Crypto Daily Topic

What Really Is Selfish Mining: Will Bitcoin Survive This?

Mining is the process through which new Bitcoin blocks are generated. Individual nodes on the Bitcoin network race against time in a series of guesses for the right block. Due to the large size of the network and transaction load, this process is resource-intensive – it requires sophisticated computing equipment and consumes massive amounts of power. 

Selfish mining is when a miner withholds newly generated blocks then releases them to the public ledger when they have formed the longest chain. Other legitimate miners may join the selfish miner on their private network due to the possibility of higher returns. The practice is neither illegal nor disallowed, but selfish mining undermines Satoshi’s vision of decentralized production and distribution of money. 

How Selfish Mining Works

Mining involves solving complex cryptographic puzzles, which are guesses. Depending on the difficulty of the puzzle being solved, and the associated power costs, the reward you can earn from this process can vary greatly. As such, even if miners combine effort, the overall output for each miner is proportional to the individual effort invested. 

This was the case until researchers Ittay Eyal and Emin Gun Sirer discovered that miners could actually cheat the system by hiding the newly-generated blocks from the public blockchain. Transactions will still be verified, and new BTC generated because the newly-generated blocks are made available on the selfish miners’ private networks. By withholding the new blocks from the public blockchain, such miners circumvent the infrastructure restrictions that make mining resource-intensive and speed up the discovery process. 

Whatever makes selfish mining possible is a vulnerability on the Bitcoin network that uses the longest chain rule to indicate which chain to follow. Usually, the correct chain to follow is the one with the highest number of new blocks – in other words, the one with the highest proof of work. Since it is possible to withhold a block and release it after accruing several of them, one can always wait until they have several blocks then release them to the public blockchain. This will result in other miners following that chain and surrendering their earnings to the owner of this chain. 

How It Impacts Bitcoin’s Integrity

Undoubtedly, selfish mining poses a threat to Bitcoin’s integrity. Cryptocurrencies sell on the premise that they are decentralized and tamper-proof. Thus, the idea that a group of people can collude to subvert the system’s mechanics raises concern. 

Of particular concern is how selfish mining increases the possibility of a 51% attack. Over time, selfish miners can create mining pools with an ever-growing hash rate. As more parties join the pools, their chances of acquiring majority power increases. Eventually, this may allow them to block other miners, reverse transactions, exclude transactions, and so on. However, considering how large the Bitcoin network is, there is only a low likelihood that a mining syndicate will gather enough resources to take most of the power. Additionally, Bitcoin enthusiasts believe that the motivation for selfish mining is lower than the rewards. If other parties decide to join selfish miners in their pools, they might eventually be unable to recover the investment they made in their mining operation.

The practice of selfish mining is also wasteful in that miners spend serious resources trying to find a block that another miner is withholding. Thus, it is only economical for all miners to just play by the rules. In short, this is neither a sustainable nor responsible way to generate earnings on the Bitcoin network. 

How Selfish Mining Undermines the Decentralization Philosophy 

Decentralization is at the heart of Bitcoin’s philosophy. Satoshi envisioned that no person or group of people would have the authority to control the production or distribution of coins on the network. 

When a selfish miner generates a new block, their chain will be shorter than the public blockchain. However, if they keep hoarding blocks, their chain might eventually become longer than the one on the public blockchain. Naturally, honest miners will be inclined to join the private chain to earn more because the private network has a better chance to realize new blocks faster. If the selfish miner keeps ‘recruiting’ rational miners to their pool, they could eventually control the majority of the public blockchain. In essence, they will have all the power to generate and distribute Bitcoin. 

Is It Anything New?

Selfish mining is not entirely new, and for that reason, it should be particularly worrying to Bitcoin users. At the moment, two-thirds of all Bitcoin generated is mined in China, which is not a result of selfish mining. It just happens that it is easier to access ASICs in the country, plus electricity is way cheaper there than in other mining locations. As such, concerns have been raised about whether China has had a mining monopoly of sorts. Whatever the case, there is no indication that Chinese miners are working as a single enterprise. 

Are There Consequences?

If only a few miners adopt selfish mining, the overall impact on the blockchain network will be negligible. On the other hand, if all miners, hypothetically, take up selfish mining, their efforts will cancel out. Renowned economists have reiterated that it seems to make sense, while theoretically, the practice is not economically viable. Paul Sztorc, a popular economist, thinks that selfish miners will lose motivation upon realizing they are only backstabbing each other. In conclusion, selfish mining does not have enough economic motivation to become a widespread practice. 

Also, this activity may adversely impact Bitcoin’s reputation, which may cause its price to drop. Consequently, selfish miners will earn more Bitcoins but ones that are devalued. 

What’s the Future of Selfish Mining?

