etc. all are facilitated out of Government’s revenue. During the time of recession or economic contractions, the Government increases its Spending and decreasing tax rates to stimulate the economy and vice-versa.

There are four primary sources for Government Spending:

  • Tax Receipts
  • Indirect Taxes
  • Money borrowing from citizens (ex: government bonds)
  • Money borrowing from foreign (ex: Loans from World Bank)

How can the Government Spending numbers be used for analysis?

The main factors that affect Government Spending are:

Mandatory Programs: In the United States, necessary programs like Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare make up about two-thirds of federal expenses. As more baby-boomers reach retirement age, the increase in all the above costs puts weight on Government that affects its spending capability. These kinds of payments where there is no exchange of goods and services in return are classified as Transfer Payments Spending.

National Debt and Interest bills: The United States currently has a record-high debt level of 22 trillion US dollars, which, when taken as a percentage of GDP, exceeds a hundred percent. What this means is that the National Debt is greater than the revenue it generates. Even if the entire GDP were allocated to service debt hypothetically, it would still not suffice. Such skyrocketed debt levels have put the country in between a rock and a hard place. The United States must keep the interest rates low to be able to continue paying its interests to avoid the risk of default.

Defaulting on the debt could be catastrophic for the nation and can lead to economic collapse. Increased deficit spending (Spending beyond budget) to stimulate the economy during times of recessions and bearing expenses of war and international contingency operations all have piled on the debt burden further.

Discretionary Spending: For the above two categories, the Government has no choice but to spend, but Discretionary Spending is for everything else. The Government decides how much money is to allocate to programs. Cutting back majorly on these can hurt the governing bodies in the next elections. Increased Discretionary Spendings can help in the short-run, but in the long run, all these will catch up, and consequences can be severe.

GDP: The revenue itself is an essential factor; decreased GDP rates can create deflationary situations that the Government tries to avoid in all conditions. Increased productivity and stimulations that result in higher prints in GDP can help service debts and still have enough resources to spend on economic activities freely. Increased taxes can help build up revenue for the Government but can lead to losing elections as the public might vote them out for imposing higher taxes. The Governments have increasingly relied on deficit spending to boost economic growth as indicative of the below graph.

Impact on Currency

By relative comparison with previous years, what policymakers have decided to spend on can determine many local level and national level economic impacts. Cutting back on certain sections can lead to slowdowns in that sector and vice-versa. Investors and Economists use this to predict economic trends.

In general, a relative increase in Government Spending is good for the economy. This indicator is typically expressed as a percentage of GDP, signifying how many portions of the total revenue Government has prioritized over debt servicing to stimulate growth. Government Spending for a given business cycle will decide the economy’s inflationary or deflationary conditions. When the economy is growing at a faster pace than the targeted rate, the Government can cut back on Spending and service their debts, or increase taxes to stabilize and vice-versa.

In this sense, Government Spending is a proportional indicator, the more, the better for the economy. It is a lagging indicator, as it is usually reactionary to situations in the marketplace and not an initiative effort. Government Spending is a lever used generally to fix an issue that already has happened (hyperinflation or deflation), hence has a lower impact on the long-term market volatility in the world of trading markets, although there may be some panic trading due to press releases.

Economic Reports

The Bureau of Economic Analysis releases quarterly reports on Government Receipts and Expenditures, which contains the Spending on different sectors, on their official website.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development also releases quarterly estimates of the associated countries on their official websites under the category of General Government Spending in two varieties: Government Spending per Capita and Government Spending as a percentage of its GDP.

Sources of Government Spending

The United States Bureau of Economic Analysis reports are available here:

The General Government Spending details are available for OECD countries on their official website here

Quarterly Government Spending reports of the United States Government can be found here categorically.

Below is a comparative index for countries – Government Spending as a percentage of GDP. Government Spending as a percentage of GDP – Trading Economics

Impact of the ‘Government Spending’ news release on the price charts

We understood in the previous section of the article that Government Spending refers to the money spent by the public sector for purchasing goods and providing essential services such as education, healthcare, social protection, and security. The two major categories of Spending include Current Spending and Capital Spending.

Government Spending ensures that the country is having basic facilities such as roads, bridges, hospitals, schools, and other allowances such as unemployment and disability benefits. Hence public sector spending plays a crucial part in the economic growth of a country. If Government Spending of a country is high, it also attracts foreign investment and other capital flows. Thus, the greater the Government spends, the greater will be the growth of the currency.

Today we will be discussing the impact of the news release on various currency pairs and examine the change in volatility before and after the release. For this, we have collected the latest Government Spending data of Australia, where the below image shows the quarter-on-quarter numbers of the same. The latest figures show an increase in Government Spending for the December quarter compared to the previous quarter.

AUD/USD | Before the announcement:

The first currency pair we will be discussing is the AUD/USD pair, where, in the above image, we see that the market is on the verge of continuing its uptrend after an appropriate retracement. At this point, if the Government Spending comes out to be positive for the Australian economy, we can expect the price to rise at least the recent ‘high.’ But if it were to be negative, we can expect a short-term reversal in the market.

