Detailed Breakdown of Bitcoin’s Four Year’s Cycles

Up to 30 companies in Japan have announced plans to issue digital yen, and Rick Rieder, the CIO of BlackRock, is taking crypto seriously if his comments on CNBC are anything to go by. According to the world’s largest asset manager, the functionality and durable mechanism of crypto assets makes them more functional than gold, a fact that is up for debate.

It seems that the financial sector around the world is gradually embracing cryptocurrency, and it’s only a matter of time before it transitions to the mainstream. As a crypto investor, the current trend is satisfying. 

But is it time to make a move and laugh all the way to the bank?

Well, the most recent bitcoin highs had some investors rolling in a sense of accomplishment and success when they cashed out at the right time. Others waited for the prices to continue the upward trajectory above $41,000, but it is now on a free fall. 

Well, understanding the price movement of bitcoins is critical to make wise decisions. 

The popular theory that attempts to explain bitcoin’s price movement is bitcoins four-year cycles.

The price of bitcoin moves in cycles of booms and busts. If we were to learn anything from history, investors’ best financial decision has been to own bitcoin in a bull market.

Let’s examine the historical price behavior to have a better understanding of the bitcoin price volatility.

Price History of Bitcoin

Satoshi Nakamoto invented the cryptocurrency in 2008, and in the following year, the first transaction took place between him and an early adopter. The first real-world transaction took place when a bitcoin miner used bitcoins to buy pizzas in 2010 in Florida.

Bitcoin’s trading history is characterized by volatility since its creation in 2009. It has a reasonably short life, but it has seen a lot of action. One upon a time, the cryptocurrency traded for next to nothing, and the real price increase was from $0.0008 to $0.08 for a single coin. 

All along, bitcoin has been through significant rallies and crashes. Regardless, interest in bitcoin has surged in 2020 and is expected to continue in 2021. By 2020, the crypto-currency had recouped all its losses to record an all-time high. 

The Stages 

Stage 1: Exponential Highs

At this phase, the fear of missing out (FOMO) and euphoria among bitcoin investors is at its highest. The emotions compel many people to purchase at abnormally high prices leading to a prolonged bull trend that pushes the prices through the roof.

The high exponential stage is also called “topping out,” where the bitcoin prices reach their peak. 

Stage 2: Correction

The correction stage comes immediately after the euphoria that characterized the previous 12 months. The stage corrects for over-optimism by shedding considerable valuation.

Profit-taking investors create a sell-side pressure, which causes the bitcoin to drop a bit after an abnormal growth.

Stage 3: Accumulation and Recovery

Following the price correction, the sell-side momentum starts to slow down and bottom out. It is at this stage that bargain buyers take advantage of the discounted prices to accumulate bitcoins. 

Eventually, new demand starts to form, and the phase becomes a point of maximum financial opportunity where the prospect of reward overtakes that of the associated risk. The new growing demand is driven by the desire to make enormous profits. 

Stage 4: Continuation

After bottoming out, bitcoin starts to go up. Historically, the continuation stage has been all about exceeding the sell-side pressure characterized by sellers resisting the growing prices.

The continuation stage is an essential technical step that indicates a shift in market psychology. The stage tends to encourage strong emotions to result in buy-side momentum. Following a successful 12-month close, the market psychology then transitions to buying from selling.

The Effect of Bitcoin Halving 

Bitcoin halving occurs when the value of new bitcoin created every 10 minutes is halved. The latest bitcoin halving reduced the block reward of 12.5 to 6.25 every 10 minutes. 

Typically, bitcoin halving marks a fundamental variation in the protocol of the cryptocurrency. The event also has a significant impact on the prices of the bitcoin as well. It acts as a catalyst to propel the prices to new heights. 

Given that 21 million is the maximum supply cap, the halving event means that it will take much longer for all the bitcoin to go into circulation. It also means that all the bitcoins created will be less and less, limiting the supply. The scarcity of bitcoins increases value, which is why bitcoin halving acts as a catalyst in the new bull market. 

In the past, the bitcoin price has grown exponentially following the halving events. This observation can be used to explain the current situation.

The bitcoin’s next phase one was expected to be in 2021 to manage a 12-month candle close above the price level of ~$14,300. It has clearly exceeded this.

The belief was that the $20,000 mark will spur the buy-side momentum driven by investors’ intense emotions.

The 12-month price chart indicated that ~$14,300 may actually be the inflexion point in market psychology. Based on the 4 Year Cycle historical trends, a candle close above ~$14,300 provides the necessary confirmation that the prices may go above $20,000 in 2021. That is just what happened based on the current prices. 

Current Bitcoin Situation and Interpretation

A few days ago, on 8th January 2021, the world’s largest and most popular cryptocurrency was posting highs of $41,962. It is now just above $30,000, recording losses of up to 20%. Bitcoin is in free fall, which has already wiped $130 billion off the market.

The fall in prices comes after the UK Financial Conduct Authority warned investors that they could lose everything based on difficulties in valuing crypto assets and price volatility. 

However, the problem is that the price volatility will pique the interest of individual investors whose ability to take on significant losses is a far cry compared to institutional investors.

Since bitcoin was created, the debate has raged about whether the abnormal rises in prices constitute market bubbles or are objective indicators of its future role in the financial ecosystem. A market bubble is when the asset value becomes over-inflated.

Some investors will see the latest bitcoin rise and fall as a bubble that has burst. On the other side of the spectrum, some experts believe the bitcoin fluctuations are nothing out of the ordinary and will continue to occur towards its eventual valuation.

The considerable upside swings followed by corrections are normal behaviour and confirm the bitcoins four year cycles is more than just a theory. 

Bitcoin prices were in the first stage of exponential growth to reach an all-time high of $41,962. Apparently, the cryptocurrency is now in the correction stage before it enters the accumulation and recovery phase, and eventually, continuation.

Final Word

As with any other new technology, bitcoin prices are highly volatile, but it’s normal behavior. Based on the four-year cycles, bitcoin was experiencing exponential growth towards the start of January 2021, but it is now in the correction stage. The slashing of up to 20% of its value is just a normal phase of correction and nothing to cause panic.

Bitcoin investment is not for the faint-hearted. It is only for those with higher risk tolerance levels, sufficient exposure to the asset class, and a long term view of the technology. It would be best if you never lost sight of the big picture. Focus on the forest as opposed to a single tree. Happy trading, folks! 

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading Algorithms IX – RSI Failures System

Trading the naked RSI system depicted in this series’s previous video as an overbought/oversold signal generator is too risky, and its long-term results questionable. The system is profitable only in sideways movements. Thus, a trending filter or a detrending step will be needed to avoid the numerous fake signals.

Divergences and Failure swings

Welles Wilder remarks on two ways to trade the RSI: Divergences and Top/Bottom failure swings.


A divergence forms when the price makes higher highs (or lower lows), and the RSI makes the opposite move: lower highs (or higher lows). RSI divergences from the oversold area show the market action starts to strengthen, an indication of a potential swing up. In contrast, RSI divergences in the overbought area show weakness and a likely retracement from the current upward movement.


An RSI Top failure occurs with the following sequence of events:

  1. The RSI forms a pivot high in the overbought area.
  2. An RSI pullback occurs, and an RSI pivot low forms.
  3. A new RSI pivot high forms, which is lower than the previous pivot high

Fig 1 – RSI TOP failures in the EURUSD 4H 2H Chart

An RSI Bottom failure occurs with the following sequence of events:

  1. The RSI forms a pivot low below the oversold area.
  2. An RSI pullback occurs, and an RSI pivot high forms.
  3. A new RSI pivot low forms, which is higher than the previous pivot high.

Fig 2 – RSI Bottom failures in the ETHUSD 1H Chart.

According to Welles Wilder, trading the RSI failure swings can be more profitable than trading the RSI overbought-oversold system. Thus, we will test it.

The RSI Failure algorithm

To create the RSI Failure algorithm, we will need to use the Finite State Machine concept, presented in this series’s seventh video.

The Easylanguage code of the RSI system failure is the following:

inputs:  Price( Close ), Length( 14 ), OverSold( 30 ), Overbought( 70 ), 
takeprofit( 3 ), stoploss( 1 ) ;
variables: state(0), state1 (0), state2(0), state5 (0), state6(0), rsiValue(0),
 var0( 0 ), rsi_Pivot_Hi(0), rsiPivotHiFound(False), 
rsiPivotLoFound (False),rsi_Pivot_Lo(0)  ;

rsiValue = RSI(C,Length);

If rsiValue[1] > rsiValue and rsiValue[1] > rsiValue[2] then
         rsiPivotHiFound = true;
         rsi_Pivot_Hi= rsiValue[1];

     rsiPivotHiFound = False;

If rsiValue[1] < rsiValue and rsiValue[1] < rsiValue[2] then
         rsiPivotLoFound = true;
        rsi_Pivot_Lo = rsiValue[1];

     rsiPivotLoFound = False;

If state = 0 then
        if rsiPivotHiFound = true and rsi_Pivot_Hi> Overbought then
             state = 1    {a bearih setup begins}
           if rsiPivotLoFound = True and rsi_Pivot_Lo < OverSold then
                 state = 5; {a bullish Setup begins}

{The Bearish setup}    

If state = 1 then
         state1 = rsi_Pivot_Hi;
         if rsiValue > state1 then state = 0;
         if rsiPivotLoFound = true then
             state = 2;
If state = 2 then
         state2 = rsi_Pivot_Lo ;
         if rsiValue > state1 then state = 0;
         if rsiPivotHiFound = true then
         if rsi_Pivot_Hi< 70 then state = 3;

If state = 3 then
     if rsiValue < state2 then state = 4;

If state = 4 then
        sellShort this bar on close;
        state = 0;

{The bullish setup}

If state = 5 then
       state5 = rsi_Pivot_Lo;
       if rsiValue < state5 then state = 0;
       if rsiPivotHiFound = true then
             state = 6;

If state = 6 then
         state6 = rsi_Pivot_Hi;
         if rsiValue < state5 then state = 0;
         if rsiPivotLoFound = true then
             if rsi_Pivot_Lo > OverSold then state = 7;


If state = 7 then
     if rsiValue > state6 then state = 8;

 If state = 8 then
         buy this bar on close;
         state = 0;

If state > 0 and rsiValue < OverSold then state = 0;
If state > 0 and rsiValue > Overbought then state = 0;    

{The Long position management section}

If marketPosition =1 and close < entryprice - stoploss* avgTrueRange(10) then
    sell this bar on close;

If marketPosition =1 and close < entryPrice + takeprofit* avgTrueRange(10) then
    sell this bar on close;

{The Short position management section}

If marketPosition =-1 and close > entryprice + stoploss* avgTrueRange(10) then
     BuyToCover this bar on close;

If marketPosition =-1 and close < entryPrice - takeprofit* avgTrueRange(10) then
     BuyToCover this bar on close;

The results, measured on the EURUSD, are not as brilliant as Mr. Welles Wilder stated.

The trade analysis shows that the RSI Failures system, as is, is a losing system. This fact is quite common. It takes time to uncover good ideas for a profitable trading system. In the meantime, we have developed a practical exercise using the finite state machine concept, handy for the future development of our own trading ideas.

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

5 Crypto Trading Strategies To Bank on in 2021

Cryptocurrencies are rapidly transforming the financial sector. At the moment, they’re finding greater acceptance in payments besides offering an alternative investment vehicle. The reasons for their increased popularity are varied. Chief, though, is their decentralized nature and potential for high returns. From these reasons, it is easy to see why they’d be an attractive investment. 

Crypto trading is as lucrative as it’s risky. It is, therefore, imperative to adopt a solid investment strategy. Again, investing in digital assets needn’t be a complex engagement. The market is rich in strategies that ease potential investors’ foray into the space. 

This article examines five proven strategies that one may bank their crypto trading on in 2021.

Which are the Best five Trading Strategies to Adopt in 2021?

As already indicated, there is a myriad of trading strategies at any investor’s disposal. Individual preferences determine the choice of the means to employ. Here are five concrete plans that you can depend on this year. 

1. Scalping

Scalping is a trading strategy defined by short durations between a trade’s opening and closing. The underlying thinking is that little profits snowball into huge ones in time. Scalpers are traders employing this technique. It utilizes market volatility and is handy in slow market days.

Types of Crypto Scalping Strategies

A scalper may pick from any of the following five strategies:

  • Crypto Range Trading- the range is the difference between the price support and resistance. Scalpers buy at support and sell at resistance.
  • Bid-Ask Spread- The scalper opens a position at either the bid or ask price. To get a profit, they then quickly close the position a few points lower or higher.
  • Arbitrage- here, the investor profits from trading the same asset in different markets. Arbitrage is either spatial or paring.
  • Price Action– the trader uses price movements to make trading decisions. 
  • Margin Trading- It entails transacting with borrowed funds.

The Pros and Cons of Crypto Scalping

Like any other trading strategy, scalping has its pros and cons. One advantage is that the small position sizes make it low risk. Additionally, regular small price changes enhance profits, and one can automate their transactions. 

Finally, affordable entry positions expand trading opportunities.

On the other hand, scalping is demanding; Any slight delay may lead to losses. Further, it has low returns per trade, and traders incur higher transaction costs.

2. Buy the Dips and Hold

Downswings offer excellent buying opportunities. If the affected asset is strong, the price will appreciate once it gains its market confidence.

An examination of cryptos reveals periods of over and undervaluation. Additionally, the crypto market reacts to media coverage. Positive reportage triggers increased acquisition at overvalued rates. The reverse causes traders to panic, therefore, sell their coins below their real value.

Undervalued cryptocurrencies are ideal investment opportunities. Traders using this strategy study the market to determine peak undervaluation. They also predict the earliest recovery. After this, they do their trades holding out for profit when the market corrects itself.

Pros and Cons of Buying the Dips and Holding

A significant plus for this strategy is that one needn’t have special high-frequency trading software to trade. It is convenient as a single trade suffices. Moreover, one profits from both the cryptos upside and the undervalued amount. 

The downside is that it is a long term approach. There aren’t quick profits here. Additionally, it requires a proper grasp of the market. Finally, the strategy calls for calmness amidst market turbulence.

3. Fading Trading

A high-risk trading strategy, fading involves betting against the market’s momentum. The trader sells when there’s an upswing in the market and buys when the market experiences a downswing.

Owing to its high-risk nature, it’s a suitable method for experienced traders. Also, it’s ideal for risk-inclined individuals. However, it could yield dividends when correctly applied and is best suited for a highly volatile market.

Pros and Cons Of Fading Trading

When adequately executed, Fading can be a lucrative trading strategy. Traders can realize profits from any market reversals, a situation that always follows an upsurge or a markdown. That said, it is a risky strategy. One risks incurring massive losses if they misread the market.

4. High-frequency Trading 

High-frequency trading is the most profitable yet complex trading strategy to use. It involves the full automation of trading strategies. HFTs are algorithmic and entail volume trading in milliseconds.

Pros and Cons of High-Frequency Trading

HFT trading is beneficial in several ways. Firstly, it reduces the bid-ask spreads, enhances market efficiency, and creates high liquidity to mitigate the effects of market fragmentation. Further, HFT removes emotions out of trading hence improving better decision making.

On the other hand, HFTs could be disadvantageous. For example, algorithms are susceptible to spoofing, thus price anomalies. Secondly, the hardware and software required for trading are costly. Also, the risk of glitches isn’t far away.

5. Golden Cross and Death Cross Trading

The golden cross denotes a situation where a cryptocurrency’s short term average crosses its long term average. Whereas the short term average comprises the currency’s 50 days average, the long term is its 200-day average.

The death cross, on the flip side, is the opposite of the golden cross. It is the point when the short term average goes under the long term average. The gist of this strategy is buying at the golden cross and selling at the death cross.

Analyzing the changes in trading volumes confirms the occurrence of these trends. Although some use technical indicators such as RSI and the MACD, many consider volume one of the best indicators. 

Pros and Cons of Golden Cross and Death Cross Trading Strategy

A major boon for the strategy’s users is that it helps to determine the market trend. Using both indicators is essential in pointing out attractive entry and exit points. 

Conversely, other schools of thought consider the two to be lagging indicators. Thus, they indicate momentum after price movements have occurred, not before. Additionally, some of the momenta they show could be temporary hence unreliable.

Final Thoughts

The growth of cryptos has ushered in an exciting period in global finance. Besides expanding the payments sector, it has created alternative investment avenues. This growth is fuelled by, among others, the higher ROIs recorded in the space. 

To the first time investor, navigating crypto investments could be exacting. For profitability, they need concrete strategies. Luckily today, there are many sound ones that help ease their entry into the sector. These vary in their utility, and ultimately the choice of one over the other is individual. That said, they serve the same end; taking the guesswork out of investments. 

So, let us know which of the five strategies you’ll be adopting this year!


Forex Fundamental Analysis

GBP/CAD Global Macro Analysis – Part 3

GBP/CAD Exogenous Analysis

The UK and Canada Current Account Differential

The current account differential between the UK and Canada can determine if the GBP/CAD pair is bullish or bearish. If the differential is positive, it means that the UK has a higher current account balance than Canada. This would imply that the GBP is in higher demand in the forex market than the CAD; hence, it is a bullish trend for the pair. Conversely, if the current account differential is negative, it means that the UK has a lesser current balance than Canada. It would imply that the GBP has a lower demand than the CAD in the forex market; hence, a bearish trend for the pair.

In Q3 of 2020, the UK had a current account deficit of $20.97 billion while Canada had a $5.83 billion deficit. Thus, the current account differential is -$15.14 billion. We assign a score of -2.

The interest rate differential between the UK and Canada

The interest rate differential is the difference between the Bank of England’s interest rate and that by the Bank of Canada. In the forex market, carry traders use the interest rate differential to decide whether to buy or short a currency pair. When the interest rate differential is positive, traders will earn the differential by going long. If the differential is negative, traders can earn the differential by shorting the currency pair.

Therefore, if the GBP/CAD pair’s interest rate differential is positive, the pair is bound to adopt a bullish trend. Conversely, if negative, the pair is bound to be bearish.

In 2020, the interest rate in the UK dropped from 0.75% to 0.1%. In Canada, the BOC cut interest rates from 1.75% to 0.25%. Therefore, the interest rate differential is -0.15%. The interest rate differential between the UK and Canada has a score of -1.

The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and Canada

This differential measures the changes in the growth rate between the two economies. It is a preferred method of comparison since economies are of different sizes. Naturally, the economy with a higher GDP growth rate will have its currency appreciate more. Therefore, if the GDP growth rate differential is positive, it means that the GBP/CAD pair is bullish. If negative, then the pair is bearish.

During the first three quarters of 2020, the UK economy has contracted by 5.8%, while the Canadian economy has contracted by 3.3%. This makes the GDP growth rate differential -2.5%. Hence, a score of -1.


Indicator Score Total State Comment
The UK and Canada Current Account Differential -2 10 A differential of – $15.14 The UK has a higher deficit than Canada
The interest rate differential between the UK and Canada -1 10 -0.15% Expected to remain at -0.15% until either economy have recovered
The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and Canada -1 10 3.30% The Canadian economy contracted at a slower pace than the UK economy

The cumulative score for the exogenous factors is -4. This means that we can expect the GBP/CAD pair to trade in a downtrend in the short term.

However, technical analysis shows the pair adopting a bullish trend with the weekly chart trading above the 200-period MA. More so, the pair is seen bouncing off the lower Bollinger band. Keep an eye on the near-term changes in the exogenous factors.