Selfish mining is likely to remain in theory or limited practice due to the reasons we’ve mentioned earlier. As we have seen, the major challenge with this practice is that if it becomes widespread, it will turn into a dirty game as selfish miners will be competing in hoarding new blocks. While this decreases the economic motivation, it might not exactly protect the Bitcoin network from the inefficiencies created. 

So, what would be a better solution? A research paper has proposed a scheme for penalizing nodes that withhold new blocks. The proposal ensures that miners who generate new blocks and fail to publish them on the blockchain have their mining rewards reduced. This would be an ideal penalty for selfish miners, but it appears as if the practice is not a huge threat currently.

Final Thoughts 

Selfish mining can allow mining syndicates to increase their revenue by always creating the longest chain and attracting other miners to their pools. While the threat is realistic, the likelihood of widespread selfish mining is diminished. The practice is wasteful, and if it becomes widespread, all miners lose their rewards. As we wait to see if indeed the threat will ever become substantial, Bitcoin users can rest easy knowing that Satoshi’s vision of decentralized production and distribution of money lives on. 

Crypto Daily Topic

8 Great Tricks to Maximize Your Mining Profits: Number 7 will Amaze you!

Cryptocurrency has opened up so many opportunities to make money. Whether it’s HODLing, staking, or mining, there’s always an opportunity to make money with crypto. Now, some of these are pretty straightforward. You deposit your crypto and sit and watch your money grow. Or you HODL and move in one day when the market is particularly bullish. But other ways, such as mining, are not as straightforward. 

Making money via crypto mining takes more than buying hardware and starting to mine right away. You want your investment in hardware, electricity, and time to count. These 8 tricks will show you how to maximize your crypto mining profit to get the best returns on investment. 

#1. Do your homework

Doing background research is one of the first things you should do before you engage with crypto mining in any capacity. Crypto mining is already complicated, and the same way you can gain lucratively is the same way you can lose.

Start with mining equipment. Check whether the type of equipment you intend to acquire and deploy is outdated. Study whether the market is currently favorable – you may find that it’s more profitable to buy the crypto rather than invest to mine it.

#2. Check whether it’s a good time to enter 

Just like with everything, there are good and bad times to jump into crypto mining. For instance, during the crypto market’s incredible bull run in 2017, crypto mining hardware from manufacturers was pretty much sold out. Most of the profitable equipment could only be found in second-hand marketplaces selling it at exorbitant prices. These hiked prices virtually made any projected profits not worth it. 

This time may have seemed a good time to start mining, but with hardware speculators milking the market as much as possible, the conditions were not the most favorable. 

On the other hand, when cryptos are trading at a much-reduced rate, you may get mining hardware at much better prices both from the manufacturer and second-hand marketplaces. This way, you stand actually to profit from the equipment rebounds. 

#3. Switch to low hash rate cryptocurrencies

This is one of the best-kept secrets of the crypto mining world. Unlike popular belief, it’s possible to find a smaller cryptocurrency with a higher return on investment than a ‘mainstream’ cryptocurrency. Smaller currencies also usually have a lower hash rate, meaning you can contribute a larger hash rate and reap a bigger mining reward. 

This means keeping an eye out on all the other markets, not just the ones you’re currently mining. If you’re using a GPU, you have even better chances. GPUs, unlike ASICs, have the flexibility of being able to mine different cryptocurrencies. 

#4. Mine brand new cryptocurrencies

Mining a new cryptocurrency can be very profitable – sometimes. When a new crypto enters the market, there’s a phase of euphoria as the creators crank up the hype, creating interest in the currency. As a result, the currency in question might have considerable value in the first few days, weeks, or even months. 

What you need to do is be there at the very start. Depending on the currency, you can mine with GPUs, as ASIC manufacturers have not yet had time to develop an algorithm for the particular currency. Due to the unpredictable nature of cryptocurrencies and especially brand new ones, you want to quickly exchange the earnings for more reliant cryptos or Fiat. 

#5. Start small

This is universal wisdom for getting into any kind of business endeavor. It’s much truer for a market as volatile as cryptocurrency, isn’t it? When you’re new in the space, there’s so much you need to learn, and any rushed moves are highly discouraged. 

When you start small, any losses are also less painful. You also build the right skill set as you learn what works and what doesn’t. After you’ve figured out how crypto mining works, you can scale up. 

#6. Explore various scaling choices 

There are so many ways you can scale your crypto mining operation. This can be replacing aging equipment – which will lead to an increased heart rate while maintaining low expenditures and increasing your return on investment (ROI). 

You can also scale by buying mining capability from hash rate marketplaces. There’s also the option of cloud mining, where you purchase high amounts of hash rate for your favorite crypto or algorithm from companies that specialize in such. Whichever scaling method you choose, be sure to avoid third-party risk by doing appropriate research beforehand. 