AUD/USD | After the announcement:

Looking at the chart above, we can say that the market reacted positively to the news announcement and the price closed as a bullish candle. The bullishness in currency is due to the encouraging Government Spending data, which showed an increase in expenditure from the previous quarter. The upbeat data created cheer among traders, which made them go ‘long’ in the currency pair and buy more Australian dollars. One can ‘buy’ the currency pair after the news release after seeing that the data was better than last time.

EUR/AUD | Before the announcement:

EUR/AUD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the EUR/AUD currency pair, and as we can see, the overall trend and here too market seems to be continuing its downtrend after an appropriate retracement. Since the Australian dollar is on the right-hand side, a downtrend shows strength in the currency. Aggressive traders can take go ‘short’ in the currency pair before the news announcement as the trend shows an increase in the Government Spending from quarter-on-quarter. Remember that the stop loss should be kept higher than the recent ‘high’ due to increased volatility during the announcement.

After the numbers are released, volatility increases on the downside, and the price closes as a bearish candle, indicating selling pressure in the market. This is due to better than expected Government Spending data, which was higher than last time, and thus the market suddenly goes lower. One can go ‘short’ in the currency pair after analyzing the outcome of the data, with a stop loss above the recent ‘high.’

AUD/USD | Before the announcement:

AUD/USD | After the announcement:

Lastly, we find out the impact of the news on AUD/JPY currency pair, where we, in the first image we see that the market is range-bound and just before the announcement the price is at the ‘resistance’ of the range. This means we could expect sellers to become active at this point. However, the reaction depends on the Government Spending data, which can cause spikes on either side of the market. A ‘buy’ is also not recommended as the market is not in an uptrend.

After the news is announced, we witness a similar impact where the price goes higher and closes as a bullish candle. The positive news outcome and an increase in volatility to the upside is the ideal trade setup for going ‘long’ in the market. Thus, one can buy the currency pair with a stop loss below the support and a higher ‘take-profit.’

That’s about ‘Government Spending’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

Everything About ‘Home Ownership Rate’ & Its Impact On The Forex Price Charts

Introduction

Home Ownership Rate is an economic indicator that is extensively used by both the public and private sector organizations to predict the demand for different types of Houses. It also forms a part of the index of leading economic indicators and thereby is used by the Federal Government and economists to forecast the economic health of the country. It is useful for investors from abroad also to gauge the standard of living or wealth per individual or financial health of a country.

 What is Home Ownership Rate?

Home Ownership Rate is the proportion of households that are owners. In simple terms, it is the ratio of the number of houses occupied by their owners to the total number of occupied houses in the region. The region can be country, state, or a metropolitical area.

Hence, the Home Ownership Rate is given by the following equation:

In the above equation, a housing unit can be a house, apartment, condo, or single room or group of rooms that are occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. In the United States, the Home Ownership Rate is provided by the United States Census Bureau for the entire U.S., states, regions, for the 75 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs).

The Census Bureau collects using a probability selected sample for about 72,000 housing units, both occupied and vacant. Households from all the 50 states and the District of Columbia are part of the survey for the four consecutive months.

How can the Home Ownership Rate numbers be used for analysis? 

The Home Ownership Rate tells us the number of householders that are owning a house. Owning a home signifies a lot of things. Firstly, owning a home means that either you are wealthy enough to own a home or at least have an income source (job or business) whose prospects you are confident about.

An individual or family decides to take home only when their financial prospects are looking confident, in most cases. When more people have their own homes, it indicates healthy liquidity of the economy, where enough people have had enough money to own a home, which is not cheap at all.

The below two graphs are the Quarterly Home Ownership rates and Real GDP growth rate. It is easily seen that when the economy is seeing improvement in Home Ownership rates, there is a correlating increase in GDP. During the downtrends also the same mirroring is observable in GDP and the Ownership rate. Hence, this becomes a leading economic indicator to predict a growing or contracting trend for the economy.

When the Home Ownership rate decreases, it indicates fewer and fewer people can afford to own a home, or more people are selling off their homes to secure their future. When the people of the country are not confident about their economic prospects, then they would prefer to save for a rainy day than take a risk with a big mortgage and own a house for which they may or may not be able to pay the bills consistently.

Decreasing Ownership rates are indicative of tight lending environments where higher interest rates discourage householders from procuring mortgages for homes. It is an indication that the government is pulling money out of the system to deflate the economy. Increasing Home Ownership Rates are indicative of the lending environment that is currently prevailing in the economy. An increase in the rates is indicative of loose monetary policy enabling the banks to lend out money at lower interest rates, thereby making it more affordable to the potential buying householders.

Loose monetary policy from the Central Authorities is intended to spur economic growth, which translates to such effects (increase in rates of ownership). Such a stimulus generally tends to keep the economy either going or growing in most cases, possibly avoiding any deflation.

Impact on Currency

The Home Ownership Rate is a leading proportional economic indicator. When the number of Households owned and occupied number increases, it is accompanied by signs of an expanding or growing economy, which is appreciating for the currency. An increase in the Home Ownership rate is appreciating for currency for the coming quarters and vice-versa.