Forex Fundamental Analysis

GBP/CAD Global Macro Analysis – Part 1 & 2


This analysis will evaluate the endogenous factors that affect the domestic economy in both the UK and Canada. We’ll also cover exogenous factors that influence the price of the GBP/CAD pair.

Ranking Scale

After analysis, we will rank both the exogenous and the endogenous factors on a scale from -10 to +10.

Endogenous factors will be ranked after a correlation analysis with the GDP growth rate. If negative, it means that either the GBP or the CAD have depreciated. If positive, it means that the domestic currency has appreciated.

The exogenous factors are ranked based on their correlation with the GBP/CAD pair’s exchange rate. When negative, it means that the price will drop. The price will be expected to increase if the exogenous analysis is positive.

Summary – GBP Endogenous Analysis

-15 score on Pound’s Endogenous Analysis indicates that this currency has depreciated since the beginning of 2020.

Summary – CAD Endogenous Analysis

  • Canada Employment Rate

The Canadian employment rate measures the percentage of the labor force that is employed during a particular period. The developments in the labor market are a leading indicator of overall economic growth. When the economy is expanding, there are more job openings, hence a higher employment rate. Conversely, when the economy is going through a recession, businesses close down, leading to a dropping employment rate.

In November 2020, the employment rate in Canada rose to 59.5% from 59.4% in October. Although the employment rate has been steadily increasing from the lows of 52.1% in April, it is still lower than in January. Canada’s employment rate has a score of -6.

  • Canada Core Consumer Prices

This index measures the overall change in Canada’s inflation rate based on a survey of price changes for a basket of consumer goods. The rate of inflation gauges the increase in economic activity. Typically, when demand is depressed in an economy, prices drop, resulting in lower inflation. Conversely, when demand increases, prices tend to increase, resulting in a higher rate of inflation.

In November 2020, Canada’s core consumer prices rose to 136.6 points from 136.3 in October. Between January and November, the index has increased by 2 points. It has a score of 3.

  • Canada Manufacturing Production

This index measures the YoY change in the value of the output from the Canadian manufacturing sector. Canadian manufacturing is a significant contributor to the labor market and economic growth. In the age of the coronavirus disruption, changes in manufacturing production show how faster the economy is bouncing back.

In September 2020, the YoY manufacturing production in Canada dropped by 4.24%. This is an improvement compared to the 5.34% drop recorded in August. Canadian manufacturing production has a score of -2.

  • Canada Business Confidence

The Ivey Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) measures monthly business confidence in Canada. In the survey, private and public companies rate whether the current business activity is higher or lower than the previous month. The index survey aspects including inventories, purchases, deliveries from suppliers, output prices, and employment.

When the index is over 50, it means that purchases have increased from the preceding month. Reading of below 50 shows a decrease in purchases.

In November 2020, Canadian business confidence dropped to 52.7 from 54.5 in October. This was the lowest reading since May, when the economy began rebounding from the shocks of  COVID-19. Consequently, Canada’s business confidence has a score of 1.

  • Canada Consumer Spending

This measures the final market value of all household expenditures on goods and services. It also includes expenditure by non-profit organizations that serve households in Canada but excludes purchases of homes. Consumer spending plays a critical role in economic growth.

In Q3 of 2020, consumer spending in Canada rose to CAD 1.13 trillion from CAD 1 trillion in Q2. However, it is still lower than consumer spending recorded in Q1. Thus, Canada’s consumer spending has a score of -4.

  • Canada New Housing Price Index

The Canadian NHPI measures the changes in the selling price of newly built residential houses. The price measured is that paid by the home buyers to the contractors. Note that the price comparison is strictly between houses of the same specification. The NHPI shows the construction sector’s growth trends; hence, it corresponds to changes in the labor market and GDP growth.

In November 2020, the Canadian NHPI rose to 107.9 from 107.3 in October. Thus, we assign a score of 3.

  • Canada Government Budget Value

This indicator tracks the changes in the difference between the Canadian government revenues and expenditures. It shows whether the government is running a surplus or a deficit. It also breaks down the changes in the receipts by the government. This helps to show how the overall economy is fairing.

In October 2020, the Canadian government budget had a deficit of CAD 18.51 billion compared to CAD 27.59 billion in September. Throughout the year, the budget deficits have been due to the economic shocks brought on by the coronavirus pandemic. The Canadian government had to ramp up expenditure through its Economic Response Plan, while revenues dropped in the same period. We assign it a score of -5.


Indicator Score Total State Comment
Canada Employment Rate -6 10 59.5% in November 2020 The employment rate is steadily increasing. It is, however, still below January levels
Canada Core Consumer Prices 3 10 136.6 points in November 2020 Since January, it has increased by 2 points. That shows demand in the economy has kept prices higher
Canada Manufacturing Production -2 10 YoY dropped by 4.24% in September 2020 A slight increase from -5.34% recorded in August. This shows that the manufacturing production is returning to the pre-pandemic levels
Canada Business Confidence 1 10 52.7 in November November level was the lowest since the economy began to recover in May. It’s expected to improve as mass vaccinations against COVID-19 rolls out
Canada Consumer Spending -4 10 Was CAD 1.13 trillion Q3 2020 Recovered from CAD 1 trillion in Q2 but still lower than Q1. This shows that demand is increasing in the economy
Canada New Housing Price Index 3 10 November NHPI was 107.9 It has been increasing, which shows that output in the construction industry is improving
Canada Government Budget Value -5 10 a budget deficit of CAD 18.51 billion in October The deficit widened in 2020, driven by unprecedented fiscal policies to curb recessionary pressure from the pandemic

A score of -10 indicates that the CAD has depreciated since the beginning of the year 2020.

In the next article, you can find the exogenous analysis of GBP/CAD where we have forecasted this pair’s future price movements. Cheers.

GBP/CAD Exogenous Analysis

  • The UK and Canada Current Account Differential

The current account differential between the UK and Canada can determine if the GBP/CAD pair is bullish or bearish. If the differential is positive, it means that the UK has a higher current account balance than Canada. This would imply that the GBP is in higher demand in the forex market than the CAD; hence, it is a bullish trend for the pair. Conversely, if the current account differential is negative, it means that the UK has a lesser current balance than Canada. It would imply that the GBP has a lower demand than the CAD in the forex market; hence, a bearish trend for the pair.

In Q3 of 2020, the UK had a current account deficit of $20.97 billion while Canada had a $5.83 billion deficit. Thus, the current account differential is -$15.14 billion. We assign a score of -2.

The interest rate differential is the difference between the Bank of England’s interest rate and that by the Bank of Canada. In the forex market, carry traders use the interest rate differential to decide whether to buy or short a currency pair. When the interest rate differential is positive, traders will earn the differential by going long. If the differential is negative, traders can earn the differential by shorting the currency pair.

Therefore, if the GBP/CAD pair’s interest rate differential is positive, the pair is bound to adopt a bullish trend. Conversely, if negative, the pair is bound to be bearish.

In 2020, the interest rate in the UK dropped from 0.75% to 0.1%. In Canada, the BOC cut the interest rate from 1.75% to 0.25%. Therefore, the interest rate differential is -0.15%. The interest rate differential between the UK and Canada has a score of -1.

  • The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and Canada

This differential measures the changes in the growth rate between the two economies. It is a preferred method of comparison since economies are of different sizes. Naturally, the economy with a higher GDP growth rate will have its currency appreciate more. Therefore, if the GDP growth rate differential is positive, it means that the GBP/CAD pair is bullish. If negative, then the pair is bearish.

During the first three quarters of 2020, the UK economy has contracted by 5.8%, while the Canadian economy has contracted by 3.3%. This makes the GDP growth rate differential -2.5%. Hence, a score of -1.


Indicator Score Total State Comment
The UK and Canada Current Account Differential -2 10 A differential of – $15.14 The UK has a higher deficit than Canada
The interest rate differential between the UK and Canada -1 10 -0.15% Expected to remain at -0.15% until either economy have recovered
The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and Canada -1 10 3.30% The Canadian economy contracted at a slower pace than the UK economy


The cumulative score for the exogenous factors is -4. This means that we can expect the GBP/CAD pair to trade in a downtrend in the short term. However, technical analysis shows the pair adopting a bullish trend with the weekly chart trading above the 200-period MA. More so, the pair is seen bouncing off the lower Bollinger band.

Keep an eye on the near-term changes in the exogenous factors.



3 Assets that Will Keep Your Investment Inflation Resistant

Inarguably, the value of the dollar today is not the same as it was a decade or two ago. You use more currency to buy less, and that is what inflation is all about.

Inflation can be defined as the measure of the average price level, in an economy, of a unit of goods and services. It is the increase in the price over a particular period, where you cannot use the same amount of currency to purchase a specific item. 

No doubt, the pandemic and the rushed measures to control it were devastating to the world economy. Governments worldwide scrambled to shut down their economies and started printing money to control the spread while also trying to keep the local market functional.

The main issue with printing excess money is that it eventually decimates the host government’s currency and pushes the economy into an inflationary spiral. 

Nonetheless, inflation is a natural event, and only the most disciplined investor benefits from it or reduces its effect on their investments. 

How to Safeguard Against Inflation

In response to the COVID-19-inspired economic fallout, the Fed was forced to pull out all the stops in a bid to control it. These measures have pushed the Federal Reserve balance sheet to over the $7 trillion mark from $4 trillion, and further contractions are expected.

But what should you do as an investor? 

Ideally, there are two factors to look out for when searching for an inflation-resistant asset; real yield and store of value.

An asset with a large store of value such as gold does not lose its purchasing power over a particular period. If the asset can also create income, the better, as it fulfills the two requirements.

There are a couple of other benchmarks that measure potential hedges against inflation, and they include how the asset holds its value over time. Other essential factors include how people perceive the assets as a store of value across borders and how quickly it can be monetized.

Lastly, the ideal inflation-resistant asset should be easily movable across geographical borders in case of unforeseen hurdles.

The perspective of bitcoin as a viable store of value that can be monetized quickly is gaining traction, at least in recent months. Bitcoin is also beyond the control of any government and is, therefore, borderless.

Understanding the Top Three Assets That Will Keep Your Investment Inflation-free

While changes in the inflation level depend on various factors, such as the rapid increases in raw materials prices and rising wages, the coronavirus pandemic is the most significant.

In the last century, the US dollar buying power has been on a free fall, mostly because of the monetary, fiscal policy adopted. The Federal Reserve’s primary response has been to print money and purchase securities on the open market to plug an economic crisis like it is happening now. Although it adds more liquidity to the market, this policy diminishes the value of the dollar, which sometimes aggravates an already dire situation. 

Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the primary method of tracking US Dollar inflation. As far back as 1948, the inflation rate has been at an average of around 2%. This translates to a loss in value of up to 2% every year. That means the money in your savings account is losing its value.

Although inflation is a significant characteristic of market economies, it is possible to plan for it by focusing your investment in asset classes that outperform the market during such challenging times.


Traditionally, gold has been the perfect inflation hedge based on its stability. Not long ago, gold went above the $2,000 an ounce ceiling to record a 27% raise last year, 2020, which is quite enormous. 

In fact, many people have previously viewed gold as a possible alternative currency, especially in countries whose money is losing value fast. This precious metal is tangible and real and tends to hold its value in the long term, like no other asset.

Typically, it is common practice for gold or other strong currency to replace a weakened local currency to keep the economy sane. Central banks around the world hoard gold as they start to print money. They spend more of the bad money, which loses value and hold on to the good money, which is gold.

Unfortunately, gold is not always the perfect hedge in tough economic times. When inflation is in an upward trajectory, central banks move in to enforce a monetary policy that includes increasing interest rates. Assets such as gold, with no yields or any other accumulating rewards, are not always the best investment vehicle.

Other better assets will protect your wealth from inflation and still give you good yields. However, diversification is vital for a strong portfolio.


Last year, bitcoin was up by 66%, and the rise continued into the new year to post a high of $40,519.45, an all-time high. With its exceptional value, bitcoin is hedging against inflation and chaos.


The borderless and decentralized cryptocurrency is beyond any government control, and they cannot print more of it like they do with the standard currency. The maximum bitcoin supply is 21 million, which serves to limit the supply and prevent eventual dilution.

Bitcoin supply remains constant, regardless of what the local governments do.

Interestingly, the current government shutdowns are playing in the hands of digital assets such as cryptocurrency, thereby increasing its value as an inflation hedge asset. But how is that so?

Clearly, the current shutdowns have directed the focus to digital currencies. This may be one of the reasons that propelled bitcoin to an all-time high. It is one of the few assets posting excellent results, which is good for crypto investors. 


Thanks to coronavirus, the S&P 500 index surged 55% from the lows observed in March last year despite all the groom. Similar to bitcoin and gold, the lockdowns and the resulting money printing has caused a rally to the stocks. But how can this happen? 

According to economists, the stocks’ value is not appreciating, but rather the dollar is depreciating against the stocks. The surge in equities is a significant indication of diminishing trust in the local currencies, which forces the wise investor to add more stocks to their portfolio to safeguard against losses.

Apparently, investors have lined up to take up stocks at the expense of fiat currencies.

Final Word

Ostensibly, most investors do not give a hoot about inflation and its effect on day-to-day trading and investment. Well, indeed, what you can’t see can’t hurt you, but inflation is the exception. It will hit where it hurts the most; your financial well-being.

The common practice is to hoard local currency in the form of savings to safeguard against tough times. Putting away something for the rainy day is alright, but the strategy has a significant flaw. You lose a bit of the savings to inflation. Saving in a bank is not a viable option, especially when the global central banks do everything to devalue the local currency.

The looming economic crisis, driven by the continued printing of money, calls for wise investment decisions. Ideally, invest in inflation hedge assets such as gold, bitcoin, and stocks to weather the current storm. Don’t be on the losing side by putting so much faith in the dollar and other global currency.

Forex Videos

Beginners – Analysis Feature of MT4 Helps You Fund A Trading Strategy!

Beginners: analysis feature of MT4 to help find a trading strategy

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video. 

In this session, we will be looking at an analysis feature of the MT4 platform, which helps traders to find a winning trading strategy.

The Metatrader mt4 platform is one of the widest the most available trading platforms on earth.  It is fully customisable….

And there are a host of technical analysis tools available in the Navigator section, which are freely available from most brokers, and which can be added to, either freely found ones on the internet or paid tools, which can be mostly found on the mql5 website.

On this one-hour chart of the US dollar CAD pair, we have selected three widely used and popular technical analysis tools from the navigator section, which are Bollinger bands, moving average convergence divergence commonly known as the MACD, and the stochastic oscillator indicator.

 Although as a new trader, we must consider many factors when trading, such as fundamental analysis, the time of day while trading, whether or not economic data is due to be released, whether or not political or policymaker decisions, which might affect the particular currency pair we are interested in, are about to make an announcement, which could affect our trade, without doubt, the most critical aspect to trading, and which has the most influence on the movement of a currency exchange rate, is technical analysis.  Technical analysis often overrides fundamental analysis and even economic data releases.

While we cannot be in control, as traders, of fundamental reasons for why a particular currency pair is moving in any particular direction, and nor can we control political events, we can become masters of technical analysis, and where we can study our charts and seek out regular and consistent screen trading patterns which can stack the odds in our favour with regard to consistent winning trades, and with regard to knowing where to place tight stop losses to maintain the health of our account balance.

Now chart patterns have a habit of reoccurring, and technical analysis traders know this.  Therefore, as new traders, we must find regular and consistent winning setups, and this takes a lot of time as a new trader, and this requires a lot of patience and a whole lot of studying.

Only when we have found regular setups, which consistently work, can we then build a successful trading methodology, which should be adhered to.

Because these chart patterns are always changing, we can take advantage of the drawing tools such as the ‘’draw text label’’ as highlighted, and where we can make notes on the chart, and because of the flexibility of the MetaTrader platform…..


If we right-click on the chart, we have the option to save the chart as a picture for further analysis at a later time.  

As we see here, to save the chart as a picture, we can set the desired parameters, including the size, and then click ok….

You will then be asked where to save it on your computer, select your destination folder, and save it.

This saves an awful lot of time and alleviates the need to scroll back through hours and hours of charts just to find the setup which you may have been interested in. 

Forex Videos

Beginners How to save a profile in Metatrader MT4!

Beginners: How to save a profile in Metatrader MT4

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

In this session, we will show you how to save a profile in the Metatrader MT4 platform.

The MetaTrader mt4 platform is one of the most widely used technical analysis platforms in the world.  Some traders use it for technical analysis only, and will trade on a different type of platform. And some prefer to use it for both analysis and direct trading.

It is used the world over and is extremely reliable and robust.  The platform comes with the widest range of technical analysis tools than any other platform available, and most brokers will offer the platform free of charge. The reason it is so widely used is because of its ease of customization and the huge range of technical analysis tools available both free of charge and to purchase on the MQL5 market place. 

This is a 1-hour chart of the US dollar to the Canadian dollar, and the technical chart setup is

……called the Williams, and it is a custom setup, which is free with the platform download by most brokers.

Let’s say we have an interest in the Canadian dollar, and we want to see what the general directional bias is for the currency, and where here we can see that the Canadian dollar is currently losing ground against the US dollar…..

And here where we have added a couple of other Canadian dollar cross currencies pairs, including the CAD / Swiss and CAD / JPY on 1-hour charts, and we can tell that the general bias is for a weaker Canadian dollar across all three currency pairs.

The cool thing about the MetaTrader platform is that we can save this as a profile and come back to it later if we want to trade another currency pair.

First, we click on the profiles tab at the top of the platform.

 Then highlight the save profile tab and click on it.

 And then enter a new profile name. Here we have called it the Canadian dollar analysis.

 And finally, click on the ok tab, and the profile will be saved.



Finally, to find all of your profiles, simply highlight the profiles tab at the top of the MetaTrader platform, and then scroll down to find the one you want. Here at the bottom, as highlighted,  is the Canadian dollar analysis profile, which we have just saved. 

You can see a whole host of similar profiles that we have already saved, including all of the major currency pairs, and where it is very simple and quick to move in and out various saved profiles to maximize opportunities of finding trading opportunities quickly, rather than building profiles each time you have an interest in a particular currency pair.

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design -Creating Your Strategy with Tradingview’s Pine Script – Part 2

In part 1 of this article series, we have created the Stochastic RSI indicator as part of our idea for a scalping strategy. Now that we have it functional, we will make the bull/bear phases and visually inspect whether it captures the turning market’s turning points.

Possible ways to create bull/bear slices

Our Stochastic RSI consists of two lines, k and d, and two trigger lines, ob and os. Therefore we can use multiple variants that may allow the creation of bull/bear price legs. Let’s consider the following 3

Variant 1 – The transition occurs at the SRSI entrance of the oversold or overbought regions.

Bull: The d-line crosses under the ob-line, which indicates it is into the overbought area
Bear: The d-line crosses over the os-line, indicating d‘s entry into the oversold area.

if crossunder (d, os)
    SRSI_Long := true
    SRSI_Short := false
else if crossover (d, ob)
    SRSI_Long := false
    SRSI_Short := true 
    SRSI_Long := SRSI_Long[1]
    SRSI_Short := SRSI_Short[1]

This code creates a condition SRSI_Long at the cross of d under os, which holds until d crosses over ob and reverses it, creating an SRSI_Short state. This condition is only modified by d crossing under os.
The else statement ensures the condition does not change from the previous bar.