#7. Find cheap energy

We can’t overemphasize the importance of inexpensive energy when it comes to crypto mining. Electricity is usually the largest expenditure involved in crypto mining. So when you save on energy costs, that’s more money for your bottom line. 

Also, depending on the region and electricity cost, your equipment may be profitable or not. In some parts of the world, energy prices tend to fluctuate instead of being constant. Some professional miners actually migrate in pursuit of cheap energy. 

The point is, you can increase your ROI if you find cheaper energy. You can even talk to your utility provider and see what’s the best rates they can provide. Again, this depends on your locale. 

#8. Join a mining pool

Now, we’d be remiss if we didn’t include joining a mining pool in this list. A mining pool is a group of miners who combine their computational power so as to discover new blocks faster. If the pool succeeds in finding a blog, the block reward is shared proportionally to each contributor’s processing power.

Why should you join a mining pool? Because the more the computational power, the more the likelihood for discovering and processing new blocks. As you can see, an individual miner would have a big challenge – financially and otherwise, assembling that kind of power. While going it alone doesn’t mean you’ll never see profits, it means they will be few and very far between. On the other hand, you stand a better chance to earn smaller but more frequent rewards with a mining pool. 

Final Thoughts 

Crypto mining is a great way to make money. Whether you’re a veteran in the scene or just getting started, these tips will help you make the best of your mining endeavor. Good luck! 

Forex Fundamental Analysis

What Is ‘GDP from Mining’ and What Should You Know About This Economic Indicator?


The tracking of GDP from Mining can give us many economic conclusions. GDP from Mining’s importance comes from the fact that the final output of Mining Production is the primary input for many industries. Therefore, it is the core part of the business activity related to many industries.

Fluctuations in the GDP from Mining data will eventually translate to all the industries that are dependent on Mined resources for their production process. This effect can be many-fold, and hence it is a vital economic indicator for investors, economists, and government authorities.

Mining Production

It refers to the entire process of searching for, extraction, beneficiation (purification), and processing of naturally occurring minerals from the Earth. Minerals that are typically mined can be Coal, metals like Copper, Iron, Zinc, or industrial minerals like limestone, potash, and other crushed rocks.

Coal is considered as one of the primary sources of energy across the world. Metals like Iron, Bauxite, and Copper have a wide range of usage in various industries. Limestone and other rocks are being used in cement industries, which contribute a lot to the construction and related industries.

How can the GDP from Mining numbers be used for analysis?

The developing economies are primarily achieving their growth through exports of essential commodities like Food, Minerals, etc. For example, Australia primarily exports Iron Ore and Coal, due to which the economic growth and currency value are tightly linked to the Mining of these natural resources. When the GDP from Mining starts to recede, currency devaluation and slowing economic growth are inevitable.

Developed economies are more resilient to changes in GDP from Mining, as their growth is tied to multiple sectors and are not heavily dependent on any individual sector. The availability of modern technology and skilled labor contribute to the GDP from Mining figures positively. Mining is a labor-intensive task. Hence, it is obvious that Mining lies at the heart of all industrial activities. A decrease in GDP from Mining can adversely affect all the dependent industries, and correspondingly the effects will pass onto unemployment, layoffs, wages, economic slowdown, etc.

Impact on Currency

The GDP from Mining is a low impact indicator, as the Mining Production reports are published monthly by the Federal Reserve in the United States that are leading indicators. It is a proportional and lagging indicator. Hence, changes in GDP from Mining would have already been priced into the market through monthly Mining Production reports.

Also, GDP from Mining numbers does not give us a complete picture of the economy. However, it can be an important tool for the Central Authorities to keep track of the performance of the Mining Sector and its implications for the economy. As established, the Mining Sector is a significant contributor, due to many industries dependent on its output.

Hence, changes in this sector widely affect the overall economic health, and all the dependent industries therein. In general, Higher GDP from Mining is good for the economy and its currency, and vice-versa.

Sources of GDP from Mining

For the US, the BEA reports are available here – GDP -BEAGDP by Industry – BEA. For the world data below, two are useful references – Mineral Rents  – World % of GDPGDP from Mining – Trading Economics. The monthly Mining Production statistics can be found on the official website of the Federal Reserve for the United States, which can be found here – G7 Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization

GDP from Mining Announcement – Impact due to news release

Mining is an extremely important economic activity in any country. The benefits of Mining have been widely promoted by the industry and institutions such as the World Bank. In several low and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel resources, Mining makes significant contributions to the national economic development as measured by the Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr).