The impact of the Home Ownership Rate is mild as more frequent reports like Building Permits overshadow it that indicates before houses are even built. Building Permits reports are monthly, and hence, the trends are spotted in advance before it is also confirmed by the Housing Starts, Housing Completion, and Home Ownership Rates.

Economic Reports

The Census Bureau publishes quarterly and annual reports on its official website for the United States along with other reports like Rental and Housing Vacancy rates. Homeownership Rates are also reported based on the age of the householder and also by family status.

The release dates for each quarterly report are already posted on its official website. It is typically released around 25-28th of the reporting month for the previous quarter at about 10:00 AM. Graphical statistics for the same are also available on its official website as illustrated below:

Sources of Home Ownership Rate

We can find the latest Home Ownership Rate report from the United States Census Bureau here – Home Ownership Rate – Census Bureau. The annual statistics for the same can be found here – Census Bureau – Quarterly and Annual. The same data is also available with comprehensive plotting tools on the St. Louis FRED website. Below is the reference for the same – Home Ownership Rate – FREDHousing, and Homeownership Rate. The Home Ownership Rate for various countries is available here for further analysis – Home Ownership Rate – Trading Economics.

Impact of the ‘Home Ownership Rate’ news release on the price charts

In the previous section of the article, we learned about the ‘House Ownership Rate’ fundamental indicator, which is nothing but the percentage of homes that are occupied by owners in a country. The Census Bureau releases this data, which includes info about the state of ownership overall, after the end of every year. Home Ownership is considered an important part of contributing to a productive society. The government promotes Home Ownership by offering tax deals and cheap loans as it creates an asset for people to invest and accumulate their wealth. It indirectly encourages the growth of a country, socially and financially.

The below image shows the graphical representation of the House Ownership Rate of Switzerland in 2017 and 2018. As we can, the rate increased to 42.5% percent in 2018 from 41.3% in 2017. A higher than expected data is considered to be positive for the currency while a lower than expected reading is taken as negative. Let us analyze the reaction of the market to this data and view the change in volatility due to the announcement.

GBP/CHF | Before the announcement:

We shall start with the GBP/CHF currency pair, where the above chart represents the ‘daily’ time frame chart of the pair. We see that the price is in a downtrend and is presently at its lowest point. Technical analysis suggests that until we have a price retracement, we cannot trade in the direction of the trend. Depending on the impact of the news announcement, we will be able to a suitable position in the market.

GBP/CHF | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see that market falls lower, and volatility increases to the downside. The market reaction can be explained by the fact that the House Ownership Rate came out to be positive for the economy, which made traders sell the currency pair and go ‘long’ in Swiss Franc. As the impact of this news event is less, we cannot expect the market to go lower and make ‘lower lows.’ Thus, one needs to cautious before taking a sell trade.

AUD/CHF | Before the announcement:

AUD/CHF | After the announcement:

The above images represent the AUD/CHF currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market was in a strong downtrend indicating a great amount of strength in Swiss Franc. Currently, the price is at a place where the market had rallied earlier, also known as the ‘demand’ area. Thus, we can expect buyers to come back into the market at any moment. Aggressive traders at this stage can go buy the currency with a strict stop loss.

After the news announcement, the price initially goes lower but gets immediately bought, and the ‘news candle’ leaves a wick on the bottom. Volatility is witnessed on both sides of the market, and the price closes near its opening price. The news release did not have an adverse impact on the pair and cause any major change in the price chart. Once the price moves higher and gives an indication, traders can go ‘long’ in the currency pair with a stop loss below the ‘news candle.’

NZD/CHF | Before the announcement:

NZD/CHF | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the NZD/CHF currency pair where the overall trend appears to be up, and recently the price has retraced to a key technical level. Here, the Swiss Franc does not appear to very strong, and the New Zealand dollar is showing signs of strength. If the news release does not influence the currency pair strongly, this could be an ideal setup for going ‘long’ in the market.

After the news announcement, the market’s reaction to the news data was minimal, and we hardly see a change in volatility. An increase in volatility to the upside is a confirmation sign that the market will continue its uptrend, and a further move to the upside can be expected.

That’s about ‘House Ownership Rate’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is ‘Government Budget’ & How It Helps In Determining A Nation’s Economy?

Introduction

Government Budget is one of the annual reports that moves the market volatility significantly. The Government of a country or a state is responsible for managing the economic activity of that region. Hence the Budget will primarily determine the pace of economic activity for that fiscal year. Government Budget figures are incredibly crucial for traders and investors as it can impact everything from taxes to Sovereign risks.

What is Government Budget?

Government Budget is a detailed annual plan for public spending by the Government. The Budget, in general, applies to individuals, corporations, and Governments. An individual planning his finances for the year determining what portion of his monthly/annual income he is going to allocate for his expenses would be his Budget. For corporations, annual budgets would detail what amount of revenue would be spent on different departments like R&D, marketing, infrastructure, etc.

The Government Budget is the same as the above, but the list of expenses is related to public welfare. The Government is responsible for a multitude of operations like salary payments to Government employees, financing agricultural subsidies, providing financial support to specific industries. It may also include paying for military equipment, payout pension funds to the applicable people, and other Government running operations expenses, etc.