Once we have defined the bull and bear segments, we can color-shade them to visualize them in the chart. To do it, we will use the bgcolor() function.

bgcolor(SRSI_Long ? na)
bgcolor(SRSI_Short ? na)

The first statement asks the condition of SRI-Long ( the ? sign). If true, the background color changes to green. Otherwise, no change (an). The second statement behaves similarly for SRSI_Short.

Let’s see how this piece of code behaves in the BTCUSD chart.

Variant 1 triggers the transitions too early. We see that on many occasions when the stochastic RSI enters the overbought or oversold region, it is more a signal of trend strength than a turning point.

Variant 2 – The transition occurs at D and K’s crossovers if in the overbought/oversold regions.

Bull: the k-line crosses over the d-line, if below os ( inside the oversold region. We ignore crosses in the mid-area)
Bear: the k-line crosses under the d-line, if above ob ( in the overbought area. We ignore crosses in the mid-area)


// creating the long and short conditions for case 2

if crossover(k,d) and d < os
     SRSI_Long := true
     SRSI_Short := false

else if crossunder(k,d) and d > ob
     SRSI_Long := false
     SRSI_Short := true
     SRSI_Long := SRSI_Long[1]
     SRSI_Short := SRSI_Short[1]
// bacground color change
bgcolor(SRSI_Long ? na) 
bgcolor(SRSI_Short ? na)

The last section for the background change is similar to Variant 1.

Let’s see how it behaves in the chart.

Variant 2 is an improvement. We see that the bull and bear phases match the actual movements of the market, although entries are still a bit early, and in some cases, it missed the right direction. It can be useful as a trigger signal, provided we can filter out the faulty signals.

Variant 3 – the transition occurs when d moved to the overbought or oversold region and, later, crosses to the mid-area.

Bull: the d-line crosses over the os-line
Bear: the d-line crosses under the ob-line.

if crossover (d, os)
    SRSI_Long := true
    SRSI_Short := false
else if crossunder (d, ob)
    SRSI_Long := false
    SRSI_Short := true 
    SRSI_Long := SRSI_Long[1]
    SRSI_Short := SRSI_Short[1]
// bacground color change
bgcolor(SRSI_Long ? na) 
bgcolor(SRSI_Short ? na)


And this is how it behaves in the chart.

Variant 3 lags the turning points slightly, but this quality makes it more robust, as, on most occasions, it’s right about the market direction. This signal, combined with the right take-profit, may create a high-probability trade strategy.

Let’s try this one. But this will be resolved in our next and last article of this series.

Stay tuned!


5 Exchanges that Don’t Need KYC Verifications

The KYC (Know Your Customer) regulations are standard with financial institutions around the world. These laws were enacted to prevent money laundering activities in the financial industry, and every one of us has been subject to them, in one way or another. 

The regulations require institutions or platforms to verify individuals’ identities before using their money transmission services, and most recently, virtual currencies. 

Cryptocurrency and blockchain technology is the new kid in the financial block, and already disrupting the market with lower transaction fees, confidentiality of transactions, and improved security against fraud.

Surprisingly, the KYC verifications are gradually creeping to cryptocurrency exchange platforms. This means that getting your money from the cryptocurrency exchange is a bit more complicated than sending money. But you don’t need to use “surveillance exchanges,” as critics call them, to trade.

If you prefer to withhold personal information with your cryptocurrency investment, you can use anonymous cryptocurrency exchanges. We list five of the best exchanges that don’t require KYC verifications.

Are KYC Exchanges Safer than non-KYC Exchanges?

No doubt, the exchanges that mandate KYC verifications may sometimes offer better security. The platforms are fully regulated and may provide better redress in case of a hack or when something goes wrong. 

On the other hand, regulators may not be able to track culprits in a fully anonymous platform. It can also sometimes be difficult to access important information such as inflation rate, currency generation, and other blockchain transactions. Regardless, the benefits of anonymity in cryptocurrency outweigh its downsides. 

BitMEX is a cryptocurrency derivatives exchange that is the latest to join the club of cryptocurrency platforms aligning themselves with the traditional financial institutions’ regulations. Since August 28 of 2020, the exchange has been rolling out KYC. All traders are required to submit photographic ID and other identifying information by February 12, 2021.

But this does not imply non-KYC Exchanges are not safe. In contrast, many cryptocurrency investors prefer non-KYC platforms. This is because they believe KYC is a powerful magnet for hackers, making everyone unsafe. Every time you make a transaction, you give out your crypto address that can be used in blackmail, social engineering, hacking, or by law enforcement.

At the Web3 Summit, Edward Snowden was given a headline spot, and this goes to show that privacy hardliners are not going to relent anytime soon. The action by BitMEX could see migrations to non-KYC exchanges such as ByBit, but still, that is a wait-and-see situation. 

The main goal of high-value crypto traders is to be in cryptocurrency exchanges that blend anonymity and security to a satisfying level. If any one of the two fails, the investors move to better alternatives, and there will always be crypto exchanges such as ByBit ready to receive them with open arms.

As a crypto trader, you can choose to keep your personal information and protect your identity from the reach of criminals by choosing secure, anonymous crypto exchanges.


The Hong Kong-based cryptocurrency exchange is currently the most popular and the world’s largest, with up to 10 million active users, ahead of Bittrex. With Changpeng Zhao as its head, Binance has been one of the most innovative with creating the Binance Coin (BNB) token. Binance supports over 150 cryptocurrencies.

Users can access a 2 BTC worth of cryptocurrency trading limit without KYC verifications, with additional benefits of up to 50% reduction in fees. You do not need verification for spot trading.

However, transactions involving large amounts of BTC will involve completing KYC procedures to use the Binance platform. Binance US, which the US traders must use, requires KYC verification during registration.

You can deposit funds on Binance through credit cards, bank transfers, and crypto deposits. Holders of its native token, BNB, enjoy a discounted rate. The exchange has a referral program for BNB tokens, among other rewards.

There are some signs that Binance could go the way of BitMEX and transition to full KYC sometime in the future. This is mainly because it is compelled to align with numerous jurisdictions’ requirements where the platform operates. They choose to avoid the push and shove involved with the regulators of different countries and regions. 

Block DX

The exchange operates on blockchain interoperability protocol or the Blocknet, allowing communication between private and public blockchains. Blocknet also makes it easier to interact and exchange crypto among the platform users. 

The Blocknet Protocol-powered decentralized exchange allows users to transact without an intermediary. It has no withdrawal and trade limits, thus allowing greater flexibility. The exchange provides trading pair freedom, where all you need is a small amount of its native coin, BLOCK, to take an existing order. You do not need BLOCK tokens to create an order.

According to the non-custodial exchange developers, Block DX does not have any pause button, kill switch or email notifications. There are no interruptions in scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, and it does not have any offshore company. It claims to be the best definition of a decentralized and anonymous cryptocurrency exchange.

What separates Block DX from its other decentralized peers is that it decentralizes all its platform components. You enjoy more flexibility and freedom.


The anonymous cryptocurrency exchange has been around since 2013 and has considerable experience in the crypto space. 

The platform allows instant transfers across various cryptocurrencies to cryptocurrency wallets. The exchange has a reasonable fee of 0.5% and is very committed to protecting your privacy. Changelly only requires an email address.

Changelly is integrated into the Stratis app, and you can conveniently trade the $STRAT tokens right on your mobile device. But still, the exchange supports up to 150 cryptocurrencies. $STRAT is among the leading cryptographic tokens that you can freely trade in open exchanges. 

However, you need supporting cryptos such as dash and Ethereum to exchange for BTC. Changelly is a centralized exchange, but it does not require id verification to access the swapping services. The only instance where KYC verification is necessary is when Changelly detects suspicious activities.

The platform has a vast array of acceptable payment services apart from the crypto deposits. You can deposit through credit card payments, bank transfers, and even ApplePay. Besides, its trading algo is one of the most impressive yet, which scans other platforms to find the best trading prices.


This platform matches the ability to leverage trades by up to 100 times by BitMEX without requests for any personally identifying information. This strategy helped ByBit accrue more than a million users worldwide since its launch in 2018.

ByBit may seem too lax with security for a casual observer, but nothing could be further from the truth. ByBit is only part of a handful of cryptocurrency exchanges that can genuinely be said to have never been breached since its establishment.

ByBit leverages two-factor authentication sign-ins compatible with authenticator apps, SMS, and email. Funds are usually in multi-signature wallets stored in offline cold storage.

The Singaporean crypto exchange has a wide variety of features for margins trading. The perpetual swap product, BTC-USD, is the most popular with ByBit, and you can trade ETH, EOS, and XRP. 

ByBit’s crypto margin trading guides have a wealth of tips and tricks on swapping derivatives. Anyone around the globe can use ByBit without the need for KYC verification. The platform has both Android and iOS compatibility and is available in different languages. 

Unfortunately, ByBit bars users from the US. 


The hybrid cryptocurrency exchange, which has centralized and decentralized features, is a favorite for Ethereum holders. In an operating environment where owners can be liable for illegal activity in their exchanges, IDEX has pursued pragmatic decentralization to influence legal treatment by the regulators.

IDEX is mainly designed for Ethereum and Ethereum-based tokens (ERC-20) trading. 

The platform employs blockchain technology security and privacy to allow anonymous trading by using only the wallet addresses. You only need to deposit tokens to unlock the wallets and start trading. The IDEX native token holders receive a percentage of the transaction fees generated on the platform.

As of August 23, 2020, all users in the IDEX platform require partial verification to trade. You will also need passport scans and selfies for withdrawals of $5,000 or more. US customers are restricted from trading particular assets on the platform.

Final Word

The world of digital currency was propelled by, among other factors, anonymity. The increasing need for KYC verification to improve security also acts as a barrier. In some way, KYC is a potential threat, as well, in case of a data breach on public ledgers. 

Well, bitcoin mixers are an excellent option for anonymity and security. Nonetheless, a well-established crypto exchange platform that doesn’t require KYC verification is usually sufficient in most cases. Do a little digging before signing up for a cryptocurrency exchange. Check its policies, read the reviews, and weigh the quality of its customer support.

The above exchanges are only a few of the well-established and reliable crypto platforms you can start with. There are many others, as well. Happy trading!

Crypto Videos

Craig Wright (Claims To Be Satoshi Nakamoto) Threatens Legal Action Take my Bitcoin Whitepaper Down!

Craig Wright Threatens Legal Action: “Take my Bitcoin Whitepaper Down!”

Craig Wright, the self-proclaimed Bitcoin inventor Satoshi Nakamoto, has threatened legal action against the owners of two Bitcoin websites he accused of stealing his whitepaper and his other intellectual property.

As announced on Jan 21, and had received allegations of copyright infringement coming from none other than Craig Wright and his lawyers. The counsel reportedly claimed that Wright, as the inventor of Bitcoin, was the legal copyright holder of the official Bitcoin whitepaper, owned the Bitcoin name and trademark, and the two aforementioned websites.

While the owner of, a developer known only as Cobra, has stated that he refuses to be intimidated by the threat of “false allegations,” the owner of has already adhered to the request.

Cobra then stated: “Unfortunately, without consulting with us, Bitcoin Core developers removed the Bitcoin whitepaper from, in response to the allegations of copyright infringement, lending credence to these completely false claims.”

He then added: “The Bitcoin Core website was modified to remove all references to the whitepaper, the local copy of the whitepaper PDF was deleted, and with under 2 hours of public review, the change was merged.”

Things got heated when the owner of, as well as the current maintainer of Bitcoin’s code, Wladimir J. van der Laan, responded quickly, telling his Twitter followers that this issue was not something he cares deeply about. 

He stated: “So let this be clear: I’m happy to maintain Bitcoin core’s code, but I will not personally be a martyr for BTC. It’s completely up to you as Bitcoiners to protect it.”

Van der Laan added: “This thing is all about decentralization and distributed systems, rather than personal macho posturing. I have no interest in it and am definitely not paid enough to take a stance.”

As the two Bitcoin core websites decided to take vastly different approaches, we will see which one was better and why. In the meantime, the Bitcoin whitepaper will continue to be hosted on, which hopes that other websites would follow them in resisting Craig Wright’s attempts at intimidation.


Holding Bitcoin Now Is As Safe As Gold & Bonds!

Holding Bitcoin is as Safe as Owning Gold and Bonds – Anthony Scaramucci

Anthony Scaramucci, the head of SkyBridge Capital as well as former White House communications director, believes that Bitcoin’s value proposition has strengthened ever since governments have addressed many of the risks that are associated with the digital asset. 

In an opinion article published by CNN, Scaramucci and his fellow SkyBridge executive Brett Messing argued that Bitcoin had become a viable option for long-term investors seeking refuge from inflation. The authors also stated that holding Bitcoin is far less risky today than it was just a couple of years ago when regulations and infrastructure were underdeveloped.

Bitcoin’s growth has “caused government, as well as institutions, to step in and address many of the risks that are often associated with the digital currency,” the authors wrote, pointing to the Office of the Comptroller of Currency’s decision to enable all banks to provide cryptocurrency services.

They added: “Increased regulations, improved infrastructure, as well as access to financial institutions such as Fidelity, have made Bitcoin investments just as safe as owning bonds and commodities such as gold, which are used to balance portfolios.”

SkyBridge Capital made a big splash in the news last month when it applied with the US SEC to launch a Bitcoin hedge fund. Its SkyBridge Bitcoin Fund LP launched just a few weeks later, with Fidelity serving as custodian, while Ernst & Young were chosen to handle the auditing.

SkyBridge reportedly invested in Bitcoin during Nov and Dec 2020, allowing it to accumulate a substantial position in the cryptocurrency prior to its parabolic spike. By the time the fund was launched, on Jan 4 of this year, SkyBridge had claimed its BTC exposure was worth around $310 million.

Institutional capital is considered a major catalyst behind Bitcoin’s 300% rally in 2020, which brought its price to a new all-time high of $42,000 on Jan 8. Smart money investors are beginning to view Bitcoin as digital gold rather than just a speculative asset. 


Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design -Creating Your Strategy with Tradingview’s Pine Script – Part 1

As promised, in this article, we will go through the steps to create a custom strategy, from the initial idea to the implementation of signals, stops, and targets.

The skeleton of a trading Strategy

To create a strategy programmatically is relatively simple. We need to define the Parameters and the trade rules first, followed by the position sizing algorithm, the entry commands, and the stop-loss and take-profit settings.

Visualizing the idea

Human beings are visual. We may think our trading idea is fantastic, but translating it into code may not be straightforward. It is much easier to detect the errors if we see our rules depicted on a chart.

With the parameter declarations and trade rules, we can create an indicator first, so we can see how it appears. After we are happy with the visual 

The idea

For our example, we will use a simple yet quite exciting indicator called Stochastic RSI, which applies the Stochastic study to the RSI values. This operation smoothes the RSI, and it reveals much better the turning points on mean-reverting markets, such as in Forex. Let’s see how it behaves as a naked strategy.

Diving into the process

First, you need to open an account with Tradingview. Once we are in, we create a new layout.

Then we open the Pine Editor.

It appears in the bottom left of your layout. Click on it… and it shows with a basic skeleton code.

The Stochastic RSI code.

As said, to create the Stochastic RSI indicator, we will make the RSI and then apply the stochastic algorithm to it.

1 study(title="Stochastic-RSI", format=format.price, overlay = false)

This first line declares the code to be a study, called Stochastic-RSI.  

format = format.price is used for selecting the formatting of output as prices in the study function.

Overlay = false means we desire the RSI lines to appear in a separate section. If it were a moving average to be plotted with the prices, overlay should be set to true.

RSIlength = input(14, "RSI-Length", minval=1)

We define the RSI length as an input parameter called RSI-Length.

src = input(close, title="RSI Source")

The variable src will collect the input values on every bar. The default is the bar close, but it may be modified by other values such as (o+c)/2.

myrsi = rsi(src, RSIlength)

This line creates the variable myrsi that stores the time series of the rsi.

This completes the calculation of the RSI. 

smooth_K = input(3, "K", minval=1)
smooth_D = input(3, "D", minval=1)

These two lines create the smoothing values of the stochastic %K and %D. Since it comes from input, they can be changed at will.

Stochlength = input(14, "Stochastic Length", minval=1)

This code defined the variable lengthStoch, computed from the input parameter.

k = sma(stoch(rsi1, rsi1, rsi1, Stochlength), smooth_K)
d = sma(k, smooth_D)

These two lines completes the calculation of the stochastic rsi.

plot(k, "K", color=color.white) - Plot a white k line 
plot(d, "D", - Plot a red d line.

To end this study, we will plot the overbought and oversold limits of 80 and 20, filling the mid-band with a distinctive color.

t0 = hline(80, "Upper Band", color=color.maroon)
t1 = hline(20, "Lower Band", color=color.maroon)
fill(t0, t1, color=color.purple, transp=80, title="Background")

The complete code ends as:


// This source code is subject to the terms of 
// the Mozilla Public License 2.0 at
// © forex-academy
study(title="Stochastic-RSI", format=format.price, overlay = false)

RSIlength = input(14, "RSI-Length", minval=1)
src = input(close, title="RSI Source")
myrsi = rsi(src, RSIlength)

smooth_K = input(3, "K", minval=1)
smooth_D = input(3, "D", minval=1)
Stochlength = input(14, "Stochastic Length", minval=1)

k = sma(stoch(myrsi, myrsi, myrsi, Stochlength), smooth_K)
d = sma(k, smooth_D)

plot(k, "K", color=color.white)
plot(d, "D",

t0 = hline(80, "Upper Band", color=color.maroon)
t1 = hline(20, "Lower Band", color=color.maroon)
fill(t0, t1, color=color.teal, transp=80, title="Background")

This code is shown in our layout as

Stay tuned for the second part of this article, where we will evolve the Stochastic RSI into a viable strategy.


Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

Impact of DeFi in the Banking Sector

Blockchain is revolutionary fintech, and DeFi applications are taking success in financial services to a whole new level. Over 1.7 billion people remain unbanked, and DeFi is empowering internet users with permissionless financial services that cut out third parties.

Investors locked more than $15 billion within DeFi protocols in 2020. While decentralization has only captured billions, traditional, centralized finance controls the vast trillions of dollars transacting globally. Therefore, more innovations and marketing will suffice for further adoption.

However, with the industry admitting roughly $500 million from investors monthly, the prospects are changing. DeFi offers irresistible convenience and cost-effectiveness. The potential is also vast.

DeFi encompasses digital lending, borrowing, staking for capital gains, and regular income. DeFi services are permissionless, and they execute most transactions through tokenization and smart contracts. Eliminating all the third-parties and profit-seeking intermediaries make DeFi cost-effective.

Laws, rules, and regulations are programmed into blockchain protocols, and DeFi impacts every aspect of traditional financial services via automation. The impact is so great that it could change human interactions on an international scale.

In this article, we are peering into DeFi and its impact on the finance industry. A chronological outlook of blockchain developments suggests a pattern of innovation and adaptability. Understanding this pattern is crucial for your future investment projects.

The Ethereum Blockchain: How Are dApps Taking over the Banking Sector?       

To start with, let’s appreciate that the Ethereum community has revolutionized and accentuated DeFi as no other blockchain has. The ecosystem is advanced enough to evaluate systemic risks, and it reports DeFi Scores for platform security.