The contribution of Mining and Minerals to GDP reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Now, the figures indicate a decline in the Mining’s contribution but are still considerably higher than before. This is one of the reasons why it not a major determinant of economic growth. Thus, investors do not give importance to the mining data when it comes to investing in an economy.

In today’s lesson, we will try to examine the impact of GDP on various currency pairs and see the volatility change due to the news release. The below snapshot shows the previous, predicted, and actual GDP data of Switzerland released in the month of March. As this is the quarter on quarter GDP data, we can expect moderate to high volatility in the currency during the announcement.

GBP/CHF | Before the announcement

Let’s review the GBP/CHF currency pair to observe the impact of the news release. We see that the market has made a ‘descending triangle‘ candlestick pattern before the news announcement, which essentially is a trend continuation pattern. Depending on the impact of the news release, we will take a suitable position in the currency pair.

GBP/CHF | After the announcement:

After the news announcement, we see a sudden surge in the price indicating bullishness in the currency. The bullish ‘news candle’ suggests a negative reaction to the GDP data as it was on expected lines with no major increase or decrease. The market appears to have broken above the ‘descending triangle’ pattern, which is why we should need to wait for clear signs from the market with respect to the direction it is heading.  

CAD/CHF | Before the announcement

CAD/CHF | After the announcement

The above images represent the CAD/CHF currency pair, where we see that the market seems to be in a downward channel before the news announcement with the price at the bottom of the channel. Since the impact of GDP is high, there is a high chance that the news release could result in a break down if the data comes out to be weak for the economy. Therefore we need to wait for confirmation from the market before we can take a trade.

After the news release, the price moves higher and volatility increases on the upside. Since the GDP data was pretty much equal to the forecasted number, it did not result in bullishness in the currency, and it ultimately weakened the currency for a while. One who takes a ‘buy’ trade should take profits at the top of the channel and not wait for too long. 

AUD/CHF | Before the announcement

AUD/CHF | After the announcement

The above charts belong to the AUD/CHF currency pair, where we see that before the news announcement, the market is moving within a ‘range.’ This means the price is not moving in any single direction, which can make trading a bit challenging in such an environment. The news release can effectively move the market in any direction, which is why we need to wait for the announcement to happen in order to get clarity.

After the news release, the price moves lower, but this gets immediately bought, and the ‘news candle’ closes with a wick on the bottom. We witness buying pressure in the market soon after the news release. we to be cautious before taking a ‘long’ position since the price is at the top of the ‘range.’ All the best!


Bitcoin Mining Pools: Here Is All You Need To Know About Bitcoin Mining Pools

Any new Bitcoin user will tell you they’ve heard words like “miners,” “mining pools,” and “ASICs” being thrown around. But it’s not immediately clear what these terms mean, or whatever role they play in the Bitcoin ecosystem.

On the other hand, we have aspiring Bitcoin miners who are usually torn between going solo and joining a mining pool and are yet unacquainted with the latter option.

In this guide, we delve into the intricacies of Bitcoin mining pools and answer some of the most burning questions surrounding the topic.

What is Bitcoin Mining? 

Bitcoin mining is the process of adding new blocks and transactions on the Bitcoin public blockchain. It involves miners guessing or playing with a random string of numbers and alphabets (known as a hash) until they arrive at the correct hash for the next block. A ‘block’ is a file that consists of transactions that have to be verified before being added to the blockchain.

Bitcoin miners utilize mining equipment known as “application-specific integrated circuits” (ASICs) that are designed to make a massive number of guesses per second. In the early days of Bitcoin, anyone could mine bitcoins on their PC from the comfort of their home. However, as the network became uber-popular and more miners joined the network, the mining difficulty (how hard it is to find new blocks) increased, rendering the average computer unsuitable for mining bitcoins.

What’s a Mining Pool?

What is Bitcoin Mining pool

A mining pool is a group of miners who come together and combine their computational power in a bid to find new blocks faster. With the combined hashing power, the odds of finding new blocks are multiplied. If a pool succeeds in finding a block, the block reward is shared among the pool participants according to how much processing power each contributed. The more processing power a miner contributed, the more block rewards they will receive.

What is Block Rewards? 

In Bitcoin mining, a block reward is what the bitcoins miners receive for discovering new blocks. This reward is halved after mining 210,000th block, which is roughly every four years.

In the beginning, mining a block got a miner rewarded with 50 BTC. That figure was halved into 25 BTC in 2012. It was then halved again in 2016 to 12.5 blocks. It was again halved a few days ago to 6.25. This was Satoshi Nakamoto’s idea of avoiding inflation.