The Government Budget is calculated on an annual basis, and for the United States, this fiscal year begins on the 1st of October to the next year’s 30th of September.

What a Government earns through taxes is called revenue, and what it spends on is categorized under Government Spending. When the spending exceeds its revenue, then we call it as a Budget Deficit or Fiscal Deficit. On the other hand, when the revenue exceeds spending, we have what is called a Budget Surplus or Fiscal Surplus. The United States has been running a budget deficit most of the time throughout history, as shown below:

Budget money spent is usually categorized into two categories:

  • Mandatory Spending: These are the spending that the Government has no choice to cut back on as these are stipulated by law, which the Government cannot fault on. For the United States, Social Security is one such program that was brought into the United States law by President Roosevelt in 1935, under the Social Security Act. Medicare and Medicaid are also typical examples of Mandatory Spending, which are fixed and must be paid out by the Government.
  • Discretionary Spending: This part can make or break an economy. It is the part of Budget that the Government decides to spend on other programs that are not mandatory but essential for growth. There is certain flexibility on how much can be spent on which part of the economy.

How can the Government Budget numbers be used for analysis?

The Government’s Fiscal Deficit is financed through borrowing money from investors in the form of bonds for which the Government promises to pay interest. Deficit each year adds to the debt. The United States and many other developed economies have spent most of their time maintaining a Budget Deficit as the spending has been failing to stimulate the economy year after year.

If the Government decides to cut back on spending to service debt and interest payments, then the economy may slow down due to a lack of funding stimulus. On the other hand, if the Government continues to spend beyond its revenues to stimulate the economy, then it will keep piling up the previous debts.

The Budget has both short-term and long-term impacts on the economy. Based on which sectors the Government has chosen to allocate its spending, investors and traders can predict economic growth and slowdowns in different sectors.

The Budget’s portion that is being spent on servicing debt and interest payments also decides whether the country is in danger of Sovereign Credit Risk. The credit rating agencies like Standard & Poor’s, Fitch Group, and Moody’s, etc. credit rate the Government. If the credit rating falls, then investors quickly lose confidence in the Government’s ability to pay back.

Hence, investors demand higher interests for the risk associated and which further cuts a bigger pie out of the Budget, leaving less room for spending. The vicious cycle of debt is tough to get out of for the Government and hence, Budget figures and strategic allocation of funds is crucial.

Impact on Currency

Currency markets quickly lose faith in the Government that is unable to resolve National Debt and large Budget Deficits, and currency immediately depreciates. Increased confidence in the Government can appreciate the currency value.

Budget strategy tells the market the Government’s ability to maintain its debt and simultaneously invest its Spending on Growth. Only servicing debt slows the economy, and only spending on Growth piles up debt, which eats up tax revenue. Both are dangerous for the Government and the economy.

Hence, the Government Budget is a significant leading economic indicator for traders and investors alike. 

Economic Reports

The Budget reports of all countries are available on their respective Federal Government’s website. On an international scale, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund maintain the budget data for most countries. For the United States, the Budget reports are available on the Treasury Department’s official website and Office of Management and Budget’s website.

Sources of Government Budget

A comprehensive summary of all Budget related statistics are available on the St. Louis FRED and some other credible websites that are given below:

Impact of the ‘Government Budget’ news release on the price charts

Till now, we have understood the importance of Government Budget in an economy and how it can be used for fundamental analysis of a currency. The Budget impacts the economy, interest rate, and stock markets. How the finance ministry spends and invests money affects the economy. The extent of the deficit influence the money supply and the interest rate in the economy. High-interest rates mean higher cost of capital for the industry, lower profits, and lower currency prices.

In this example, let’s analyze the impact of Government Budget on various currency pairs and examine the change in volatility due to the announcement of the same. For that, we have collected the data of Canada, where the below image shows the latest Budget that was fixed by the Canadian Government during the reference month. Let us find out the reaction of the market to this data.

USD/CAD | Before the announcement:

The first currency pair which we will be discussing is USD/CAD. The above image shows the exact position of the currency before the news announcement. We see that the market is in a downtrend, and recently the price has pulled back to a ‘supply’ area, and some initial reactions (red candle) can also be seen. Since the impact of the news outcome is less, aggressive traders can take a ‘short’ position with a stop loss above the ‘supply’ area.

USD/CAD | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see that the market moves higher, and there is a sharp surge in the price. The volatility increases to the upside the price closes as a bullish ‘news candle.’ Even though the Government Budget was higher than before, it narrowed to 3.58 billion in February from 4.31 billion in the corresponding month of the previous year. This is negative for the economy when analyzing from a yearly perspective. Thus, traders went ‘long’ in the currency and weakened the Canadian dollar.

CAD/JPY | Before the announcement:

CAD/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images represent the CAD/JPY currency pair, where we see that in the first image, the market is in moving within a ‘range,’ and currently, the price seems to have broken below the ‘support,’ showing an increase in the selling pressure. Since the Canadian dollar is on the left hand of the pair, a strong down move indicates a weakening of the currency. Since the price has broken below, we will be looking to sell the currency pair after some consolidation in the market.