The ecosystem supports open-source composability, and the Ethereum blockchain harnesses the collaboration of independent developers worldwide. Borderless, open-source development has encouraged software designers and coding experts to focus on their strengths.

Ethereum’s infrastructure allows users to integrate various DeFi applications covering vast, diverse industries such as gaming, credit, supply-chain management, and capital markets. Laying and building applications on each other creates a vast network effect.

The Ethereum community is significant in DeFi because its network has over 7,083 live, global, main-net nodes, over 88 million unique users, over 42 million smart contracts executed.

You can utilize over 2,773 decentralized applications along with over 23K daily users. DApps are popular and post daily transactions exceeding 78K because of their:

  • Open-source codes.
  • Decentralized consensus and governance.
  • Noncustodial, permissionless services.
  • Tokenization and the use of smart contracts.

The diversity of dApps supports digital currency banking services, alternative services, DEXs, and P2P lending. Users embrace digital transactions because they are fast, secure, borderless, pseudo-anonymous, and irreversible.

Cross-chain interoperability came into DeFi markets in 2020, and you can now lend, borrow, and trade tokens across different blockchain networks.

How DeFi Saved Global Finance from Total Atrophy

When the Coronavirus became a global pandemic, states imposed mandatory lockdowns. Globally, the banking sector came to a standstill, and the international exchange services and other intermediaries such as asset managers, insurers, and bankers.

People were required to stay at home, and only essential services were allowed to proceed. If we didn’t have alternative financial services, most global supply chains would have suffered complete atrophy.

Governments created concerns about the value of money when they printed cash to bail out people and agencies. People and investors got more concerned that they pay taxes, yet governments dilute their savings by printing more money.

The threat to traditional finance was runaway inflation and the concern that credit is limited for those needing it the most. The international investment landscape went through shocks as investors turned to DeFi, seeking to mitigate the effects of a global pandemic.

Fintech Verticals Most Impacted by DeFi

Open Banking and Financial Data

Data is one of the most valuable commodities in the Mega Big Data era. Banking institutions traditionally hoarded all the financial data of users. In the US, financial data is worth over $15 billion. However, bankers won’t let you access it.

DeFi frees up your financial data for your benefit, allowing you to make intuitive, cost-effective investments. DeFi applications and services are providing open-source, immutable, financial market data.

Moreover, pseudo-anonymity and permissionless transactions prevent a handful of corporations from accessing your private transaction history.

Decentralized Exchanges

DEXs empower users to control their funds, giving them exclusive access to their private keys. These permissionless exchanges reduce the risk of custodian third-parties and diminish the risk of custodian third-parties losing your funds through major hacking events.

Cross-chain money markets are completely cutting off permission-based, custodian exchanges where you need expensive, third-party intermediation to swap bitcoins for other tokens like ETH, BCH, and XRP. Therefore, you can take just seconds to execute fast, borderless, almost-free transactions.

Borrowing and Lending

DeFi allows people to earn high interest on their savings. As crypto-assets stabilize volatility issues, DeFi is empowering crypto users to save profitably. You don’t need banks to store or transfer value. You can just use your smartphone and an internet connection to upload your finances to online savings software with blockchain transparency, security, and profitability.

DeFi platforms offer flexible interest payments, with some paying out interests every second. The best part is that you don’t need credit checks to take out DeFi loans. You only need to collateralize with your long-term investments. DeFi borrowing costs for commercial use are tax-deductible.

Tokenization and Asset Management

The tokenization of assets is at the core of decentralized finance. It’s revolutionizing assets-trading across the globe, offering traders new markets and opportunities. DeFi offers reliable asset and supply-chain management via smart contracts.

You can make international deals and trust total strangers to hold their side of the deal. Smart contracts don’t release payments unless all predetermined conditions are fulfilled. Tokenization is crucial in executing group contracts such as the ones utilized in:

  • Liquidity pools.
  • DeFi insurance protocols.

Parting Shot

The impact of DeFi on the banking sector threatens its existence, but bankers can adopt dApps to survive the storm and thrive. The banking sector won’t disappear, but it will evolve drastically as DeFi revolutionizes how we interact and do business.

Understanding the role of DeFi in 21st commerce is important for your financial future. Remember that these technologies offer cutting-edge convenience, and the market is growing exponentially. Therefore, you need to join in on the benefits or risk falling behind.

What do you think about DeFi, and what are your predictions on 2021 banking? Share your views in the comments section.


Crypto Videos

Largest Russian Bank Sberbank Launching its Stablecoin in Spring 2021!

Largest Russian Bank Sberbank Launching its Stablecoin in Spring 2021

Sberbank, the largest Russian state-owned bank, has reportedly filed an application with the Bank of Russia regarding the launch of a blockchain platform for its “Sbercoin” stablecoin.

The director of the transaction business at Sberbank, Sergey Popov, announced the news on Jan 21 at a local financial event.

At the “Digital transformation and prospects for regulating the digital economy” event, Popov stated that Sberbank applied with the Russian central bank in early January, explaining that this kind of registration procedure usually takes no longer than 45 days. If everything goes by plan, the bank may launch its platform by spring 2021, the official said. However, Sberbank is still working on specifics about how to tax Sbercoin:

“There is a high probability of this project being launched in the spring. However, there is still one more issue that has not been fully resolved, and it is connected to the taxation of digital assets. We hope that this question will soon be resolved.”

Popov also added that Sberbank had completed internal testing to see if the solution they propose works, which it apparently did.

Sberbank broke the news on developing its own Sbercoin token at the end of November 2020, following long-running speculation about these plans. Its latest announcement comes shortly after Russia’s official adoption of the crypto law “On Digital Financial Assets” on Jan 1, 2021.

In late 2020, a member of the Russian State Duma, Anatoly Aksakov, said that the Duma’s Committee on Financial Markets expects that Russian crypto issuance will surge after adopting the country’s new crypto law.

Crypto Videos

Grayscale About To Unveil Chainlink?

Is Grayscale about to unveil a Chainlink (LINK) trust?

Rumors about Grayscale Investments being set to launch a raft of new products, including a Chainlink (LINK) trust, surfaced in the last week.

A statement from the State of Delaware’s Division of Corporations says that someone set up Grayscale Chainlink Trust on Dec 18, 2020. Basic Attention Token (BAT) trust, Livepeer (LPT) trust, Decentraland (MANA) trust, and a Tezos (XTZ) trust were also set up at the same time.

Grayscale Investments didn’t respond to the rumors and has yet to officially confirm it is behind the filings at all. Some reports tried to cast doubt on the legitimacy of this whole ordeal, as the registered agent for the trusts is not listed as Grayscale Investments, but rather as “Delaware Trust Company.” 

However, the Delaware Trust Company is currently listed on Grayscale’s website as one of its official service providers. On top of that, the same details were used when the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust was initially created in 2013.

With that being said, new trusts are far from certain to launch. A Filecoin (FIL) trust was established two months before the aforementioned trusts and still has not been made public.

Adding to all the uncertainty, a few weeks after the inception of numerous trusts, Grayscale founder and CEO Barry Silbert decided to step down from its position. He was then replaced by Michael Sonnenshein. It is unclear if Sonnenshein will continue with Silbert’s strategy or take the firm in a completely new direction.

Grayscale last made an official filing for a Stellar Lumen (XLM) trust in October 2018 — over two years ago. The Stellar trust was made public around six weeks after its inception.

The Chainlink army has been very vocal about the potential filing, showing its support and speculating on the effect this might have on the LINK’s price.

Chainlink recently flipped Bitcoin Cash and became the eighth-largest cryptocurrency by market cap, boasting a value of over $9 billion. 

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design – A Summary of your Best Options to Code your Strategy

In our latest article, we have seen that manually backtesting our strategy is cumbersome if performed correctly. Also, It is usually subjected to errors and the interpretation of the trader. Therefore, a basic knowledge of trading algorithm development and computer coding is a desirable task for any trader. The good news is, nowadays, there are many easy ways to do it since high-level languages are very close to natural language.

High-level languages to quickly build your Forex strategies.

MetaQuotes Language (MQL4/5) 

In this respect, the primary language we could think of to build your strategy in Forex is MetaQuotes Language 4 (MQL4). This language is a specialized subset of C++ , holding an extensive built-in library of indicators and trading signals.

Spending your time and efforts to master MQL4/5 is worthwhile because Metatrader 4 includes a suitable trading strategy tester and optimizer.

If you are new to programming, you could start by analyzing and modifying existing free-available EA’s. Starting with simple strategies is excellent because they will be easier to understand and change. Also, in trading, simple usually is much better than complex.


Python is the reference language for data science. Its popularity and its extensive library on data science are well-known. What is less known is, Python also has comprehensive packages dedicated to trading.

As an example, you can have a look at this list taken from Open Source Python frameworks:

With Python, you can go as easy as backtest your strategy with three simple lines of code using the fastquant package.

from fastquant import backtest, get_stock_data
jfc = get_stock_data("JFC", "2018-01-01", "2019-01-01")
backtest('smac', jfc, fast_period=15, slow_period=40) 

source: Backtest Your Trading Strategy with Only 3 Lines of Python

Of course, first, you have to create the code for your strategy.

Market Data 

For backtesting purposes, you will need to download your historical market data with the necessary timeframe. The file, in CSV or Excel format, can be easily read by your Python code.

If, later on, you are going to apply your EA live, you will need a real-time streaming data feed. If this is the case, you will need to create an interface to your broker through an MT5 TradeStation (MT4 is not equipped with it).

Easylanguage and Tradestation / Multicharts

Tradestation and Multicharts are dedicated high-level trade stations. Easylanguage, a specialized subset of Pascal, was developed by the Tradestation team to create indicators and trading signals. Both platforms are terrific places to develop trading algorithms, and backtesting is straightforward.

Easylanguage, as its name indicates, was designed to make it as close to natural language as possible. The ample set of its built-in library makes coding simple, so the developer’s primary focus is the trading algorithm.

As this example, please read the code of an adjustable weighting percent blended moving average.

inputs: period1(50),period(20),factor(0.5);

variables: slow(0),fast(0), blended(0), var1(0), var2(0);

slow= average(close,period1);
fast= average(close,period2);

var1 = factor;

if var1<0 then var1=0;
if var1>1 then var1=1;

var2= 1-factor;
blended= (slow*var1)+(fast*var2);



You will see it is relatively easy to understand and follow. Anyway, it would be best if you dedicated some time to really master the language, to avoid or at least minimize coding errors.

Pine Script and Tradingview

Pine script is another specialized language to easily program your own studies and trading strategies if you have an account on Tradingview (which you may open for free). As in the case of Easylanguage, Pinescript is designed to be easily understood. 

Pine studies are used to display indicator information and graphs on a chart. It is preceded by the study() declaration. If you wished to create a strategy for backtesting, you have to use the strategy() declaration.

As with other languages, the best way to begin is by reading other people’s code and modifying it for your own purposes.

Coding strategies in pine script is similar to Easylanguage or MQL5. You create a code taking in mind that it will cycle on each bar in the chosen timeframe. 

We took this example of a MACD indicator from the Pine script quick start guide:



fast = 12, slow = 26
fastMA = ema(close, fast)
slowMA = ema(close, slow)

macd = fastMA - slowMA
signal = sma(macd, 9)


Backtesting in Pine script is easy. But, there is no way to perform automated optimization. You will have to do it manually. You should go to the performance summary and the list of trades to find the causes of the lack of performance, apply parameter changes, and see if you get any improvement of that adjustment.

In our next article, we will go through the steps to develop a strategy using the Pine script.

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

DeFi vs CeFi Investments: What’s the Difference?

The advent of the blockchain and Bitcoin ushered a new era of transformation in the financial sector. The latter’s successes catalyzed further innovations in this space. One of its earliest adaptations was Centralized Finance( CeFi). Further developments have seen the introduction of Decentralized Finance(DeFi). 

Though the two are diametric opposites of each other, they serve one end: the expansion of financial services. But what do these concepts mean? What are their pros and cons? Can we find commonalities between the two? Finally, is there a way of bridging the divide between them?

This article will use the questions above to differentiate CeFi and DeFi investments. In this way, it aims at deepening your understanding of these crucial financial developments.

Understanding CeFi

CeFi is centralized finance and comprises closed financial markets. It entails a central authority controlling all aspects of transactions between peers. The said authority could be a bank, government, or any other uninvolved third party. 

Salient Features of CeFi

A keen look at CeFi investments reveals several important features. First, there’s a strong emphasis on KYC and AML requirements. In keeping with their jurisdictions’ laws, CeFi service providers require their users to provide personal information, including identity and residence details.

Secondly, CeFi investments are custodial in that they hold their users’ private keys. They are centralized and offer cross-chain services. CeFi investment services also allow for the exchange of different cryptos issued on different blockchains.

Advantages of CeFi

The popularity of CeFi investments speaks of their usefulness. For instance, they guarantee the protection of depositors’ funds. As they’re custodial, CeFi service providers assure their users of the safety and returns on their users’ funds.

Additionally, they undertake to secure one’s private keys. Since the service provider holds the private keys, there’s no danger of ever  losing them. Moreover, they have dedicated customer support systems. 

Disadvantages of CeFi

There are several deficiencies linked to CeFi. Among these are higher transaction fees. Because they use intermediaries in transactions, they charge higher fees. Another shortfall is that they lack transparency as they don’t provide for a public audit of transactions.

The centralized nature denies users control over their funds and makes them invasive in nature. Their  KYC requirements demand full disclosure of personal information. Users can quite easily lose their funds on these since CeFi investments are an easy target for hacking owing to their custodial nature.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

DeFi is an acronym for decentralized finance- a movement that champions the provision of P2P financial services. DeFi solutions give parties greater control over their transactions. They achieve this by eliminating centralizing authorities – banks and governments – from the exchanges.

Last year saw a proliferation of DeFi platforms. Currently, the major players in the space include Compound, Yearn Finance, Uniswap, and Marker DAO.

Key DeFi Features

A number of features define DeFi investment projects. To begin with, they are permissionless, which means that anyone can use them, regardless of their geographical location.

On top of that, they depend on Smart contracts, a set of code defining the relationship of the transacting parties. The smart contracts work together with Decentralized apps (Dapps) to automate transactions.

Again, DeFi investments are Blockchain-based. They run on the Ethereum blockchain and have wide applications across the payments, lending, and trading sectors.

Advantages of DeFi

The ballooning of DeFi projects points to them being beneficial. Here’s a rundown of their key advantages. A key feature is that DeFi investments give users autonomy over their funds. The user is the sole custodian of their investment.

Equally, it is expedient as it eliminates third parties, which helps to make it more affordable. Furthermore, DeFi investments are tradeable, thanks to tokenization, which allows for trading in micro-units.

Another key feature is that they’re accessible. DeFi investments are open to everyone, notwithstanding their location. They are also transparent since their deployment on the blockchain opens transactions to public scrutiny.

Disadvantages of DeFi

Although advantageous in many ways, DeFi platforms have their shortcomings. The threat of losing assets ranks highly among those. DeFi users may permanently lose their crypto assets by losing their private keys or mistyping their wallet addresses.

In close tow is the possible exposure to scams. Many cons have infiltrated the DeFi Sector. These take advantage of the absence of centralized control; victims have very little recourse, if any, in such cases. 

Significant Differences Between DeFi and CeFi

The differences between CeFi and DeFi are more than in the terminology. As the following points will indicate, the two platforms are stark contrasts of each other.


Centralized authorities run all aspects of CeFi platforms. The users have to subscribe to a set code of regulations. On the contrary, DeFi platforms look to their user communities for governance. Some of them issue governance tokens that enable holders to participate in the decision-making processes. An example is Compound (COMP).


Both CeFi and DeFi have unique features defining them. For example, CeFi projects are custodial while DeFi projects are non-custodial. Again CeFis offer dedicated customer services, which DeFis don’t.

Further CeFi investments adopt the use of Centralised Exchanges (CEX). On the flip side, DeFi investments use Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs).

Whereas CeFi projects are permissioned, DeFis aren’t. CeFis use third parties to create trust, while DeFis are trustless networks.


CeFi platforms conform to strict regulations of the jurisdictions they operate. In compliance, they undertake thorough KYC and AML reviews of their users. On the other hand, DeFi is nascent and unregulated. They, therefore, dispense with KYC requirements. 

That said, many jurisdictions are instituting regulatory measures in crypto operations. The Securities and Exchange Commission of the US oversees cryptocurrency trade.  At the same time, the European Commission is pushing for a comprehensive legal framework targeting cryptos.


As CeFi runs centralized exchanges, they charge higher fees. The higher fees arise from the need to maintain the platform, pay their staff, improve their offering, among others.

In contrast, DeFi platforms are affordable. They employ decentralized exchanges that don’t provide custody services and don’t have teams engaging in their day to day running.


CeFi and DeFi investment platforms have different approaches to raising liquidity. CeFi projects raise liquidity by matching buyers’ and sellers’ orders akin to forex or stock markets. DeFi projects in reverse employ automated market makers that  pre-fund both sides of the trade.


The custodial nature of  CEXs increases their susceptibility to cyberattacks. Although CeFi platforms invest in robust security systems, it isn’t unusual to hear of major platforms getting hacked.  


DEXs, however, are noncustodial. Thus are less susceptible to such attacks. However, vulnerabilities in their smart contracts could expose them to the theft of funds.

Similarities Between DeFi and CeFi Investments

Although different, the two platforms find convergence in certain areas. For example, they offer similar financial services. These include trading (spot, derivatives, and margin), borrowing and lending, payments, and the development of stablecoins. 

Also, both systems bank on innovation. They use transformative blockchain technology. Further, both serve the digital assets ecosystem.

Parting Shot

CeFi and DeFi platforms are polar opposite. That said, they serve similar functions in payments, lending, and trades. Moreover, both are at different stages of their development, with CeFi having a headstart over DeFi. This gap in development calls for urgent redress. 

To that end, several projects and platforms are working on appropriate solutions. Binance is one of them. Apart from reducing the risks inherent in DeFi, there’s a need to mainstream it. Moreover, there must be a simplification of the DeFi adoption process besides building robust DeFi communities.


Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

A Complete Guide to DeFi Taxes: Everything You Should Know

2020 was revolutionary for DeFi markets, and investors flooded the young industry with over $7billion from a mere $1.2 billion. As the market cap and number of transactions surged, regulators came up with responsive ways to tax cryptocurrency income. 

Initially, taxes were a foreign concept in crypto realms, but the IRS made definitive tax rules for blockchain transactions. Most digital currency taxation policies are based on cryptocurrencies, but regulation is spilling over to the DeFi markets.

Most crypto users are ignorant of digital currency tax laws, but the IRS will not let you plead ignorance. The federal tax agency is decisively cracking down on crypto tax compliance, and this article will help you gain some valuable insights.

Reading on will help you keep compliant with DeFi taxation requirements. Even more importantly, it will help you navigate DeFi, so you trigger as much tax deductibility as allowed in novel legal confines. 

Crypto Taxes 101

The IRS categorizes digital tokens as properties and not currencies. Bitcoins, for example, are capital assets that can attract profits and losses from transactions.

Reporting your crypto taxes gets harder with the increasing number of blockchain transactions per financial year. The IRS adopted and has never changed its use of first-in, first-out accounting, which means you should determine your net gains/losses on crypto assets.

Profits are categorized as long-term or short-term capital gains. Losses on cryptocurrencies are considered deductible capital losses.