Mining Pool Methods 

Bitcoin mining pools do not have a standard operating procedure. Each pool has a different approach to the sharing of block rewards, and so on. Still, many of the most popular pools have certain protocols in common. Let’s get a look at the most common below:

  • Proportional mining pools: In these pools, miners earn shares up until the pool finds a block, after which each miner receives block rewards in proportion to how much shares each has found.
  • Pay-per-share pools: These pools operate a lot like the proportional mining pools, only this time, a miner is guaranteed of a payout regardless of when the pool collectively finds a block. Miners are paid with the existing balance in the pool, and they can cash out at any time.
  • Pay On Target: In these pools, a miner is paid based on the difficulty of work that they plough back to the pool, rather than the difficulty served by the pool itself.
  • Capped Pay Per Share: This is a reward system through which miners receive as much as possible from discovering blocks while also ensuring the pool never goes bankrupt.
  • Bitcoin Pooled Mining: This system entails giving more weight to recent shares than to older shares. Each new round starts when a new block is discovered, and not before. This reduces the chance of miners switching pools during a round so as to maximize profits – which is considered cheating.

Why Mine Bitcoin in a Pool? 

As we’ve noted before, Bitcoin mining is a game of chance. Thus, it pretty much depends on luck. Hence, even if a miner controls a significant amount of computational power, it doesn’t mean they’ll find blocks proportional to that power. Instead, today they might find three blocks, tomorrow none, the next day one, and on and on.

Mining in a pool allows miners to combine their hash power, so they represent one large mining machine. With the combined hashing power, it’s easier to find the right hash sooner. This way, miners can get a more regular and consistent pay instead of a sporadic and less certain one.

What are the Disadvantages of a Mining Pool?

Mining pools represent a more sustainable income for miners since it multiplies the odds of them finding new blocks. At the same time, it has a downside for both miners and what cryptocurrency stands for.

When a miner participates in a pool, they relinquish some of their power and autonomy. They’ve got to adhere to the terms and conditions of the pool, even if unfavorable.

They also have to share block rewards, meaning they earn significantly less than if they received the entire block reward by themselves.

Another drawback of mining pools is that some mining pools have an enormous amount of combined hash power to the extent of dominating much of the Bitcoin mining process. In a way, this centralizes the Bitcoin mining protocol, which betrays one important tenet of cryptocurrency: decentralization.

How to Choose a Bitcoin Mining Pool

Before you sign up for a Bitcoin mining pool, do a background check, and see whether it works for you. These are some of the factors you need to look out for:

1. Infrastructure Compatibility

Every pool has its own requirements that miners must meet before being incorporated into the pool. Before getting started with any pool, check the following:

  • Whether your mining equipment is compatible with the pool requirements
  • Whether your mining software is supported by the pool
  • Whether your internet connection meets the minimum bandwidth required by the network

2. Task Assignment Mechanism

Any decent pool should have an algorithm that enables it to distribute tasks evenly to all participants without discriminating against the ones with less powerful devices.

3. Transparency

How transparent is the pool operator? For instance, is the hash rate declared by the pool the actual hash rate? Are the payouts being manipulated in some way? Some pools have a real-time dashboard that displays activity, eliminating any cause for doubt. You want to join such a pool.

4. Payment Threshold and Frequency

This has to do with the type of mining hardware you have. High-end mining devices mean more computational power and hence more and frequent earnings for you. Hence, if you have low-end devices, best to avoid pools that make payments based on the output threshold.

5. Pool Stability and Security

Before joining a pool, check out its commitment towards security. Does it offer a secure connection? Is it vulnerable to the all-common denial of service attacks? Is it sufficiently robust against potential attacks?

6. Pool Fee Structure

The pool fee is the amount you pay for utilizing a mining pool’s services. Some pools charge no fee at all while others charge a nominal fee. Others incorporate the fee in the payout. Others offer free entry, after which they’ll start charging after a given period. Finally, some pools will require you to run the software on your own device instead of on their servers – which is usually expensive for the miner.

What are some of the Best Mining Pools?

After Bitcoin exploded, the currency’s mining industry is proliferated by all manner of mining pools. Some have made a name for themselves for having a winning combo of certain features. Let’s take a look at a number of them:

  • F2Pool

Launched in 2013, Chinese-based F2Pool uses a stratum mining protocol – a Bitcoin mining protocol that facilitates improved mining and efficiency. F2Pool also supports Litecoin, Ethereum, and Zcash mining and features three languages (Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, and English) to accommodate a more diverse background of miners.

  • com

Launched in 2015, is a mining pool owned by Bitmain, which is a dominant player in the ASICs manufacturing industry. also runs on a stratum mining protocol and supports its own wallet known as the wallet. The site supports English and Chinese.