After the news announcement, the price crashes below, and volatility extends on the downside. The bearishness in the price is a consequence of the weak Government Budget data that saw a decrease in the value compared to the previous year. Therefore, traders went ‘short’ in the currency pair by selling Canadian dollars. One needs to be cautious before taking a ‘short’ trade as the price is approaching a ‘demand’ area, and buyers can pop up at any moment.

GBP/CAD | Before the announcement:

GBP/CAD | After the announcement:

The above images are that of GBP/CAD currency pair, where we see that the market is in a strong downtrend before the news announcement, signifying strength in the Canadian dollar. We also observe that the price has recently bounced back from its’ lows’ and has crossed the moving average. This could be a sign of trend reversal, which we shall validate based on the outcome of the news.

After the news announcement, the price initially moves higher, but later selling pressure is seen, and the candle closes in the red. Here the volatility is witnessed on both sides of the market, and the price manages to close above the moving average line. The market appears to be volatile even after the news announcement, and we do get a sense of the direction of the market. However, aggressive can go ‘long’ in the market on the basis that the price continues to remain above the moving average, after the news release.

That’s about ‘Government Budget’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

Understanding ‘Manufacturing PMI’ & Its Impact On The Forex Market

Introduction

The Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index is an excellent leading or advanced macroeconomic indicator, which is used widely to predict economic expansion or contractions. It has a variety of applications for investors, economists, traders alike. It is a significant indicator to predict GDP, employment, and inflation in the upcoming periods. Hence, understanding of Manufacturing PMI can be hugely beneficial for a trader’s fundamental analysis.

What is Manufacturing PMI?

The Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index is a survey of about 400 largest manufacturers in the United States of America. The word Manufacturing here implies that the study is associated with the industries that produce physical goods. Non-physical goods come into the category of Services Purchasing Manager’s Index, which is different.

Purchasing Managers in a company are the employees associated with procuring the raw materials, goods, and services that are required for running the company. For example, A car manufacturing company’s Purchasing Manager would typically be in charge of procuring nuts and bolts at the lowest or best prices from the market. The Purchasing Manager’s in this sense have a good idea of what the company requires and during what periods these requirements are set to increase or decrease.

How is the Manufacturing PMI calculated?

The Manufacturing PMI hence is a compilation of the survey answers given by the Purchasing Managers of the largest 300 manufacturing giants in the USA. The questions typically involve asked in the survey are related to month-over-month changes in the New orders, Production, Employment, Deliveries, and Inventories with equal weightage, as shown in the table below:

All the five categories, as seen when putting together, form the PMI. These five components are enough to ascertain a growth or contraction in the business activity of that company.

The Manufacturing PMI rating lies within the range of 0-100, where a score of above 50 indicates an expansion in the economic activity in the manufacturing sector, below 50 indicates contraction and 50 indicates no change in comparison to the previous month.

Economic Reports

In the United States, the Institute for Supply Management widely known in short as ISM releases the Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index every month.

The ISM, established in 1915, is a large non-profit organization in its field. The members of the ISM Business Survey Committee (BSC) receive the questionnaire each month, asking them to identify the monthly changes for each index.

The ISM releases its Manufacturing PMI on the first business day of every month. The data for the Manufacturing sector goes back to 1947.

There are other companies that also publish PMI numbers, and IHS Markit Group is one such company that puts out numbers for the companies outside of the United States. Still, within the United States, the Insitute for Supply Management’s PMI is the most popular.

How can the Manufacturing PMI be Used for Analysis?

The data of ISM Manufacturing Reports on Business or the PMI goes back to 1947 due to which the data is robust and has high levels of confidence in ascertaining economic figures like GDP, inflation and employment, etc.

The Manufacturing sector of the United States makes up 20% of the total GDP, and hence the Manufacturing PMI is a significant economic indicator in that regard. The Manufacturing sector primarily drives the economic activities within the nation as it involves physical goods; hence it affects other dependent industries like transportation, labor force, etc.

The historical correlation between the real GDP and the ISM Manufacturing Data is about 85%, which is pretty good. The main advantage of studying Manufacturing PMI is that it is a leading or advanced economic indicator. It predicts the real GDP with a 12-month time lag, meaning it predicts a year ahead of time the real GDP due to which this index is widely sought after by investors.

A score of 80 and above has been correlated with a 3% average real GDP growth historically. A score of 70-80 correlates with 0-2% GDP growth rate and 55-70 correlates with -3% to 0% real GDP rate. Hence, above 50 indicates the overall economy is growing, and below 50 indicates contraction and possible recession.

Based on the Manufacturing PMI of different sectors, Suppliers can adjust their prices with the market. For example, if a cereal producing company’s Manufacturing PMI indicates expansion, then the crop suppliers can change their prices to a higher level to match the increase in demand and vice versa.

Below is a snapshot of Manufacturing PMI plotted against the real GDP growth rate historically, and we can clearly see the healthy correlation that exists between both. This shows the importance of this leading indicator’s importance in fundamental analysis of traders.