To prevent crypto holders from absconding cumbersome tax computing and filing, the IRS imposes the form 1099-K for all crypto exchange users posting over 200 transactions per year. This file is similar to form 1099-B that stockbrokers use for filing capital losses/gains, but it has some unique provisions.

Introduction to DeFi Taxes

DeFi exists within cryptocurrency realms, enabling digital token users to trade, lend, and borrow via low-cost automation that rules out third-party financial services. In DeFi markets, crypto owners earn interest on lending platforms, and the interest is paid in the same digital currencies.

Therefore, crypto interests increase the number of digital currencies. When you earn interests through your crypto tokens, a different taxable event occurs from profits/losses. Taxable events in DeFi markets transpire when:

  • You trade one cryptocurrency for another via cross-chain money markets, realizing either profits or losses.
  • You trade crypto tokens for fiat currencies, either realizing either profits or losses.
  • You spend digital tokens on goods and services, realizing either profits or losses.
  • You earn in cryptocurrencies, and DeFi services create numerous earning opportunities where you trade your time and skills by executing network protocols. Moreover, some CEOs and athletes prefer getting their salaries in digital tokens.

These taxable events in cryptocurrency transactions are either:

  • Capital gains.
  • Ordinary income.

Ordinary Income vs. Capital Gains Income               

Ordinary income taxes apply for normal jobs, and the IRS doesn’t classify cryptocurrency miners any differently. You must pay according to your marginal tax bracket.

Bitcoin miners and validators on Proof of Stake protocols earn digital tokens for authenticating transactions. These earnings are categorized as ordinary income, and they offer minimal tax savings.

Capital gains income manifests when you swap your digital assets for a higher monetary value than you acquired them. These income streams present significant tax benefits and holidays. For starters, long-term capital gains tax rates are diminished compared to short-term capital gains.

Moreover, you can completely offset capital gains with capital losses. However, capital gains can only offset ordinary income up to $3,000.

DeFi Taxes in Lending and Borrowing

The DeFi ecosystem offers lending opportunities like no other. Your digital currencies can earn interest on Compound, Blanancer, and Uniswap by contributing to liquidity pools or lending directly.

Some DeFi protocols take crypto loans and issue out Liquidity Pool Tokens in return. The currencies you loan out determine the number of tokens from the liquidity pool and ultimately how much interest you make.

Interests that you make on crypto lending platforms qualify as ordinary income for tax purposes. The DeFi ecosystem allows you to boost your revenues, with some platforms paying out interests every second.

The same applies to crypto borrowing platforms. You can borrow bitcoins and other digital tokens to use for business or personal use. Commercial cryptocurrency loans qualify for tax-deductible expenses. Therefore, you can claim relief on costs you incur when borrowing cryptocurrencies for commercial use. 

DeFi Taxes for Unexpected Income from Hard Forks and Token Distribution

Sometimes, blockchain networks award existing users or asset holders with free digital tokens. Such tokens are newly acquired assets with monetary value. Such a transaction is taxable, and the IRS categorizes it as regular income.

Therefore, you must report it within your appropriate tax brackets, and you won’t qualify for many deductions on these earnings. If you use such tokens profitably, file the revenue made on top separately.

Networks like Compound sometimes distribute their native tokens for free to users during initial offerings. For example, the DeFi platform distributed $100 worth of COMP. The users who enjoyed free $100-worth assets owed the IRS whatever your income rate is for that $100.

You won’t pay any more taxes if you hold the COMP, no matter how much they appreciate it. However, you will owe the day you redeem that appreciated monetary value, and you should report the net revenue as capital gains.

If the $100-worth of COMP appreciates to $300 within a year, you will owe short-term capital gains tax for $200 if you sell the COMP or redeem it for products and services. Your capital losses for the COMP are not deductible on the income tax you owe for unexpected digital income.

Cryptocurrency forks are other sources of unexpected digital income. Forks result when validators or miners in a network disagree on blockchain governance. A great example is that of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. They disagreed, and the Fork was quite controversial because it created BTC tokens from scratch.

Investors of parent cryptocurrencies end up with an equal number of forked-off tokens. For example, if you had 4 BTC during the fork, you automatically got 4 BCH, and you became a member of two independent blockchains.

These unexpected incomes are also part of your taxable income, and you pay per your tax bracket. Any gains on them are taxable, and any losses on them are not tax-deductible.

DeFi Taxes in DEXs

Basic taxation rules for cryptocurrencies apply to DEXs. You do not incur taxation for transferring funds from one platform to another, so long as the accounts and funds are yours.

However, when DEXs allow cross-chain asset swaps, an element of profitability occurs. You either gain profits or losses on your initial capital assets.

Reporting DeFi Income on Your Taxes

It is your responsibility to report DEX revenue streams for tax purposes. The advantages of DeFi taxation are abundant. Report all DeFi buys and sells on the IRS Form 8949 for your capital gains filing.

Tax Advantages of DeFi

For starters, DeFi lending converts your currencies to Liquidity Pool Tokens. Your liquidity tokens remain the same, but their value increases over time. You make a capital gain when redeeming your LPTs for the original cryptocurrencies.

DeFi converts what should be your regular income into capital gains income. Consequently, you qualify for deductions if you make losses later selling the tokens.

DeFi allows you to borrow tokens with different cryptocurrencies acting as collateral in Ripple’s XRP for the long-run, but ETC is more profitable in the short-term.

Long-term capital gains offer more deductibles than short-term ones, and you shouldn’t keep selling your XRP to leverage ETH’s profitability. You can borrow ETH with XRP as the collateral if the prospective earnings are more than interest costs.

Tax Disadvantages of DeFi

Whenever you exchange a crypto asset for another, you are most likely triggering a taxable event. This makes it cumbersome to track all profits and losses made every time such DeFi transactions occur.

Tax Treatment Overview on Different Platforms

  • Uniswap

Uniswap executes the Liquidity Pool protocol for its crypto lenders. It empowers you to swap income tax liability for capital gains liability, which is deductible. UNI tokens basically cushion you from future losses on the native coin you want to lend.

  • Maker/Oasis

This DeFi service allows you to harness long-term tax deductions on capital gains. The platform allows you to trade between assets and even earn interest on other assets. They allow you to lock your ETH as collateral, and as it gathers capital gains, you can seize the short-term profitability of other blockchain networks.

  • Compound

Compound is also a Liquidity Pool platform, which converts your ETH to cETH. When the liquidity pool earns interest, the value on your cETH will move from income tax liability to capital gains revenue, deductible for losses.

  • Balancer

Balancer is another Liquidity Pool DeFi service. It’s sort of a tax-lien insurance package against future losses on crypto assets. 

Parting Shot

Ignorance cannot be your defense when you are found to be non-compliant. The DeFi markets are enormous and have the potential to overtake centralized finance in years to come. The IRS knows this fact, as do most sovereign central banks. 

Fortunately, DeFi taxes are friendly, and they offer numerous tax-saving opportunities. You stand to make tremendous capital gains and high, compounding interest rates investing in DeFi. The gains are way bigger than the tax costs. 

Enforcement over DeFi taxes will only get more aggressive, intuitive, and efficient. That’s why you need to read this article and share it with your friends. Take charge of your tax compliance, and share some of your most effective tax filing tips for DeFi transactions. 

Forex Videos

FOREX MT4 (meta trader 4) saving Templates!

Beginners – How to save a screen template in Metatrader 4

Thank you for joining this Forex Academy educational video.


The Metatrader MT4 platform is one of the most widely used platforms in the world and is fully customisable. 

A great feature that is incredibly time-saving is the ability to save screen templates, which can quickly be added to different asset pairs. This extremely versatile platform comes with its own templates, but most people prefer to adjust them to their own preferences, and this quick tutorial will show you how to do that on a step-by-step basis. 

Here is a standard MT4 1 hour screen chart for the GBPUSD pair.

Firstly, you will need to open your Navigator section to find a wealth of indicators. This can be accessed by pressing Ctrl+ N on your keyboard. 

Then simply drag the indicators you prefer onto your chart, and adjust the parameters and click OK, 

Such as here for the Stochastic, which will then populate your chart. 

By right-clicking on the chart, 

The chart properties will open, and can be able to tweak the parameters to suit. 

Such as the colour of the background or the colours of the bars or candlesticks.

When you have finished building your chart, you can save the changes as a template, in which you will need to right-click on your chart, hover over the Template tab, select save the template, when the second box pops up,

Then give your template a name, and save it. 

The next time you want to use the template for another pair, just open a new chart, such as the EURUSD pair as shown here, and right-click, highlight Template, then click on load template from the pop-up box, 


Then simply highlight your saved template and press Open.

And the new chart will automatically be updated with your saved template, thus saving you time.

The templates file is located on your computer by clicking on the File tab on the top left of the platform, then Open data folder.

And you will find it in the templates file folder, as highlighted here.


Forex Videos

Forex Trading Algorithms Part 8 Elements Of Computer Languages For EA Design!

Trading Algorithms VIII – Two RSI algorithms


The Relative Strength Index (RSI) was created by Welles Wilder as a momentum oscillator that measures price movements’ speed. The RSI is bounded between zero and 100. According to its author, an overbought condition occurs when the RSI is above 70, whereas an oversold condition is the RSI below 30.  RSI is one of the most popular indicators because of its simplicity and is included in all charting packages.


How to compute  the N-period RSI

1.-  go back N bars and compare the Close of that bar with the prior bar’s Close. If positive, add this value to a UP summation variable. If negative, add it to a Dwn summation variable. Do this for every bar in the period.

2.- After all summations have been performed, divide the results by N, the period. This will create an average of up and down changes: avgUp and avgDwn.

3.- The RS is the ratio of avgUP to avgDwn.

RS = avgUP/avgDwn

4.- Finally, the RSI can be calculated by a normalization operation to bounded it between zero and 100:

RSI = 100 – 100/(1-RS)


Spotting market tops and bottoms

Welles Wilder designed the RSI with a standard 14-bar period, so it was meant for short-term asset analysis. This indicator works at its best on mean-reverting market states. According to Mr. Wilder’s research, the RSI usually tops/bottoms ahead of the actual market top/bottom.

The basic form of RSI trading is shown in the RSI flowchart below.

RSI Flowchart


The basic rules of the System are:

if   RSI(14-period) is below 30:
    Buy on Close
If RSI (14-period) is above 70:
    Sell-short on Close
If position = long:
    If Close > Entry_Price + 3xATR:
        Sell the open position on Close
    if Close < Entry_Price -1 ATR:
        Sell the position on Close
If Position= Short:
    If Close < entry-Price - 3xATR:
        Buy-to-cover the position on Close.
    if Close > Entry_Price - 1 ATR:
        Buy-to-cover the position on Close

And below the code in EasyLanguage,  for Tradestation and Multicharts platforms, with input parameters to allow for optimization of the length, overbought/oversold levels, as well as take-profit and stop-loss levels in the form of ATR multiples.

This algorithm works fine as long as it is applied to a non-trending, mean-reverting asset but fails when a trend has been established.   Please, bear in mind that the strategy as-is will not work.

An optimized version, tested in the EURUSD pair from 2014 till 2020, showed the following equity curve and values:

Equity Curve

The results are a bit disappointing, as we see. After the optimization, the strategy shows only 52.55% profitable trades with a meager 1.02 reward/risk ratio. The RSI is very close to a coin-toss in performance, meaning the results are mostly due to chance.  Furthermore, the average trade of $6.82 before commissions means a trader working using the classic RSI entries is really profiting his broker.

In our next video, we will cover a new way of using the RSI on trending securities.


APPENDIX: The RSI code for Easylanguage

inputs:  Price( Close ), Length( 14 ), OverSold( 30 ), 
         Overbought( 70 ), takeprofit( 3 ), Stoploss( 1 ) ;
variables:  var0( 0 ), over_sold (False ), over_bought (False) ;

var0 = RSI( Price, Length ) ;

{***** ATR buy and sell signals *****} 

over_sold = Currentbar > 1 and var0 crosses under OverSold ;
if over_sold then                                                                    
    Buy ( "RsiLE" ) next bar at market ;

over_bought = Currentbar > 1 and var0 crosses over OverBought ;
if over_bought then                                                                    
    Sell Short ( "RsiSE" ) next bar at market ;

{***** ATR Stop Loss and Take-profit *****} 

if marketposition > 0  then begin 
    sell Next Bar at L[1]- Stoploss * averagetruerange(10) Stop ; 
    sell Next Bar at L[1] + takeprofit * averagetruerange(10) Stop;

if marketposition < 0 then begin
     buytocover  Next Bar at H[1] + Stoploss * averagetruerange(10)Stop ; 
     buytocover  Next Bar at H[1] - takeprofit *averagetruerange(10)Stop ; 


Forex Videos

Forex Fear of Missing Out! (FOMO) Don’t Make This Basic Mistake!

Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). What is it? 

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

In this session, we will be looking at the fear of missing out or f o m o.  What is it, and how does it affect trading?

The fear of missing out is a psychological aspect of trading any financial asset.  In fact, it is so deeply rooted in our psyche that it affects the way humans think about many aspects of our lives, and sometimes it’s so powerful that it blinds us to all reasonable thinking and can end up causing us to make rash decisions, which are ill-thought out, and untimely.

The fear of missing out has been with us for centuries, but it was only in 1996 that a research paper written by a marketing strategist, Dr. Dan Herman, entitled the piece ‘the fear of missing out.’

Although people can deal with the fear of missing out on social events, such as parties, or perhaps a sale where they missed a good bargain, when it encroaches into one’s financial trading ability and adversely affects decision-making, it can then become extremely expensive if not recognised and handled correctly.

A good example of FOMO is the recent bull run on bitcoin, especially bitcoin to the USD, and other crypto assets, with one broker, EToro, reporting 380,000 new accounts opened since the beginning of January 2021, and where much of the exponential growth in bitcoin / US dollar trading can be attributed to retail traders jumping on the bandwagon during the timeframe of this incredible rise in bitcoin value and where this is down to the fear of missing out.

While bitcoin was trading at 42,000 dollars and whereby institutional and professional traders were focusing on technical analysis, where analysis suggested that price was peaking, the fear of missing out traders were still piling in and buying bitcoin on CFD’s and physical exchanges at levels shown here at position A, and where the subsequent tanking to $30K wiped out accounts and where billions were lost to retail FOMO investors who bought close to or at the top of the market. 

Traders should always ask themselves if they are making their trading decisions based on sound technical and fundamental analysis, including market sentiment, or are they looking blindly, trading under FOMO pressure, looking to ride a trend wave which may be peaking or bottoming out and about to reverse? 

Here is an example of a bull run from September 2020 to January 2021 for cable, which has risen 10,000 pips and where many traders will have been buying at the top of the market because they thought there would be a continuation perhaps to 1.400 or higher, now that the United Kingdom has left the European Union with a free trade deal in place



…and many traders who thought that the EU and UK would never reach an agreement would have sold at the bottom of the bear run, which topped out at 1.3475 and gone short at 1.2700 for fear of missing out on the bear run.

Trends do not have to be in their hundreds or thousands of pips or points before a trader is worried they are missing out and jump onto one. It could be just a dozen or so pips or points. The important thing is to remember that one’s decision-making must be based on strong technical analysis while factoring in market sentiment and fundamental analysis, which may be lagging behind the market move. They should factor in the possibility of price action stalling at any point or consolidating and use relevant stops in order not to blow their accounts on a single trade. And where traders must realise that f o m o has no place in their trading armoury, which must also consist of a trading style which has consistently been providing winning trades.

Crypto Videos

Crypto Ban Petition Attempt! Is He Just Serving His Own Interests?

British Financial Advisor Creates a Crypto Ban Petition


Neil Liversidge, a veteran financial advisor and the owner of the independent financial advisory firm West Liversidge, has called on the government of the United Kingdom to fully ban transactions in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

Liversidge’s strong opinion on the topic goes as far as him starting a petition urging the local financial authorities to stop cryptocurrency transactions in the UK. The petition has the goal to:

“Legislate to prohibit the payment by or any form of acceptance of cryptocurrencies by UK resident businesses or individuals, and to require UK regulators (the FCA and PRA) to prohibit any transactions by UK financial institutions in cryptocurrencies.”

Liversidge cited an anti-crypto narrative common amongst crypto disbelievers, arguing that cryptos such as Bitcoin have no intrinsic value and that they “can be a destabilizing influence on society, and mostly used for criminal activity.” The financial advisor also thinks that cryptocurrency proof-of-work mining is “harmful to the environment.”

The aforementioned petition’s deadline is July 7, 2021, according to the UK Government and Parliament website. At the moment, the petition has collected 108 signatures.

In an interview with finance-focused publication Professional Adviser on Jan 13, Liversidge noted that a blanket ban on cryptocurrency transactions in the UK would help the enforcement reduce the power of criminals using cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin for illicit activity. “Law enforcement will never catch all of the people that use crypto for illicit activities; it won’t even catch most of them. However, destroying their financial base reduces their power.”

Liversidge acknowledged that a crypto ban would immediately trigger a market crash: “If the UK government takes the lead and bans transactions on cryptos as my petition requests, that will surely set off a chain reaction, crashing cryptocurrencies overnight,” he said.

The IFA’s verdict is that all cryptocurrency investors should immediately sell their holdings: “If you’re holding cryptos now, my advice to you would be to find a bigger fool than you and dump it all quickly.” Liversidge also stated that he has “never owned any and never would own any” cryptocurrency, even if he knew it would net him hundreds of percent of returns.

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design – Manual Backtesting your Trade Idea

We have a potential trading idea, and we would like to see if it is worthwhile. Is it really critical to code it? No. But very convenient? Yes.

Manual historical backtesting

There is no need to code the strategy to do an initial validation test. All we have to do is pick a chart, go back in time and start performing trades manually. But how to do it properly?

  1.  Use a trading log spreadsheet, as the one provides.
  2. Thoroughly describe the methodology, including the rules for entry, stop-loss, and take-profit settings. 
  3. Use a standard 1 unit trade size ( 1 lot, for example) in all the trades.

Once the rules of the game have been set, we position the chart, start moving the action one bar at a time, and trade the chart’s right side. It is critical to take all the signals the strategy offers. Cherrypicking spoils the test.

Market Condition

The financial markets move in phases. We should think it has two main phases and three directions.



The two main phases are impulses and corrections.

The three movements are Upward (Bullish), downward (bearish), and sideways (consolidations).

Bear and bull directions are mostly similar in the Forex market because currencies are traded in pairs, so the quote currency’s bear market is the base currency’s bull market and vice-versa. 

With commodities, precious metals, and cryptocurrencies against fiat, this does not hold.

To properly test your strategy, you should apply it in all market directions and phases. Even better is performing a different evaluation for each market state. That way, your evaluation will tell you in which market conditions it works best and in which is not acceptable to apply it; thus, you could create a complementary rule to filter out the market phases in which the strategy fails.

Different markets

You must apply the strategy to all markets you intend to trade using it. As with the market conditions, you should test each market separately. After having all markets tested, you will find useful information regarding how markets the strategy works best and the correlations among markets when using it. That applies, of course, if you use the same timeframes and periods in all markets, which is advisable.

If you do it as said, you can also perform the summation of all markers date by date and assess the overall performance, its main parameters, and system quality.