  • AntPool

Also owned by Bitmain, Antpool is one of the most dominant mining pools in the Bitcoin mining space. Alongside Bitcoin, the pool also supports Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Ethereum, Dash, Siacoin, ZCash, and Ethereum classic. Antpool supports tens of languages, including English, Amharic, Zulu, Welsh, Urdu, Thai, Bosnian, Arabic, and Turkish.

  • ViaBTC

Launched in 2016, ViaBTC is relatively new in the industry but has managed to claw its way to the top. The pool uses a stratum mining protocol and also supports merged mining. ViaBTC supports the mining of other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Ethereum Classic, Dash, ZCash, and Monero.

Crypto Guides

How Different Is Permissioned Blockchain From Permissionless Blockchain?


Blockchain has created ripples throughout many industries. Its security futures are ever essential now with increasing data due to IoT. Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning are used to analyze the data generated to find different patterns as per the requirement. Blockchain is essential to secure the data or transfer the data securely.

Different industries are trying to implement the blockchain technology to improve their business. Hence, it is essential to design the platform in terms of their requirement. To facilitate the same, we have different types of blockchain platforms available. They are as follows:

  1. Permissioned blockchain or Private blockchain
  2. Permissionless blockchain or Public blockchain.
  3. Hybrid blockchain.

Permissionless Blockchain

Cryptocurrency platforms are classic examples of permissionless blockchain platforms. As the name suggests, it is a public blockchain. Anyone can join the network to perform different activities in the network, like users, miners, developers, or community members. Since the network is transparent, anyone can have a look at the transactions getting confirmed in the network.

🔓 Permissionless blockchain networks follow all the underlying principles of a real blockchain network. These networks are genuinely decentralized.

🔓 Authorities cannot shut down the network as no single entity controls the network. People, regardless of nation, location can join the network from anywhere.

🔓 Mostly all public blockchains are linked to a token with some intrinsic value. Based on the network-specific number of coins are mined at the beginning itself, or new coins are mined after every block is confirmed.

🔓 Miners are rewarded with these tokens to keep running the network smoothly.

🔓 Bitcoin is an example of a permissionless blockchain network.

Permissioned Blockchain

Enterprise blockchains are an excellent example of permissioned or private blockchains. Permissions should be given for different entities to join the network.

🔐 Everyone should have valid credentials to join the network.

🔐 These networks are not genuinely decentralized as these networks are created for the purposes of enterprises.

🔐 Not all the members of the network can see the transactions unless they have appropriate permissions.

🔐 Different Hyperledger platforms developed for different enterprise use cases are good examples of permissioned blockchain networks.

🔐 These blockchains are often not associated with tokens as enterprises run these.

Consortium Blockchains

Consortium blockchains are nothing but private blockchains but run by different entities together. Blockchain, being niche technology, different companies, even rivals, are coming together as a consortium to develop the technology.

R3 Corda is one such example in the financial place formed to create the technology for Fintech purposes.

Hybrid Blockchain

Hybrid blockchains offer the functionalities of private and public blockchains together at the same time. The entities involved can choose which data should be open or closed, depending on their functionality. The users need not forgo one feature completely to utilize the other functionality.

🔐🔓 Interoperability is very much possible, enabling to form multichain because of the hybrid nature of the platform.

🔐🔓 Dragonchain is an excellent example of Hybrid blockchains.

These are different types of blockchains available as of now, enabling the adoption of various industries as per their requirement.

Crypto Videos

Legitimate Passive Income Streams In Crypto – The Pitfalls & Successes Part 4


Earn Passive Income in Cryptocurrency – part 4

This part of the Cryptocurrency Passive Income guide will talk about one of the most known ways of creating passive income with cryptos, mining. This is also one of the first, if not the first, method of earning a passive income with cryptocurrencies, as this was the only way you could passively earn money when there was only one cryptocurrency, Bitcoin.

Mining – history

In the early days of Bitcoin, anyone could mind from almost any device. Mining Bitcoin on an everyday PC Central Processing Unit (CPU for short) was a completely viable solution. However, as Bitcoin gained traction, mining on regular CPU’s became harder. As the competition increased, so did the mining difficulty, and most miners swapped to mining with their Graphics Processing Units (GPU s for short). However, the competition kept increasing, and certain companies started developing specialized miners that were used exclusively for mining. These miners were called Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). They are tailor-made for one specific purpose – mining – and are extremely effective at it.

Mining – overview

As miners mine cryptocurrencies almost exclusively on specific mining hardware, the entry fee for this way of earning a passive income has increased. Besides the initial hardware costs, which often go above $1000 per unit, a miner would have to pay for the electricity that the hardware uses. This is why it is extremely important to check the electricity prices in your country before starting to mine.
Bitcoin mining has mostly become a business ran by corporations rather than a way of earning passive income for regular individuals.