Impact on Currency

Since the United States is the largest economy, the US GDP drives the global GDP. In this sense, monitoring Manufacturing PMI gives us a good clue of the direction of the US economy and the relative direction of other economies. From this perspective, we can ascertain the currency direction also.

The further the score is away from 50 and closer towards 100, the better it is for the economy and resultantly for the currency. Higher scores translate to oncoming currency appreciation periods, while low scores would signal an oncoming recession and currency depreciation period.

A score of 85 and above is a strong signal for improving economic conditions and inflation in the economy.

Sources of Manufacturing PMI Reports

We can monitor the reports on the official website of the ISM. We can also go through the PMI of other countries from the IHS Markit official website.

Impact of the ‘Manufacturing PMI’ news release on the price charts

The Manufacturing Purchasing Manager’s Index (PMI) measures the activity of the purchasing managers in the manufacturing sector. The indicator is particularly important for the manufacturing industry, which measures the growth of that sector; this eventually contributes to the growth of the economy. Therefore, the index has a direct and indirect effect on the economy. When speaking about the impact on the currency, the indicator does not cause a drastic change in volatility, but we do witness some positions being build up in the currency during the announcement.

In this section, we will be analyzing the latest Japanese Manufacturing PMI which was released in the month of March. The below image shows the previous and actual PMI data, where we see an increase in PMI from before. A higher than before PMI reading is considered to be bullish for the currency, while a lower PMI than before is taken to be negative. Let us view the reaction of the market in this case.

AUD/JPY | Before the announcement:

We start our analysis with the AUD/JPY currency pair, and as we can see in the above chart, the market is in an uptrend pointing towards weakness in the Japanese Yen. One of the reasons is that the market is expecting a subdued PMI data this time which is making the pair go higher. The only way to trade this pair is if the PMI data of Japan comes out to be very positive, which could result in a reversal and strength in the Japanese Yen. However, if the data proves to be negative, we cannot join the trend until we get a retracement.

AUD/JPY | After the announcement:

After the PMI numbers are announced, we see a sudden surge in volatility on the upside as the data was negative for the Japanese economy. As the numbers were disappointing, traders sold the Japanese Yen and took the price higher. A strong bullish candle shows the impact of PMI data on the currency pair. From a trading point of view, one cannot enter the market for a ‘buy’ soon after the news release. By doing this, he would be chasing the market, which is against the principles of risk management.

NZD/JPY | Before the announcement:

NZD/JPY | After the announcement:

The above images represent the NZD/JPY currency pair, which again is in a strong uptrend, but the up move is not as aggressive as in the case of the AUD/JPY currency pair. Just before the news announcement, the price appears to be at the ‘resistance’ area, which means if the PMI data comes out to be negative for the economy, we can see a breakout on the upside or if the data is positive, it could result in a short-term reversal.

After the PMI data is released, volatility expands on the higher side, and later the candle closes with a wick. This wick is a result of selling witnessed at ‘resistance.’ Therefore, the Manufacturing PMI data has a similar effect on the currency pair. We can trade the above pair after the price retraces to the resistance turned support area and then going ‘long’ with a strict stop loss.

USD/JPY | Before the announcement:

USD/JPY | After the announcement:

In the USD/JPY currency pair, the characteristics of the chart seem to be different from the above-discussed pairs. Here, the Japanese Yen is showing signs of strength before the news announcement. Thus, a positive PMI data should take the currency lower while negative data might result in an up move. The volatility is seen on both sides of the market. Thus, it is advised to wait for the actual data before taking any action. It is also not advisable to trade in the ‘options’ segment as it is a less impactful event and volatility after the announcement will be ‘low.’

After the announcement is made, the market goes up just by a little, signifying the least amount of volatility. The Manufacturing PMI, even though it was negative for the Japanese economy, it failed to take the price higher as in other pairs, as the impact of it very less. Thus, the small rise in price could be used as an opportunity to join the downtrend.

That’s about ‘Manufacturing PMI’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck!

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Should You Know About The ‘Manufacturing Production’ Of A Country?

Introduction

Manufacturing Production statistics are a direct measure of current economic activity. It is instrumental for investors to get a correct estimate of current industrial activity. The Manufacturing Production Index also provides the capacity at which the industries are operating at which is useful for Government officials and business owners for planning and optimizing the performance of these industries. For economists, it helps to cut through media propaganda easily as the numbers reveal the real present situations of these industries and help analyze economic performance better.

What is Manufacturing Production?

Manufacturing Production, also called Industrial Production (IP) Index, measures the real or genuine output of the mining, manufacturing, and electric and gas utility industries. Hence, it covers some of the most important industrial sectors that play a significant role in economic growth and society’s sustenance.

Manufacturing Production Index is a measure of current industrial output. The Index’s reference period is 2012, which means that for the year 2012, the IP Index score is 100. All the scores that are published thereafter are in reference to this period. Hence, it is in a way it is a report card for the industrial sector’s final production output. The report also includes capacity utilization statistics that tell us at what percent of maximum capacity are different industrial sectors are operating at.