Pros & Cons of manually backtesting 


  • No programming skills are required.
  • It helps you perceive how a real market evolves trade by trade.
  • You will find the potential logic errors, such as stop-loss wrongly set, take profits too close to the opening, thus 
  • You will be able to correct most of the gross mistakes of the strategy.



  • Cherrypicking. Discipline is key. If you start cherrypicking, you no longer are testing your original idea.
  • Most people doing manual backtesting do not properly trade all phases and markets. Not always thoroughly test all markets and their conditions, as it would require a lot of time. Thus the test is incomplete.
  • Time-consuming. A complete manual backtest takes much longer than a computer-generated backtest.
  • Awkward optimization. Optimization is also tricky and time-consuming. That is so because a parameter change would need another backtesting.

Final words

Manual backtesting allows us to have a first impression of how a new trade idea would fare in real trading, but a thoroughly manual backtest and optimization are time-consuming. Therefore, serious traders should start developing basic programming skills to automate both processes.

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

How to Come Up With a Good Bitcoin Investment Strategy

Surprisingly, many people just buy Bitcoin and fumble with the investment until they make some profit. Investing in Bitcoin is actually a serious venture, and contrary to widespread practice, it needs a strategy! But what is an investment strategy anyway? What constitutes a good strategy? And, does it apply to all forms of Bitcoin investment?

These are the hard questions we seek to answer in this article. 

Is There a Right Way to Invest?

When investing in crypto or any other asset, you can gain or lose. The most successful investors are those who combine tactic, experience, and of course, luck. Since we cannot do anything about experience and luck, we are usually left with the tactic in the playground, and that’s where planning comes in. We’re not saying that there is a right or wrong way to invest. But, if you are really keen on maximizing your profits and keeping risks at bay, then planning for that journey is indispensable.

What is an Investment Strategy?

An investment strategy is a calculated approach that helps an investor make decisions to achieve specific goals. The investor could be seeking to multiply wealth. They could be seeking to protect whatever they already have. Regardless of the circumstances, an investment strategy must consider the investor’s goals, risk tolerance, and future capital needs. 

What Constitutes a Good Strategy?

Keeping in mind the above picture of what an investment strategy is, it is easy to figure out what a good one should be made of. Generally, you can consult the following checklist if you want to come up with a sound Bitcoin investment strategy.

  1. It contains your definition of risk tolerance – Risk is a central component of any investment strategy. Defining your risk tolerance helps you apply brakes when the train is accelerating in the wrong direction. It might sound trivial, but desperate decisions are never far from the mind when things get thick. 
  2. It identifies your goals – An investment strategy is nothing without goals. It should be clear from the start what you want to achieve from such an engagement. 
  3. It should be realistic – If it were that easy to make money, everyone would be rich. The excitement one gets when approaching an investment may mislead them to overshoot.
  4. It should aim at maximizing profits and minimizing risks – well, that’s the whole point of investing. 

This is by no means an exhaustive definition of a good investment. However, it is a fair guide on how to approach planning for your Bitcoin investment. With this background in mind, let us look at how you can develop an award-winning Bitcoin investment strategy.

Step #1 Identify the opportunity and the risk

If there is no opportunity, abort the mission. Diving straight into an investment without identifying whether there is a suitable opportunity sounds like gambling. After all, the whole purpose of venturing into investment is taking advantage of some opportunity. 

Spotting opportunities is not always easy, but sometimes it is. An example of opportunity in Bitcoin investment is the crypto’s rising value. This could be a short term opportunity or something that will outlive this generation (no one knows how long Bitcoin will sustain the uptrend). However you look at it, we must agree that identifying the opportunity is the basis of everything.

With opportunity comes risks. As mentioned earlier, risk is a core part of any investment strategy. The opportunity might be huge, but so could be the risk. If there is reason to believe that the current Bitcoin boom is a fad, the risk associated with investing all your savings would be catastrophic. The bottom line is, you should identify how much risk the opportunity presents and how much of it are you willing to tolerate.

Step #2 Decide how much and for how long

The amount of money you should invest and for how long are crucial parameters. Of course, you’re not planning to hold Bitcoin until you die. But if that is your intention, it should be clear from the onset. Holding assets indefinitely and without a plan defies the purpose of accumulating wealth.

However, this is not a rule cast in stone. For instance, if you plan to protect your wealth, you might want to convert a huge chunk of your dollar savings to Bitcoin, and short time fluctuations will not be a bother because profits will average out over time. 

Step #3 Invest – a plan without action is pointless.

Now that you have a clear goal and an understanding of the opportunities and risks, it is time to invest. Depending on your goals, you may find one investment approach more suitable than others. Typical options for investing in Bitcoin include:

  • Trading – With trading, you can either go for spot trading or derivatives trading. With spot trading, you simply buy Bitcoin when you think it is trading at a low price and sell when you believe the price has gone high enough. Without concrete investment goals, it is difficult to remain disciplined when spot trading as periods of explosive uptrends and epic falls might send you into euphoric buying/ panic selling episodes, respectively.
  • HODLing – This is where you buy Bitcoin and keep it with no intention of using the asset in the short run. This approach may be more suitable if you plan to protect your wealth or diversify your investment portfolio. Wealth stored in Bitcoin can be readily liquidated and converted to fiat money. You can also use such investments to acquire crypto loans. 

Step #4 Monitor your investment

An investment is like a seed – once sowed, the growth journey has only begun. Keeping an eye on your investment helps you to determine whether your strategy needs editing. If you believe you made mistakes in your original plan, there is no shame in revising it until you feel you have gotten it right. It is important to practice emotional control while observing how events unfold during the course of the growth of your wealth. You should also stay updated and keep learning, as that’s the only way to align your strategy with the reality of the market. 

Final Thoughts

Investing in Bitcoin is not complicated, but without planning for it, the chances of going nowhere with your investment are high. A good investment strategy, we have seen, needs to define your goals, your risk tolerance, be realistic, and focus on maximizing profits while keeping risks under control. There is no right or wrong way to invest, but that does not mean a planless investment is also acceptable. Similarly, the four-step approach described above is not the only sound methodology. However, it captures most of the crucial elements that will help your Bitcoin strategy stand out. Feel free to play around with it!

Crypto Videos

Bitcoin is a Possible Reserve Currency – Former Canadian Prime Minister Says!

Bitcoin is a Possible Reserve Currency – Former Canadian Prime Minister 

Stephen Harper, a former prime minister of Canada, says there may be a place for Bitcoin as well as central bank digital currencies as part of a basket of reserve currencies that may replace the dollar.

In an interview with the investment service, Cambridge House’s Jay Martin Harper stated the possibility of the US dollar being completely replaced could only come from a large currency such as the Euro or Chinese Yuan. He expressed his doubts when it comes to either of them being a viable alternative currency given the uncertainty over the value of the Euro in the long term and the “arbitrary measures” that the Chinese government would take when it comes to guiding the value of the Yuan:

“It’s very hard to see what the alternative is to the US dollar as the world’s major reserve currency. Other than possible candidates such as gold, Bitcoin, a whole basket of things… I think you’ll see the sheer number of things that people use as reserves will certainly expand, but the US dollar will still be the bulk of it.”

The former prime minister then added that he thought central bank digital currencies were to some degree “inevitable,” but that they would likely be subject to monetary policy around the world. Harper stated his concern about central banks becoming “some kind of a general banker” rather than just a financial monitor that they currently are:

“Ultimately, if you have a digital currency that will be used by the central bank to control inflation and create a stable currency as well as priceability, then this digital currency is just a straightforward evolution of the marketplace,” Harper stated. “But if it is part of a series of what I consider as wild experiments as to the role of central banking… Well, then it worries me a lot.”

Stephen Harper served as the prime minister of Canada for nine years, from 2006 until 2015. Cryptocurrency and blockchain adoption in Canada has started expanding significantly since his departure, with the country getting its first regulated crypto exchange in Sept. 

Crypto Videos

Canada’s First Public BTC Fund Grows 900% Passing 1 Billion Dollars!

Canada’s first public BTC fund grows 900% as it passes the $1 billion milestone

Canadian regulated digital asset manager 3iQ has passed another massive milestone of its public Bitcoin fund. 

On Jan 14, 3iQ’s Bitcoin Fund hit the $1 billion mark, as the company announced the news on Twitter. The new milestone shows QBTC’s parabolic growth after 3iQ originally launched the fund in April 2020. QBTC is up 900% from its previous milestone of $100 million recorded in Oct 2020.

As previously reported, 3iQ’s BTC fund is the first public Bitcoin fund in Canada that got listed on a major stock exchange, the Toronto Stock Exchange. Gemini, a firm owned by the Winklevoss brothers, provides custody services for 3iQ’s QBTC fund.

QBTC.U is currently trading at $48.63, up 330% from the $11 price it was trading for when it got listed in April.

3iQ is one of the largest cryptocurrency firms in Canada. In Jan 2018, 3iQ reportedly became the first cryptocurrency fund regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission as well as the Canadian Securities Administrators. Two years after that, in Feb 2020, 3iQ partnered with the blockchain startup Mavennet to launch a stablecoin that would be pegged to the Canadian dollar. This stablecoin would be regulated by the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC).

3iQ’s former senior executive Shaun Cumby is currently the CEO of Arxnovum, a company that filed an application with OSC for a Bitcoin exchange-traded fund on Jan 11, 2021. Winklevoss’ Gemini will also provide its custody for the Arxnovum’s Bitcoin ETF.

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

Now You can Earn Interest on Your Idle Crypto Assets with Nexo

Apart from HODLing and spending, many crypto users have no idea what to do with their crypto assets. Nexo, a leading financial institution for digital assets, provides crypto users with the opportunity to earn interest on their idle crypto assets. Overall, the concept is simple – you entrust your assets with Nexo, they invest them primarily through lending, and you share the returns. It works almost like a traditional investment bank; only that crypto is the main asset here.

Naturally, many questions will emerge regarding the profitability of Nexo’s offerings, its security, usability, and much more – investors are an inquisitive lot. This article will answer some of the most pertinent ones if only that will give you the confidence to join the league of passive investors. 

What Is Nexo?

Before we rush into how to invest with Nexo, let us first understand what it is. Simply put, Nexo is (arguably) the world’s leader in the provision of digital banking services. The company has strived to bring traditional banking to the world of crypto by merging fintech with blockchain. Nexo specializes in providing lending facilities in the DeFi space. According to the company, $5 billion worth of digital loans have been processed on the platform since its establishment in 2018. The company enjoys a user base of over 1 million and is available in nearly every corner of the planet. 

How Do You Earn?

Nexo offers a variety of crypto financial services, with lending at the top of the list. To earn, you need to deposit supported digital assets (both fiat and crypto) to your Nexo account. The following steps should help with the process:

  1. Register for an account on 
  2. Enable 2-factor authentication (this is mandatory)
  3. Scroll down until you find a list of supported crypto assets and select ‘Top Up’ on the one you wish to invest in. Besides the token, you will see how much interest you can earn from each one and what options there are for maximizing your interest.
  4. Nexo will generate a deposit address and a QR code. You can either copy the address or scan the code. It is extremely important to double-check this address before depositing since Nexo puts a disclaimer for funds sent to the wrong address. You can also top up your Nexo account directly from an exchange. If you are depositing BTC, your transaction will appear after 6 nodes have confirmed the transfer. For ETH and other ERC-20 tokens, 50 is the required number of confirmations. 
  5. You can follow the progress of your deposits on the transactions page/ tab.
  6. Interest is earned when you withdraw from your available credit line. The withdraw button is conveniently placed next to the deposit button. 

The steps may look numerous, but really, the entire process can be summarized as ‘top up supported assets and start earning automatically.’ In other words, once you deposit, no other effort is required from you – that’s the true spirit of passive earning. 

Which Digital Assets Can You Invest?

Nexo supports the following digital assets:

  • Bitcoin
  • Ether
  • Litecoin
  • Bitcoin Cash
  • Nexo Token
  • XRP (Ripple)
  • Tether
  • USD Coin
  • Dai
  • Euro
  • GBP
  • Several others

Is Nexo a Good Investment?

As an investor, you have the choice to bid your assets in a portfolio of your choice. So, what would make you choose Nexo first? The following factors might:

  • You can earn up to 12% interest on stablecoins. Interest earned depends on the asset you have deposited and the method you choose for payout. Earning in Nexo for selected stablecoins attracts the full 12% interest.
  • While interest is calculated on an annual percentage rate (APR), payouts are made daily. So you don’t have to wait for end-year dividends like most investments.
  • You can deposit or withdraw funds at any time of your liking.
  • Your deposited assets are backed by a $100 million insurance secured with BitGo.
  • There are no minimum contribution thresholds and no fees charged for funding or withdrawing from your wallet.

Are There Any Risks?

Any keen investor would be worried about the safety of their investment, especially if their assets will be used to extend credit to others. With Nexo, this is not a matter of great concern as your assets and those of others are backed by a $100 million insurance at BitGo. Deposits are also stored in multisig cold storage wallets so you can rest easy as your money works for you. 

Additionally, borrowers have a limit based on their deposited crypto assets. Nexo uses a complex formula to dynamically calculate credit limits based on the dynamic value of digital assets. So, Nexo is unlikely to run out of cash due to overborrowing. 

Lastly, while this is not a risk per se, it is worth noting that first time users may find the platform a little cumbersome to use. The website has only scanty information about what you need to do to get started, and you are likely to fumble around looking for where to click next. Clearly, the platform has not been customised for the crypto investor who’s just starting out. 

Reputation and Regulation 

Nexo boasts of a good reputation among users of crypto financial services. On TrustPilot, a leading consumer review website, 90% of users have ranked it ‘excellent,’ with a score of 4.8/5. The company is also licenced and regulated by the European Central Bank, besides being certified as ISO/IEC 27001:2013 compliant. With such credentials, you can be assured that you will be dealing with a legitimate and tried, and trusted platform. 

But What’s The Catch?

For those who are still not convinced about the viability of Nexo’s business model, questions on where’s the catch will linger. The way this financial institution operates is quite similar to traditional banks – users deposit their assets (usually dollars, euro, etc.), which gives the banks the capital to finance credit and other investments. The only difference is that Nexo cannot rely on traditional loan recovery techniques in case a borrower defaults. Therefore, the company depends on a user’s deposited assets as collateral. You can deposit multiple assets to maintain a positive loan-to-value ratio. This ratio is an indicator of your ability to settle the debt. If you default, Nexo will automatically initiate a sale of your deposited assets until the desired balance is achieved. 

Final Thoughts

‘Earn passively from your idle crypto assets’ sounds just as cool as it is, especially when using Nexo. The platform allows you to deposit a variety of crypto assets and earn up to 12% interest. Interestingly, all you need to do is deposit funds to your Nexo wallet, just as you would do with a crypto exchange. Nexo’s investment terms are quite friendly. For instance, there are no minimum deposits, you can deposit or withdraw at any time, payouts are done daily, and so on. Additionally, the platform ensures the security of your funds is guaranteed by implementing 2-factor authentication for deposits and withdrawals, insuring depositors’ funds, and storing them in multisig cold storage wallets. The only downside with Nexo is the limited information on the website, which might leave new investors struggling to get started. 

Crypto Videos

Grayscale GBTC Faces Competition!

GBTC Faces Competition in the OTC Bitcoin Trust Market

Osprey Funds has just entered the crypto sector and is trying to become Grayscale’s competitor. The firm is offering an over-the-counter Bitcoin trust under the ticker symbol OBTC. The trust Osprey offer is similar to Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust, also known as GBTC.

“The Osprey Bitcoin Trust provides an easy access to Bitcoin,” the firm’s website says. They charge a 0.49% management fee, which is the lowest cost solution currently on the market. As they stated, Osprey is an entity that “builds digital asset solutions for intelligent investors,” with the OBTC trust considered its “flagship offering.”

“OBTC began operating and being quoted in the OTC market on Friday, Jan 15,” Osprey Funds’ CEO, Greg King, said, adding:

“As of Jan 14, the product met all the requirements to become quoted under the OBTC ticker in the OTC market. In the next 30 days, the fund will attempt to become DTC eligible, and after Feb 14, all additional market makers will be allowed to quote it. 

Osprey’s launch in the BTC trust market is a direct poke at the largest Bitcoin trust, Grayscale. Grayscale has become one of the largest BTC holders in the world, currently possessing over 500,000 BTC.

GBTC stepped into the market with the idea to provide the public with easier access to Bitcoin through more traditional avenues, all while not even requiring them to custody their own funds. GBTC comes with a yearly 2% management fee, which is where Osprey wants to step in and beat the competition. Osprey’s recently unveiled BTC trust announced a management fee of only 0.49%. 

“We are always happy to see cryptocurrency access products enter the market, especially here in the US,” CEO of Grayscale Michael Sonnenshein told Bloomberg.

Accredited investors will require a $25,000 minimum to buy directly into the trust. Additionally, OBTC shares have a lock-up period of one year before they can be sold in the secondary market. As a comparison, Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust requires a six-month lock-up. However, based on King’s comments to Bloomberg, the public may expect Osprey’s lock-up period to be cut in half in the near future.

Crypto Videos

JPMorgan Chase Executives Talk About Stablecoins!

JPMorgan Chase Executives Talk About Stablecoins

During a JP Morgan Chase’s Q4 2020 earnings call, the firm’s CEO Jamie Dimon and CFO Jennifer Piepszak discussed the OCC’s recent approval of banks being able to use stablecoins for payments, as well as whether or not this approval will have any significant impact on the development of JPM Coin, the company’s private digital currency. 

During the Q&A portion of the call, Portales Partners analyst Charles Peabody asked the executives about the OCC approval for banks to use various public blockchain networks for payments.

“That guidance enables an offering of stablecoins going on a public blockchain. That doesn’t impact the JPM coin. You should think about JPM coin as the tokenization of our customer deposits,” stated JP Morgan CFO Jennifer Piepszak, according to the call transcript.

However, she did not completely rule out the possibility of a stablecoin backed by JPM if customers showed interest.

“It’s obviously very early. We will assess the use cases and customers’ demands. But, it is still too early to see where everything goes for us.”

JPM CEO Jamie Dimon was quick to jump in and mention that the bank is currently “using blockchain for sharing data with banks,” and adding that their bank is at the forefront of development.

Debuted in Oct 2020, JPM Coin is used on the backend of JPM’s payments systems, helping the firm settle nearly $6 trillion in payments on a daily basis. 

Ultimately, Dimon seemingly implied that crypto payments settlement wouldn’t greatly change how JP Morgan operates.

“I do expect that stuff is coming soon, and it may not change our world all that much.”

However, Dimon may be underestimating the impact that crypto will have on the payments landscape. Paypal is one of the Fintech giants that Dimon mentioned by name as a direct competitor, confirmed that crypto payments would be available in 2021. The CEO — a former skeptic of cryptocurrencies — made it very clear that payments will become an increasingly crowded field over the next decade:

“I expect it to be a very, very tough competition in the next ten years. However, I expect to win. So help me, God.”

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

Earn Passively with VeriBlock’s Latest Tech: Proof of Proof

Innovations in the cryptosphere are fast and wild. Recently, VeriBlock released the novel proof-of-proof protocol, which allows blockchains to inherit Bitcoin’s security. The organization’s unique technology solves two problems simultaneously. First, a diverse ecosystem of blockchains – each focused on addressing a unique need – is secured. Secondly, gains made from the increased adoption of these alternate blockchains will drive more transactions out of the Bitcoin network, thereby increasing Bitcoin’s scalability, and by extension, solving the pioneer blockchain’s major headache.