However, Bitcoin is not the only minable cryptocurrency. Mining lower hash rate coins that use the Proof of Work algorithm can still be a great source of passive income. On these smaller networks, using GPUs is still somewhat viable. Mining lesser-known coins are quite risky and speculative, but also potentially highly rewarding in the long run. These coins might be worth something one day, and completely worthless the other. However, they can also get adopted by the community and exponentially rise in price and value.


Mining is certainly one of the ways to earn passive income with cryptocurrencies, but it is far from the safest, easiest, or the most profitable one. It requires some technical knowledge, initial investment, profitability calculations as well as picking the proper coin. Though it can be highly profitable, it is not something crypto beginners should do.

Crypto Guides

Beginners Guide to Cryptocurrency Mining


There is a significant difference in how cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies are generated and issued to the ecosystem. Fiat currencies are created and printed by the government bodies in response to orders by the state authority. At the same time, cryptocurrencies are issued to the public by going through the blockchain network according to a preset algorithm. There are different schemes assigned for mining, such as the Proof of Work, Proof of Stake, Proof of Authority, etc. These are referred to as consensus algorithms. The in-depth working of these processes is complicated. So, we shall stick on the basic working of it.


Cryptocurrency mining is the procedure to bring up new coins into the current flowing supply, by verifying the coins through a system. The ones that mine these coins are called miners.

Procedure to Mine Cryptocurrency

  • When a transaction is performed over the blockchain network, i.e., when a user sends coins to another address, the transaction information is recorded and put onto a block.
  • This block must be encrypted and made secure. This is where the miners come in.
  • To encrypt a blockchain, miners solve a complicated cryptographic puzzle to find the appropriate cryptographic hash for the code. For this, miners typically make use of large rigs of application-specific hardware to increase their chances of being the first one to verify and secure the block.
  • Once the block is successfully secured, it is then added to the blockchain, where other nodes on the blockchain network verify it. This verification process is known as consensus.
  • When the block successfully clears through the nodes in the network, the block is officially said to be verified and secured. And for securing a block, the miner is rewarded new-created coins. Hence, the complete above procedure of work is called Proof of Work.

Reward system in Cryptocurrency mining

Mining is a complicated process. Each day, miners commit a thousand watts of electricity towards mining cryptocurrencies. People mine coins though it is an expensive process because they receive a good number of Bitcoins for it, which has value in various markets.

As mentioned above, the reward is released to the miners when they successfully solve a block in the blockchain. The compensation received is pretty decent; in fact, it compensates a thousand watts of electricity. Having that said, the reward cannot be very high, as it could cause an oversupply in the market and depreciate the value of the currency.

Supply and Demand of a Cryptocurrency

Buying and selling cryptocurrencies is different from buying and selling of stocks, bonds, etc. Also, unlike investing in traditional currencies, cryptocurrencies are not issued by the central banks. Therefore, the monetary policy, inflation rates, and other economic factors do not apply to the cryptocurrencies. They are influenced majorly by factors such as the supply of the coins and the demand for it, the number of competing coins, and also the exchanges it trades on.

The supply of cryptocurrencies is impacted by the cryptocurrency protocol, which permits the creation of a new coin (same type) at a fixed rate. A number of coins are introduced into the market when miners verify the blocks of transactions. And the rate at which these new coins are introduced is designed such that it slows down over time. This is done to create a scenario in which the demand for coins increases faster than the supply, which hence causes the prices to shoot up.

Hence we can say that mining & miners have a crucial role in maintaining the supply & demand of any cryptocurrency!


How Exactly Does Blockchain Work?

Anyone who’s heard of cryptocurrency has most probably heard of blockchain. If you ask most people, they’ll tell you blockchain is cool. But they probably won’t tell you much beyond that. That’s because not everyone understands how blockchain works.

Not that it’s a hopelessly complicated concept. On the contrary. It’s just a groundbreaking technology with many firsts that might take some getting used to. In this article, we break down what’s blockchain, its history, how it works, and the properties that make it so revolutionary.

What is Blockchain?

The concept of blockchain is credited to computer scientist Stuart Haber and physicist W.Scott Stornetta. In a 1991 white paper, the two wrote a white paper that proposed the idea of time stamping and using private key signatures (based on cryptography) on submitted data.

This idea inspired the work of many other computer scientists and cryptography enthusiasts – leading to the creation of the first blockchain application – Bitcoin.  

‘Blockchain’ can be defined in several ways. Some people may understand it as a literal chain of blocks – though not in the real sense of those words. Others would understand it as a decentralized digital diary or ledger. (Decentralized means everyone can have access, and no single authority makes the rules.)