In the United States, the Manufacturing Production figures are taken from production data of all industries included in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and industries like logging, newspaper, periodical, book, and directory publishing that have been traditionally considered to be Manufacturing.

The individual indices of Industrial Production (IP) are constructed through two sources:

  • Output measured in physical units.
  • The output is inferred from the data on inputs to the production process.

The IP index measures the output of individual industries taking their weightage derived from the proportional contribution of that industry to the combined output of all industries.

How can the Manufacturing Production numbers be used for analysis? 

If we are to be very strict with our analysis, then Manufacturing Production figures are coincident or current indicators when compared against New Orders Figures of the Institute of Supply Management’s Purchasing Manager’s Index.  It is more indicative of the current trend rather than a future trend. A decrease in New Orders is more indicative of future Production while Industrial Production (IP) Index is more current.

Although, since it is a monthly report, some use it as a leading indicator to oncoming economic turns as generally, these indices are indicative of ripple effects through employment, wages, and business activity.

Hence, it is more appropriate to take IP numbers as current economic indicators and use it to verify the fundamental trends that have been predicted by other leading indicators. We can use IP figures to identify whether our predicted trends have started to play out or not.

The data set for the IP index goes back to 1920, and hence it is a very reliable measure of economic activity, as shown above.

Below is the zoomed-in period of IP index, where we can see during the recession the IP index accurately depicts the economic conditions for that period. Through this, we can understand that the IP index is a double check for us to understand the current economic situation correctly. It is a one-for-one measure of economic activity.

Impact on Currency 

The Manufacturing Production Index has a mild impact on the currency market as the ongoing trend in the economy would have been already depicted by other macroeconomic leading indicators.

On the other hand, it does influence investor’s confidence in the different manufacturing sectors that can affect the stock market and correspondingly, resulting in a mild impact on the currency too.

It is essential to keep in mind that the mild impact is because the United States is a mature and developed economy and has a diverse portfolio of exports and imports. It may not be the same case for all countries where individual developing or commodity-dependent economies may heavily depend on the performance of their manufacturing sector. It all comes down to what percentage of GDP does the Industrial Production Index industries make up. The higher the percentage, the higher the impact.

For the United States, the Manufacturing Sector makes up 20% of GDP while the Services Sector drives 80%. The Manufacturing Production Index is a proportional and coincident indicator. Higher production figures lead to increased economic activity and lead to currency appreciation and vice-versa.

Sources of Manufacturing Production

The monthly Manufacturing Production statistics are available on the Federal Reserve’s official website here. The St. Louis website offers a comprehensive list of Manufacturing Production reports, and they can be found here. We can also find global Manufacturing Production figures for various countries in statistical formats here.

Impact of the ‘Manufacturing Production’ news release on the price charts

After getting an understanding of the Industrial Production economic indicator, we will now find out the impact of the news announcement on different pairs and witness the change in volatility due to the release. The development of Industrial Production and machinery output are the main drivers of economic growth.

Economists believe that country’s development and enhanced standards of living are positively correlated with the nation’s industrial activity. The GDP is directly proportional to growth in the economy’s manufacturing sector. Although it is an important determinant of the economy, when it comes to the movement of the currency, traders do not make drastic changes to their positions in the currency based on the data.

The below image shows the latest Industrial Production data of the U.S., where we see that there has been a decrease in production by a whopping 6.2% as compared to the previous month. A higher than expected value is considered as positive for the currency, while a lower than expected is considered negative. Let us look at the reaction of the market to this data.

USD/JPY | Before the announcement:

We will first look at the USD/JPY currency pair and analyze the impact of the Industrial Production data on this pair. In the above image, we see that the market was in a downtrend, and very recently, the price has shown a sign of reversal to the upside. The price action suggests that the market might move higher from here before going down. Since the economists have predicted a lower Industrial Production data, it is advised not to take any ‘short’ positions.

USD/JPY | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, the price initially moves higher due to increased volatility but later loses all the gains and closes in the red. Even though the Industrial Production data was very bad for the economy, the price did not react that bad as expected. We see a neutral response from the market where the ‘news candle’ closes near its opening price. Therefore, we can say that the impact of the news outcome was not great on the currency pair, and the volatility was average.

GBP/USD | Before the announcement: 

GBP/USD | After the announcement:

The above images represent the GBP/USD currency pair, where we see that the market is violently going down before the news announcement. Currently, the price is its lowest point, and there has been no price retracement of any kind. As per the technical analysis, we cannot take any position at this moment, as this would mean chasing the market and, this carries a huge risk.

After the news announcement, we see that that the price goes lower in the beginning, but later buying pressure takes the price higher, and the candle closes with a wick on the bottom. Overall, the volatility increases to the downside after the news release but does not sustain for long. The price continues to move higher one candle after the ‘news candle,’ which implies that Industrial Production does not have a long-lasting effect on the currency.

USD/CAD | Before the announcement:

USD/CAD | After the announcement:

The above images are that of the USD/CAD currency pair where we see that before the news announcement, the market is in a strong uptrend, and here too, there is no price retracement of any sort. This shows that the U.S. dollar is extremely strong. At this point, we cannot take any position in the market as this is against the rules of risk management.