While this technology is expected to transform Bitcoin and the entire crypto universe, the best part is that you can take part in the revolution and earn passively. 

In this article, we will look closely at this interesting concept and discuss the opportunity in it.

What Is Proof-of-Proof (PoP)?

At the core of it, PoP is a form of mining. VeriBlock envisioned an ecosystem of blockchains – each addressing diverse problems – but with the full security of Bitcoin. But why Bitcoin? You may ask. 

Currently, Bitcoin is the largest cryptocurrency network and is rightfully considered the golden standard of security. Attacking the network would require massive investment in specialized computational infrastructure, all thanks to the high number of nodes in the network paired with its consensus algorithm. It is argued that to stage a 51% attack against Bitcoin, even the world’s fastest supercomputer would be of no use. Smaller blockchains have had to endure this vulnerability for years, but not anymore.

Simply put, VeriBlock’s PoP scheme will allow participating blockchains to use Bitcoin for a second-layer of consensus. So, first, they do their own proof-of-work consensus then push the transactions to Bitcoin through VeriBlock’s blockchain. 

The VeriBlock ecosystem acts as an aggregation layer between alternative blockchains and Bitcoin. Whenever a new blockchain joins this ecosystem, VeriBlock becomes even more decentralized and more secure due to the increased network effect. 

What’s The Deal?

For VeriBlock’s technology to work, PoP miners are needed, and that’s where you come in. As discussed above, the technology works by having transactions mined in their original blockchains then published to Bitcoin in a decentralized, trustless, transparent, and permissionless (DTTP) manner. Hence, your work as a PoP miner will be pushing blockchains, which already have intermediate consensus, to Bitcoin to receive the final security seal. The backend mechanics are complex, but the user’s role is suitable for a layperson.

With VeriBlock’s PoP, everyone stands to benefit. We have seen that PoP miners get their commissions by pushing transactions to the second layer of verification. On the other hand, innovators working on alternative blockchains will see their projects boosted as users become more confident in adopting these blockchains. The thing is, it is easier for developers to build applications on alternative blockchains where speed and scalability are non-issues. But security remains a challenge for such networks. Therefore, it is easy to understand why the whole crypto community should rejoice at the release of this invention.

How Do You Earn?

Unquestionably, VeriBlock’s PoP technology is too complex to be discussed here, but luckily, you do not need to understand the intricacies to participate and earn.

Send Bitcoin, get paid! Earning with VeriBlock’s PoP is that simple. The company has partnered with ZelCore to make this dream a reality. From December 2020, ZelCore users can earn $VBK by sending Bitcoin from their wallets. On the updated wallets, users will find $VBK alongside BTC, BCH, LTC, and other major cryptos. 

For the earning part, all you really need to do is update your ZelCore wallet to get the new feature. Any time you send Bitcoin from your ZelCore wallet, you will be taking part in VeriBlock’s second layer of consensus and getting paid for the hard work. Again, for emphasis, you do not need to do any manual validations – sending BTC is sufficient to earn you rewards.

In the bag of goodies, we also had some 1.5 million $VBK, which was to be shared among the first 15,000 users to upgrade their wallets by December 21. If you did upgrade before then, kudos! If not, your second chance is to earn by sending BTC from your ZelCore wallet.

Rewards are earned in VeriBlock coins ($VBK), which can be converted to other major cryptocurrencies. The conversion is expected to be smooth as $VBK is already listed as an asset in the updated wallet. Paying out earnings through $VBK was necessary because that’s the network that performs the final consensus, which is understandably confusing as Bitcoin would be expected to be doing this task. 

Which Wallets Are Supported?

At the moment, you can only participate in this passive earning scheme if you are using the ZelCore wallet. Some consider this a disadvantage given that the wallet is not open-source, and for being a commercial wallet, users are charged monthly maintenance fees to use some features. Nonetheless, the developers have tried to compensate for this by offering highly reliable customer support and unmatched user experience. 

About the ZelCore Wallet

ZelCore is a multi-asset crypto commercial wallet that supports over 170 digital assets. It integrates the services of a number of major exchanges, including Changelly, InstaSwap, Coinswitch, and Kyber, so you have it all under one roof. The application, which is available for both mobile and desktop devices, offers beautiful interfaces, best-in-class security, including two-factor authentication, great usability, and seamless integration of new features, which the company promises to roll out continuously. 

Why Should You Participate in VeriBlock’s PoP?

First, to earn passively. VeriBlock’s PoP gives ordinary Bitcoin users – those without any special mining equipment – the opportunity to earn from mining. This idea is not only novel but exciting too. It is not often that you can make money by almost investing nothing. Also, mining has, hitherto, been a reserve of those with the financial muscle to invest what it takes to set up the specialized infrastructure.

Secondly, your participation in VeriBlock’s PoP scheme will be for the greater good of the cryptoverse. The growth of alternate blockchains has been hampered significantly by security issues related to the 51% attack. It has been difficult for merchants and exchanges to list tokens from alternate blockchains when the risk of double-spend stares at them. Thus, when you take part in proof-of-proof validations, you are helping alternate blockchains to grow.

Final Thoughts

Earning passively is one of the easiest and effortless ways to earn from crypto. With VeriBlock’s proof-of-proof invention, ordinary Bitcoin users can make extra money by validating transactions. Participating is easy – one only needs to download a ZelCore wallet (or update it for existing users) and start sending BTC from the wallet. There is a slight limitation in the use of the ZelCore wallet as it is a commercial product. Nonetheless, its usability, security, customer support, and its wide variety of features make it worth the trouble. VeriBlock may extend the technology to other wallets, but as to which ones and when, that remains a matter of conjecture. Overall, we may point out a few areas of improvement for VeriBlock’s PoP earning scheme. Still, we must also agree that this is a noteworthy opportunity for Bitcoin users to earn effortlessly.

Forex Daily Topic Forex Fundamental Analysis

GBP/AUD Global Macro Analysis – Part 1 & 2


This analysis will look into endogenous factors that influence economic growth both in the UK and Australia. We will also analyze the exogenous factors that impact the exchange rate of the GBP/AUD pair.

Ranking Scale

We will conduct correlation analysis, which we will use to rank the endogenous and exogenous factors on a scale of -10 to 10.

In ranking the endogenous factors, we will conduct a correlation analysis against the GDP growth rate. If the score is negative, the endogenous factor has resulted in depreciation of either the GBP of the AUD. Conversely, if the score is positive, then the factor has resulted in an appreciation of the local currency.

When the exogenous analysis is negative, the factor has resulted in a decline of the GBP/AUD exchange rate. If the score is positive, then the factor has led to an increase in the exchange rate.

Summary – GBP Endogenous Analysis

-15 score indicates that the Pound has depreciated since the starting of 2020.

Summary – AUD Endogenous Analysis

A score of -8 indicates that the Australian dollar has depreciated as well since the beginning of 2020.

Indicator Score Total State Comment
Australia Employment Rate -3 10 61.2% in October The employment rate hit 20-year lows during the pandemic. It’s expected to continue recovery as the economy recovers
Australia Core Consumer Prices 2 10 117.49 in Q3 2020 The inflation rate still lower than Q1, but the demand is increasing in the economy
Australia Manufacturing Production -3 10 Q3 projected to drop by 3.5% Q2 dropped by 6.2%. Production expected to improve in Q3 as business operation resume some normalcy
Australia Business Confidence 6 10 NAB business confidence was 12 in November It’s the highest level since April 2018. This shows that businesses are highly optimistic about their future operations
Australia Consumer Spending -3 10 Was 253.648 billion AUD in Q3 2020 Q3 levels still lower than Q1 domestic expenditure. Expected to increase further when the economy recovers to pre-pandemic levels
Australia Construction Output -3 10 Q3 output dropped by 2.6% Q3 drop caused by a reduction in residential and non-residential construction, engineering, and building works
Australia Government Budget Value -4 10 a budget deficit of 10.974 billion AUD in October The government budget deficit is improving. This shows that the revenue stream is improving as businesses resume operations
  1. Australia Employment Rate

This indicator shows the number of working-age Australians who are employed during a particular period. As an indicator of growth in the labor market, the employment rate shows if the economy is adding or shedding jobs. Thus, it is used to show periods of economic growth and contractions.

The Australian labor market has been recovering from the coronavirus pandemic shocks when the employment rate hit a 20-year low of 58.2%. In October 2020, Australia had an employment rate of 61.2%, up from 60.4% in September. However, it is still lower than January’s 62.6%. Australia’s employment rate has a score of -3.

  1. Australia Trimmed Mean Consumer Prices

This indicator is also called core consumer prices. It measures the price changes of goods and services that are frequently purchased by Australian households. The computation of the trimmed mean consumer prices excludes goods and services whose prices are volatile.

In Q3 2020, the core consumer prices in Australia rose to 117.49 from 117.04 in Q2. Q3 levels are also higher than the 117.17 points recorded in Q1. This shows that the economy is recovering since an increase in prices implies an increase in domestic demand for goods and services. We assign a score of 2.

  1. Australia Manufacturing Production

This indicator shows the YoY change in the value of output from the manufacturing sector. The Australian economy is heavily dependent on industrial production; hence, manufacturing production changes provides invaluable insights into the domestic economic growth. It also shows how the economy is recovering from the impact of COVID-19.

In Q2 2020, the YoY manufacturing production in Australia dropped by 6.2%, compared to 2.7% growth in Q1. Q3 YoY manufacturing production is expected to drop by 3.5%. Consequently, Australian manufacturing production has a score of -3.

  1. Australia Business Confidence

Business confidence in Australia is measured by conducting a monthly survey of about 600 businesses. They include small, medium, and large companies operating in non-agricultural sectors. The survey gauges the businesses’ expectations in terms of profitability, trading volume, and employees. The index is derived by considering the percentage of respondents who have good and very good expectations and those who have a bad and very bad outlook.

In November 2020, the NAB business confidence increased to 12 from 3 in October, which has been the highest since April 2018. Australia’s business confidence has a score of 6.

  1. Australia Consumer Spending

The indicator records the quarterly change in the value of goods and services consumed by domestic households. It includes expenditure by non-profit organizations that provide goods and services to Australian households and the value of backyard productions.

In Q3 of 2020, consumer spending in Australia rose to AUD 253.648 billion from AUD 235.131 billion in Q2. Although it’s lower than Q1 expenditure, domestic demand in the economy is rebounding from the slump of COVID-19. Consequently, Australian consumer spending has a score of -3.

  1. Australia Construction Output

This indicator shows the quarterly change in the value of construction work in Australia. The total value involves both private and public sector building and engineering work.

In the third quarter of 2020, Australia’s construction output dropped by 2.6% from a 0.5% growth in Q2. This drop was caused by output drop in residential and non-residential construction, engineering, and building works. Thus, we assign a score of -3.

  1. Australia Government Budget Value

The government budget value measures whether the Australian government has a budget surplus or deficit. A budget surplus implies that the government’s expenditure is less than its revenue. Similarly, a budget deficit means that the government spends more than it collects in terms of revenue.

In October 2020, Australia had a budget deficit of AUD 10.974 billion, up from a deficit of 33.613 billion in September. We assign a score of -4.

In the next article, you can find the Exogenous analysis of the GBP/AUD currency pair and also our forecast on its price movement in the near future. Cheers.

Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

What Is It Like Investing in Tezos (XTZ)?

Smart contract safety, long-term upgradability, and open participation: these are the problems Tezos promised to solve when it was created in 2018. So, the developers built the network to facilitate peer-to-peer transactions and launch smart contracts. Behind the network sits the Tez (also called Tezzie) digital token, which is the focus of this article. 

If you are familiar with Ethereum smart contracts, you might already understand Tezos’ offering. However, the slight difference between smart contracts on these two networks is that Tezos allows participants to directly control the network’s rules. This makes Tezos not just a re-invention of the Ethereum wheel but a rather more flexible and scalable platform for implementing smart contracts. 

Tez can be considered a major crypto. By market capitalization, it ranked #19 at the time of writing. It’s availability in multiple exchange pairs and listing on major exchanges indicates that it is a popular asset among investors. 

This article will look at what it is like investing in Tez and answer questions such as is it a good investment.

What is Unique about Tezos?

One of the things that make Tezos unique is its proof-of-stake consensus. Unlike Bitcoin, consensus on the Tezos network is achieved by stakers, whose mining power depends on how much Tez they hold. Relying on this consensus mechanism might have given the crypto some resilience against the cryptocurrency bear market of 2019. Between October 2019 and February 2020, the crypto recorded triple growth. This is a remarkable movement – at the time of writing this, even Bitcoin, in its current biggest bull run yet, has not attained triple growth.

Performance in 2020

Tezos is known for euphoric investment. During its ICO launch, it raised $232 million, one of the biggest ICOs at the time. Well, in 2020, the crypto has shown similar tendencies – fluctuating between less than a dollar and $4. Such volatility has only been shown by a few cryptocurrencies. Again, we must acknowledge how large these fluctuations are. Despite the relatively low price, the percentage changes are tremendous. 

Tez was trading at roughly $1.3 at the beginning of 2020. By mid-February, it had rallied to trade at $3.7. Prices soon crashed to lows of $1.3 a month later. Between April and July, Tez demonstrated rare stability exchanging at about $2 and only fluctuating slightly. In August, the crypto experienced its largest spike of the year, and at some point, fetched a whopping $4.2 at exchanges. The prices have since dropped to $2, which so far seems like its point of equilibrium.

24-hour trading volumes for the crypto indicate drastic changes in investor activity. There was only 30 million worth of trade per day as the year opened, but by mid-February, this number had increased 10-fold. By mid-August, the volume was 20 times. Even when the prices dropped to the $1.3 figure witnessed at the start of the year, 24-hour trading volumes never declined below $70 million. 

The volume of trading exhibited by Tez shows how enthusiastic investors have been with this crypto. Coupled with its relatively high volatility, we can conclude that Tez has been the perfect asset for short-term trading, at least according to investors’ 2020 trading patterns. 

The Future of Tezos

We have seen that, due to its volatility and high trading volume, Tez performs impressively in the short term. For investors who seek to grow their investment in the long term, questions on Tez’s suitability still persist. 

Tezos had a promising start right from its introduction to the initial coin offering. As earlier mentioned, the crypto raised one of the highest amounts ever raised in a cryptocurrency ICO. The faith investors have placed on the crypto from the start indicates its potential and guarantees some level of support for its growth.

Tez has also shown tremendous resilience in the past. After the successful ICO, legal disputes delayed its launch for almost a year. Even so, when it finally launched in 2018, investors had not lost faith in the project – which can be proven by how fast it rallied to reach triple gains. Tezos’ market rank is another indicator of its resilience and aggressive growth. For a crypto that is only 2 years in the market, claiming a position among the top 20 cryptocurrencies is no mean feat.

These past indicators describe a crypto with a solid foundation, good reputation, and the community support needed for future growth.

Adoption in The Banking Sector

The network’s flexibility and scalability also imply that we will see new use cases regularly. In 2019, barely a year after Tezos was launched, BTG Pactual and Dalma Capital (both are reputable investment banks) announced that they will be using the Tezos blockchain for security token offerings (STO).

Tezos adoption in the banking sector is also likely to increase, particularly due to its security. Least Authority, an esteemed security auditing company, released a report affirming that ‘Tezos protects against chain reorganizations and selfish baking.’ Such approvals will go a long way in promoting the crypto’s adoption in the financial sector. 

Stability and Reliability

Tezos’ designers spent a lot of thought on the network’s stability. Unlike most crypto, Tezos has an advanced infrastructure that is not prone to hard forks. Users can vote on proposals to upgrade the protocol on the main blockchain. Through a process known as baking, users stake an amount of XTZ to participate in the voting process. Changes to the protocol become effective only after they have been backed by a super majority. This form of governance ensures the network is ‘built to last.’ As an investor, you will be protected from the uncertainty that comes with hard forks and the subsequent possibility of making a loss on your investment.

Is it Risky Investing in Tezos?

Cryptocurrencies are inherently risky investments. Tezos appears as a stable, secure, and well-governed blockchain. However, the currency faces the same volatility and speculation that all other cryptos face. No matter how lucrative Tezos might appear, the golden rule remains, never risk more than you can afford to lose.

Final Thoughts

Investing in Tezos can be an exciting experience – you can quickly gain or lose, and by high margins. The currency’s relatively high volatility makes it a particularly suitable asset for short term investment. In the long term, Tezos looks equally promising. It is secure, stable, and reliable. These characteristics position the crypto strategically for widespread adoption in the mainstream financial sector. The network’s immunity against hard forking is a guarantee of stability against hard fork uncertainties. While Tezos is a good investment, it is still risky due to the virtue of being a cryptocurrency. Therefore, it is best to exercise caution and avoid hype when making the decision to invest in Tezzie. 

Forex Videos

The DOW Jones Is Getting Ready To Drop!

Dow Jones 30 Industrial index pulls from historic highs. Where next?

 Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

In this session, we will be looking at the potential directional bias for the United States Dow Jones 30 industrial index, which has recently hit a historic high.

On the 6th of January 2021, the United States capitol riot shocked the world. The United States Congress insurrection was carried out by a mob of Donald Trump’s supporters in an attempt to overturn his defeat of the 2020 presidential election.

While the world’s media focused on the attack of the most advanced political system in the world, which was viewed by billions of people across the globe in utter shock and disbelief, and where 5 souls, including a police officer, lost their lives in the riot, the Dow Jones 30 industrial index, in a somewhat unexpected move, aggressively turned bid, and subsequently went on to reach an all-time record high around the 31,200 level.

The bull run has largely been a continuation of the 18,000 low reversal in March when the pandemic began to bite the US economy and caused the shock collapse from its recent 29,500 record-breaking pre-pandemic high.

Much of the pre-pandemic record-breaking high on us stock indices, including the Dow Jones 30, can be attributed to the Trump administration’s policies of low taxation for corporations and less red tape for them. Indeed, had it not been for the pandemic, President Trump may well have gone down as one of the best presidents ever in terms of revitalising the United States economy, where it also so reached a record number of US citizens in employment.

However, with Trump and the republican party on the way out, and with Biden and democratic about to take office on the 20th of January, 2021, the incredible amounts of money which have been thrown at the US economy to prop it up during the pandemic from the coffers of the United States treasury department,  must be repaid,  and where president-elect, Joe Biden has made it quite clear, during his campaigning, that he intends to raise corporate taxation in order to find some of the money, and where he will also reverse policies of the previous government,  such as low red tape requirements for businesses.

In which case, there is an obvious conflict, whereby one government’s policies caused Dow Jones to be at a record high and where the incoming party is about to reverse the policies which caused the record run, which will likely cause pressure on those businesses, which will have less profit due to higher taxation, in which case the stock market should reverse its winning streak? So why the continued bull run on stocks?

This can largely be put down to positioning.  Where hedge funds, banks, investors, and other financial institutions are preparing themselves for a potential future shock by driving stock indices higher before any such new legislation will cause a likely negative impact on stocks.

Quite often, investors will position themselves for future shocks by driving an asset higher, in anticipation of a future correction lower, – or the other way – which on a fundamental economic basis, in this scenario, should be the way forward if such policies of higher taxation were introduced. More tax equals less profit, equals lower dividends for investors, and lower corporate valuation.