Both are correct. In this context, ‘block’ is essentially transaction data stored on a ‘chain,’ which is the public database. Every block in the blockchain contains several digital pieces of information, which we’ll detail below:

☑️ Information about transactions including date, time, and the amount of cryptocurrency in the transaction

☑️ Information about the participants of transactions, i.e., a digital signature (not their real name)

☑️ Distinct information that distinguishes it from other blocks, known as a ‘hash.’ (a hash is a string of letters and numbers generated by a ‘hash function.’ A hash function is a mathematical function that converts random letters and letters into an encrypted text of fixed length.)

A single block on the blockchain can only store up to 1MB of data. Depending on the size of transactions, a block can hold a few thousand transactions.

How Blockchain Works

When a block is validated (that is, the transactions in a block are verified), it is recorded on the blockchain. But for a block to be added on the blockchain, four things must happen: 

A transaction must take place.  

That transaction must be verified. After you pay for goods in a store with crypto or you send cryptocurrency to your loved one, that transaction must be confirmed as accurate and legitimate. Unlike with other public records of information like Wikipedia or your local library where there’s someone in charge of verifying new data entries, the blockchain relies on a network of computers for that task.

Verifying means checking if the transaction is as you said it was, in regards to the details of the purchase, time, amount, and participants. 

The transaction must be stored in a block. After a transaction has been confirmed as legitimate, it gets the approval to join a block where there are many others like it.

The block is given a unique identifier called a hash. Once all transactions of a block have been verified, it’s given a distinctive code that will differentiate it from all other blocks on the blockchain. Then, that block is added to the blockchain. 

When a block is added to the blockchain – it becomes a public matter of record available for anyone to see. A quick look at Bitcoin’s blockchain, for instance, will show you traction data along with the info about when (“Time”), where (“Height”) who (“Miner”) added the block to the blockchain. 

The blockchain network is maintained by network participants. These participants are also called nodes and is composed of a myriad of interconnected computers spread across the globe. Every node has a copy of the blockchain, and all participants are equal in authority. 

Therefore, blockchain transactions take place within a global, peer-to-peer network. Its peer-to-peer characteristic makes it decentralized, borderless, and censorship-resistant. (Censorship resistant means anyone can interact with the blockchain on the same terms as anyone else, and no one person can singly modify the content on the blockchain.)

A central part of many blockchains – including Bitcoin, is mining, which relies on computers to run a series of hashing algorithms to “mine” or process the most recent block. Each blockchain uses a different type of hashing algorithm. For example, Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm. ‘SHA’ stands for Secure Hash Algorithm. The SHA-256 takes an input of alphanumeric characters of any length and converts it to an output of 64 characters (256 bits). 

Once a block is mined, the miner broadcasts it to all miners (nodes) in the network. They then confirm its validity before adding to it to their copy of the blockchain. They will also include the hash from the previous block onto the new block – hence the name blockchain. 

The model of producing new blocks by running a series of hashing algorithms is called Proof of Work (PoW). PoW is the model used by Bitcoin, the first application of blockchain and the world’s first cryptocurrency. PoW, however, uses extremely high computing power and hence, electricity – leading to the development of other models meant to improve on it – for example, Proof of Stake (PoS). 

The Principles of Blockchain

Blockchain has three main inherent characteristics that have made it such a revolutionary technology. These characteristics are as follows:

  • Decentralization
  • Transparency
  • Immutability 


On a blockchain, each participant in the network has access to the whole blockchain. No one participant has control over or regulates its information. Also, every participant can validate the records on the chain.

You can also transact directly with other users on the blockchain – send money, receive money, etc. without an intermediary.

In the same way, the blockchain is also architecturally decentralized such that there’s no one single or even several points of failure. For an attacker to gain control of the blockchain, they would have to gain control of more than half (at least 51%) of the network – which is almost impossible.


Blockchain technology came with an unprecedented level of transparency. If speaking from a cryptocurrency viewpoint, for example, all transactions are recorded on the blockchain and identified by the owner’s public address. In cryptocurrency, this is what is referred to as pseudonymity, i.e., while their public address is open information, their real identity is not disclosed.

In real-world blockchain applications, for instance, the supply chain, every single step of the process is available for all to see. This introduces transparency never before seen in the world.


In the context of blockchain, immutability means that once something has been recorded on the blockchain, it cannot be changed or altered.

Blockchain achieves this via a cryptographic hash function – which is taking an alphanumeric input of any length and giving it an output of a fixed length.

The immutability of blockchains means it can be applied to many situations to encourage accountability when people know that they can’t manipulate information or accounts.   


The technology behind cryptocurrencies is interesting and revolutionary. It’s decentralized, transparent, and immutable nature is what makes it so unique. It’s what has made Bitcoin a household name and pushed cryptocurrencies to the fore. The next time you’re talking about blockchain, hopefully, you’ll be doing so with much more confidence.