After the news announcement, volatility increases to the upside resulting in further strengthening of the U.S dollar. Despite the fact that the Industrial Production data was really weak, the market does not react negatively to the news data, but rather we see an increase in the price. This might be due to the fact that the news data is of least importance to traders.

That’s about ‘Manufacturing Production’ and its impact on the Forex market after its news release. If you have any questions, please let us know in the comments below. Good luck

Categories
Forex Fundamental Analysis

The Importance of the ‘Car Registrations’ Data While Gauging The Economy’s Health

Introduction

Since the advent of mass production of Cars, by Henry Ford in 1913, the automobile industry has been booming. The consequent effects on the dependent industries are as significant as the study of Automobile Industries itself. Car Registration statistics are useful for policymakers, and many dependent industries of automobiles.

What is Car Registrations?

Vehicle Registration is the process of registering a newly purchased or resold vehicle with a government authority. The primary purpose is to link every car with a corresponding owner. It helps in identifying owners of lost vehicles and reckless driving caught on traffic cameras, etc.

How can the Car Registration numbers be used for analysis?

Car Registrations in our analysis is useful to the following sectors of people:

Policy Makers – Car Registration statistics are useful for policymakers to predict traffic volume, forecasting congestions in narrow road areas, and planning new highway construction projects to facilitate smoother transportation.

Oil Vendors – It is useful for the Oil vendors, who can use this data to forecast an increase or decrease in fuel demand and adjust their inventory or stock in advance to meet the demand.

Road Construction companies – Companies can track regional increases in car sales and identify traffic patterns, to put forward a proposal for road construction to government officials to get a construction contract.

Modification Jobs – Many companies in the modern world offer customization options. By monitoring what type of cars are more frequent and in which locations, can help such small scale businesses to set up their business, and offer suitable services.

Sales analysis by Car Manufacturers and Investors – Car Registration figures are the number of cars purchased by customers and are on-road as we speak. The Car Production figures show the picture from the manufacturer’s perspective, while Car Registrations show the actual demand from the customer’s viewpoint. It is the actual sale that counts, and Car manufacturing companies can analyze what type of cars are trending the market right now, which can help them build similar models of cars. Investors can analyze this data to know which company sales are growing in which sector, and where potential growth lies in different regions.

Environmental Analysts: Cars are one of the primary sources of Air pollution, by analyzing the trend in Car Registrations, environmental analysts can assess whether people are shifting to more eco-friendly options like electric cars. Thereby research the implications for submission of their reports on environmental impacts.

Of these factors, road construction, sales analysis is essential, and that is what most of the time data is mainly used for.

In the aspect of economic growth, Car Production and Car Registration statistics point in the same direction, where  Car Registration is more accurate, as production does not equal equivalent purchase.

As more Cars are registered, it indicates more consumers can afford it. It indicates consumers have enough disposable income and are financially stable enough to either procure a loan or direct purchase. It also indicates, banks also have enough liquidity to disburse loans for such purposes.

Historically, during times of recession, there is a corresponding decrease of Car Registrations, as evident from the above graph, as Consumer Sentiment is low, and prefer to save more than spend to save for a future rainy day. Overall, Car is not a cheap commodity, and an increase in its registration indicates, increased Consumer Confidence, and tells us the economy is stable and faring well.

With more emerging economies like India, Japan, etc. improving their economic conditions by export-led growth in the global markets, the total number of people who are above the poverty level is increasing. This would ultimately translate into increasing Car Registration figures in the upcoming times. The below plot justifies this:

As the standard of living improves in the emerging economies, we are bound to see an increase in demand for automotive, in those countries. As people become wealthier and have extra income after accounting for the daily needs, people open up to the more non-essential or luxury goods, and first in that list comes a car and a home in most developing economies. Hence, increased car registration figures are a sign of an increase in the standard of living of that economy.

Impact on Currency

Car Registrations are a lagging indicator of economic health, as purchase happens only when the economic conditions have improved significantly and have continued to stay good for a while. In this sense, it is a lagging indicator, compared to other leading and coincident indicators like Disposable Income, Interest Rates, Personal Consumption Expenditure, etc. for traders.

Hence, it is a low impact indicator, as the change in numbers is backward-looking and not forward-looking. It is more useful for policymakers and investors interested in Automotive industries looking for investment ideas and opportunities.

It is a proportional indicator, and a decrease in registrations of new vehicles is just signaling weakening economy and corresponding currency devaluation, which has already been confirmed by other indicators. It will be just confirming our predictions from leading indicators.

Economic Reports

The Federal Highway Administration keeps track of the total vehicle registrations by type and builds on its official website.

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development maintains the data for all its member countries, which is available on the St. Louis Fred website that is easier to access.

Sources of Car Registrations

Federal Highway Administration State Vehicle Registrations – 2018

Annual Motor Vehicle Registration – Total – CEIC Data

The St. Louis FRED data also maintains data extracted from the OECD database about the vehicle registrations here and here. We can find the monthly data for the Car Registrations data in the statistical form here and