We still have a few days to go and until the inauguration, and then there is the Donald Trump impeachment, which may cause a delay in the democratic party’s policy implementation, and, as shown here on the daily chart for the Dow Jones 30 index, it is still in a confirmed bull trend, in which case traders will be looking for breaches of the support and resistance lines as shown here, while eagerly waiting for any new policy changes by the incoming Democratic administration.

One thing is certain, there will be continued volatility in the financial markets as the fallout from the pandemic continues to cause turbulence and where recent data confirms higher unemployment and less consumer spending in the USA, which are more possible reasons for the fall in the index from its recent high, and worries about the change in government and policies. 

Forex Videos

Biden Shows His Cards – This Is How The Market Is Preparing To React!

Biden shows his cards, markets are rattled! – where next for the US Dollar?

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

On Thursday the 14th of January, president-elect Joe Biden addressed the US nation and said that ‘’the $600 already appropriated is simply not enough’’. 

He carried on by saying that the new democrat government would issue another round of $1,400, on top of.the $600 payments, thus showing his hand with regard to the 15 million adult dependants relying on these stimulus checks.  This segment of the Covid relief package runs to 1.9 trillion dollars. 

With yet many more millions of Americans, including migrants, who have slipped the net with regard to relief packages, the wranglers about entitlement will go on as long as the pandemic continues to run rife throughout the United States.  With some young adults purchasing new cars with the extra cash, and others boasting of savings of $13,000 from the relief payments, it is hardly surprising that there will be continued frictions between the two parties, let alone the public and pressure groups, which will only go to show that this is not a one-size-fits-all policy.

Markets saw volatility following the comments with the dollar index shown here on the daily time frame, recovering from its low of 89.15, in the dollar-weighted average against the pound, the Euro, the yen, Swiss franc Canadian dollar, and Australian and New Zealand dollars. 

Although the rot stopped on the 6th of January, dollar strength has been conforming to this support line, on the 1-hour chart, which was bolstered by Joe Biden’s comments on the 14th , to the point where we have a high of 90.80 at the time of writing.

While the bull run on the US dollar may be partially down to Joe Biden’s covid relief policy,  there are other factors to consider, including the buy the rumour sell the fact trading phenomenon, where market participants were largely expecting the incoming President to instigate a larger relief package and especially now that the democrats are in control in Congress, thus making it more easily to be able to get through new policies.

Other things to consider, as shown here on the daily cable chart, where the pound to US Dollar pair remains in a bull run, although it has topped out at the 1.37 exchange rate, having achieved the high due to the success of the UK and EU signing a post Brexit free trade deal,  which has been giving the pair a lift, but where the United Kingdom is currently in a tier 4 lockdown due to the increasing covid transmission rate.


 Here we can see a daily chart of the euro US dollar pair,  which is by volume the largest traded component  on a weighted basis of the dollar index,  and where we can see CIA Here. 

This is a daily chart of the euro US dollar pair, which by weighted volume is the largest component of the US dollar index. Therefore, it is more likely to be a larger contributing factor to the directional bias of the dollar index.  

Here we have a classic bull run, followed by a period of consolidation, with a continuation bull run, to a high of 1.23, during the beginning of 2021, and where price action has breached the bull run’s resistance line as highlighted and is falling back to just below 1.21 at the time of writing. This is lending itself to the general strength of the US dollar when simultaneously combined with the actions of cable.

And so, although Joe Biden’s covid relief stimulus package would appear to be a pivotal point in the acceleration in the US dollar strength, there are other things to consider, such as multi-month highs, as shown with cable and the Eurodollar pair.  

We also have to factor in the fact that the dollar index failed to breach the 89.00 key level, where the previous high going back to the beginning of the pandemic was 103.00, a hefty grabbing for the dollar, and where traders will always be eying the tops and bottoms of huge moves while looking for turning points.

Traders always expect volatility when there is a change of president, and even more so when there is a change in party, such as in this case where are the outgoing republicans will be replaced by the Democratic party’s polities. The next stage will be waiting to see if the outgoing party’s policies are replaced and, if so, what this might mean for the financial markets.  

Forex Fundamental Analysis

GBP/NZD Global Macro Analysis – Part 3

GBP/NZD Exogenous Analysis

  1. The UK and New Zealand Current Account Differential

The current account differential between the UK and NZ is the value of the subtraction of the NZ current account balance and the UK’s current account. For the GBP/NZD pair, if the current account differential is positive, it means that the UK has a higher current account balance than NZ. Thus, the price of the GBP/NZD pair will increase. Conversely, if the differential is negative, NZ has a higher current account balance than the UK. Theoretically, this means that traders would be bullish on the NZD; hence, the GBP/NZD pair price would drop.

In Q3 2020, NZ had a current account deficit of $2.48 billion while the UK a deficit of $20.97 billion. This means that the current account differential is -$18.49 billion. Thus, we assign a score of -5.

  1. The interest rate differential between the UK and New Zealand

The interest rate differential for the GBP/NZD pair is the difference between the UK and NZ’s interest rate. Carry traders and investors would direct their money to the currency, which offers higher interest rates. Therefore, if the interest rate differential for the GBP/NZD pair is positive, it means that the UK offers a higher interest rate than NZ. Hence, traders will be bullish on the GBP/NZD pair. Conversely, if the interest rate differential is negative, it means that NZ has a higher interest rate than the UK. This means that traders would be bearish on the GBP/NZD pair.

In 2020, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand cut its official cash rate from 1% to 0.1%, while the BOE cut the interest rate from 0.75% to 0.1%. In this case, the interest rate differential is 0%. Thus, we assign a score of 0.

  1. The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and New Zealand

This differential shows which economy is expanding faster between the NZ economy and the UK economy. Comparing domestic economies using their GDP growth rates is more effective than using absolute GDP figures since they vary in size.

If the GDP growth rate differential is negative, the NZ economy is growing faster than the UK economy. This would result in a bearish trend for the GBP/NZD pair. Conversely, the pair will have a bullish trend if the differential is positive since it would mean that the UK economy is expanding more than the NZ economy.

The first three quarters of 2020 saw the NZ economy expand by 0.4% and the UK contract by 5.8%. In this case, the GDP growth rate differential is -6.2%. Hence, the score of -4.


Indicator Score Total State Comment
The UK and New Zealand Current Account Differential -5 10 A differential of – $18.49 NZ has a lower current account deficit than the UK.
The interest rate differential between the UK and New Zealand 0 10 0.00% The 0% interest rate differential is expected to persist in the short-term. That’s because neither the RBNZ and the BOE have scheduled changes in the monetary policy
The differential in GDP growth rate between the UK and New Zealand -4 10 -6.20% New Zealand’s economy expanded by 0.4% in the first three quarters of 2020, while the UK contracted by 5.8%

GBP/NZD exogenous factors have a cumulative score of -9. It means we should expect a continued downtrend in the pair for the short term.

In the above image, we can see that this pair’s weekly chart trading below the 200-period MA for the first time since August 2019. Cheers.

Forex Fundamental Analysis

GBP/NZD Global Macro Analysis – Part 1 & 2


In this analysis, we will analyze endogenous factors that influence both the UK and New Zealand economies. The analysis will also include exogenous factors that impact the exchange rate between the GBP and the NZD.

Ranking Scale

We’ll rank the endogenous and exogenous factors on a scale from -10 to +10.

The score of the endogenous factors will be determined from correlation analysis between the GDP growth rate. If the score is negative, the endogenous factor had a devaluing effect on the domestic currency. Conversely, if the score is positive, the factor led to the appreciation of the domestic currency.

Similarly, we’ll do a correlation analysis between the exogenous factors and the GBP/NZD exchange rate. If the correlation is negative, the factor results in a drop in the exchange rate. If positive, then the exogenous factor increases the exchange rate.

Summary – GBP Endogenous Analysis

-15 score on Pound’s Endogenous Analysis indicates that this currency has depreciated since the beginning of 2020.

Summary – NZD Endogenous Analysis

A positive 5 indicates that the New Zealand dollar has appreciated since the beginning of this year.

Indicator Score Total State Comment
New Zealand Employment Rate -7 10 66.4% in Q3 2020 The NZ labor market is yet to recover from the economic disruptions of the pandemic
New Zealand Core Consumer Prices 1 10 1054 points in Q3 2020 From Q1 to Q3, inflation has increased by 1 point
New Zealand Industrial Production 5 10 A 3.1% increase in Q3 The NZ industrial sector is rebounding from a 12.1% drop in Q2.
New Zealand Business Confidence 7 10 Was 9.4 in November November showed the first positive reading in ANZ business confidence since August 2018
New Zealand Consumer Spending 5 10 Q3 spending was 41.335 billion NZD. Q3 consumer spending was the highest recorded in 2020. This shows that the domestic demand has recovered beyond the pre-pandemic period
New Zealand Construction Output -4 10 Q2 output dropped by 24.2% The worst decline in construction output in about 18 years. It’s bound to increase as COVID-19 restrictions ease
New Zealand Government Budget Value -2 10 2020 projected deficit of 4.5 billion NZD This would be a drop from a surplus of 7.5 billion NZD in 2019. Attributed to the increase in government spending during the pandemic
  1. New Zealand Employment Rate

The employment rate shows the growth in New Zealand’s labor market. The change in the labor market shows how the economy is performing – especially in the coronavirus pandemic. The labor market shows if the economy is churning out new jobs or if jobs are lost. Thus, the growth of the labor market is a leading indicator of economic growth.

In Q3 2020, New Zealand’s employment rate dropped to 66.4% from 67.1% in Q2 and 67.7% in Q1. This shows that the labor market is yet to recover from the economic shocks of the pandemic. The New Zealand employment rate has a score of -7.

  1. New Zealand Core Consumer Prices

This indicator samples the price changes in a basket of the most commonly purchased goods and services by households. The price changes represent the rate of inflation in the overall economy. Note that the computation of the core consumer prices excludes goods and services whose prices tend to be volatile. It helps avoid seasonal distortions in the index.

In Q3 of 2020, the core consumer prices in New Zealand rose to 1054 points from 1048 in Q2. The index had only increased by 1 point in 2020. Thus, we assign a score of 1.

  1. New Zealand Industrial Production

Industrial production in New Zealand refers to the YoY change in total manufacturing sales. It measures the YoY change in sales volume in the manufacturing sector. A survey of 13 industries across the manufacturing sector is surveyed to derive the YoY manufacturing sales data for the whole sector. Some of these industries include; petroleum and coal products, metal products, machinery, equipment and furniture, and food and beverage. Naturally, expansion in industrial production corresponds to the expansion of the economy.

New Zealand manufacturing sales rose by 3.1% in Q3 2020 from a drop of 12.1%. This is the largest YoY increase in manufacturing sales in three years. It shows that the economy is rebounding. We assign a score of 5.

  1. New Zealand Business Confidence

NZ business confidence is a survey of about 700 businesses. They are polled to establish their expectations about the future business operating environment and economic growth in general. Some aspects surveyed include; activity outlook, employment prospects, capacity utilization, and investment decisions.

In December 2020, the NZ ANZ business confidence rose to 9.4 from -6.9 in November. This shows an increased optimism in NZ businesses since it is the first positive reading since August 2018. Thus, we assign a score of 7.

  1. New Zealand Consumer Spending

This measures the value of the quarterly consumer expenditure in NZ. Changes in consumer expenditure go hand in hand with domestic demand changes in the economy, which drive GDP growth.

In Q3 2020, the NZ consumer spending increased to NZD 41.335 billion from NZD 35.197 billion in Q2. More so, the Q3 consumer spending is more than the NZD 40.04 billion recorded in Q1. Consequently, the NZ consumer spending has a score of 5.

  1. New Zealand Construction Output

This indicator shows the overall change in the value of all construction work done by contractors in NZ. It compares the YoY quarterly change, which helps to show if the economy is expanding or contracting.

In Q2 2020, the NZ construction output dropped by 24.2% compared to the 4.1% drop in Q2. This is the worst drop in over 18 years. Thus, we assign a score of -4.

  1. New Zealand Government Budget Value

This is the difference between the revenues that the NZ government collects and the amount it spends. Deficits arise if the revenues are less than expenditures, while surplus occurs when the revenues exceed expenditure.

In 2019, the NZ government had a budget surplus of NZD 7.5 billion. In 2020, it was projected that the budget would hit a deficit of NZD 4.5 billion. This is due to increased government expenditure to alleviate the pandemic’s economic shocks while revenues have been depressed due to nationwide shutdowns. Thus, we assign a score of -2.

For the exogenous analysis of both of these currencies, you can check our very next article. In case of any queries, let us know in the comments below. Cheers.

Forex Course

209. Inter Market Analysis At A Glance


Internet analysis is referred to as a method leveraged to analyze markets by assessing the correlation between various categories of assets. This means that the ups and downs happening in one market may or may not impact the other markets. Therefore, a thorough study of their relationships is beneficial to the trader.

Understanding The Basics Of Intermarket Analysis

It works with multiple financial markets and asset classes related to each other to identify strengths or weaknesses. Rather than assessing the asset classes or financial markets individually, Inter-market analysis evaluates different correlated asset classes or financial markets like bonds, stocks, commodities, and currencies. Such analysis expands on looking at each market or asset individually while comparing them with each other.

Correlation Of Intermarket Analysis

Performing an Intermarket analysis is simple as you would need access to only data. And there is no dearth of data in today’s time; you can find them broadly and access them for free. Charting programs and spreadsheets are other things that you need for this analysis. Here you will compare one variable with another in a different data set.

In this analysis, a positive correlation can move up to +10, signifying a positive and ideal correlation between two data sets. Additionally, in a negative or inverse correlation, the value can go as down as -1.0. When the reading comes close to the zero lines, it will reflect that there lacks a discernible correlation among the two samples.

An ideal correlation between two variables for an extended time period is very uncommon. However, analysts generally agree that reading maintained below the -0.7 level or above +0.7 level is quite prominent. This level depicts around a 70% correlation. Moreover, when the correlation changes from positive to negative, it indicates an unstable relationship, which is not ideal for trading.

Please take the quiz below to know if you have got the concepts right. Cheers!

[wp_quiz id=”102178″]
Crypto Daily Topic Cryptocurrencies

How to Take Advantage of Ethereum 2.0

Ethereum, the decentralized blockchain that features smart contracts, will be getting a series of upgrades that will see improved scalability, security, and sustainability. This massive upgrade will create new opportunities for investors. Apart from allowing Ethereum users to earn passively from staking, smart investors can take advantage of price changes during the launch of Ethereum 2.0 and multiply their investments. 

In this article, we will look at what is Ethereum 2.0, what investment opportunities it creates, and how you can be part of this development.

What is Etherum 2.0 All About?

Also known as Eth2, Ethereum 2.0 is fundamentally a shift from the current proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism to a proof-of-stake (PoS) model. In the PoW model, the generation of new blocks relies on the computing power of each node on the network that is taking part in transaction validation. On the other hand, PoS relies on virtual miners (also called validators) and Ether deposits to achieve consensus. 

Besides changing the consensus mechanism, Eth2 also introduces shard chains – a mechanism that ‘splits’ the Ethereum blockchain and shares the processing task among different nodes. This approach increases the network’s processing capability by allowing concurrent processing of transactions – a shift from the traditional sequential processing. 

While the upgrade is squarely technical, its economic and financial implications will be far-reaching. 

How Will Eth 2.0 Affect Prices?

Whenever a major event happens on certain crypto, its prices are bound to change due to increased speculation. In the wake of the anticipated Eth2 launch, upward price movements were observed. The launch was set to happen on 1st December, and a week to this launch, ETH prices had gone as high as $600. While this rally might have been due to other factors, such as the general positive sentiment on cryptocurrencies, the surge observed just a week before the event can’t be coincidental. 

Speculation aside, Eth2 is bringing improved transaction speeds and lower costs – factors likely to increase demand for the crypto. Already, exchanges are reporting declined sell pressure, which indicates that investors are not eager to sell ETH at the moment. The speed and transaction cost improvements will also automatically cascade to tokens that run on the Ethereum blockchain. This will trigger even more demand for the crypto and, thus, better prices. 

Staking in Eth 2.0

The introduction of staking in Eth2 creates a new opportunity for investors to earn by validating transactions, and this is the latest investment opportunity we would like to discuss. 

Simply put, staking in Eth2 implies depositing 32 ETH to activate validator software – the tool you will be using to process transactions. As a validator, you will have the power (and duty) to process transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain, and earn rewards while at it.

Rewards are given to validators for pushing transaction batches into new blocks and validating other validators’ work. While there are bountiful rewards in staking, you might lose ETH if you are unavailable to perform validations or if you use your stake against Eth2 validation specifications. 

How to Stake in Eth 2.0

Staking involves sending 32 ETH to the following address: 


However, you will need to use the launchpad dedicated for this purpose. The address above is for verification purposes only. The process involves several distinct steps, summarized as follows:

  1. Review Eth2 staking agreement/ terms and conditions
    1. Sign up on the launchpad. This will involve depositing the 32 ETH.
    2. Agree that it is your responsibility to keep your validator online.
    3. Agree that you are liable to slashing (incurring a large penalty) if you act against validation specifications.
    4. Agree that you understand that your mnemonic (or seed) is the only way to access your funds and that you will keep it safe.
    5. Agree to safeguard your key stores, which will hold your keys, and provide the public keys to the launchpad site to activate your validator.
    6. Agree that you cannot transfer your staked ETH until Phase 1 and that you cannot withdraw until Phase 2.
    7. Agree that once you exit, you cannot rejoin as staking is a long-term commitment. (The completion of each phase depends on reaching a certain amount of staked ETH. Thus, withdrawals will keep extending timelines for this smart contract).
    8. Accept early adoption risks, i.e., software and design flaws that may result in the loss of your ETH.
    9. Agree that you are technically capable of configuring a validator.
  2. Select an Eth1 client that will run parallel to your Eth2 client. This is necessary to process deposit transactions coming from the Eth1 chain.
  3. Select an Eth2 client and set up a node. You can choose between Prysm, Nimbus, Lighthouse, and Teku. Nimbus is one of the most versatile as it can run even on older smartphones.
  4. Select the number of validators you would like to run and the operating system you will use. Remember, to operate each validator, you will need 64 ETH.
  5. Upload the validator which you downloaded/ built from the previous step.
  6. Finally, connect your wallet.

While staking in Eth2 is quite technical, especially for the average user, a comprehensive step-by-step guide is provided on the Ethereum launchpad website. It is also worth acknowledging the thoroughness with which the documentation was put together by the Eth2 team to guide potential validators. If you use this guide, you are unlikely to get stuck simply due to technical difficulty. 

Is Eth 2.0 Staking a Good Idea?

Staking in Eth2 is a double-edged sword – it comes with both benefits and risks. When you commit your ETH to the staking contract, you are almost guaranteed returns just from staking. However, returns are highly variable. In fact, it is impossible to tell how much you can earn by staking a fixed amount of ETH until you actually receive the reward. Even so, if you stake and consistently participate in validation, you will get rewarded. 

Secondly, staking means locking your ETH to the network for some time, without the possibility of withdrawing it at least until Phase 1.5. This is akin to depositing with a fixed account, whose interest can be compared to the growth of ETH in the near future. 

While staking is a good way to earn from Eth2, you might want to consider the following risks:

  • Staking is a one-way deposit. ETH you send to the contract address cannot be withdrawn until an unknown future date (this is until Phase 1.5 of the upgrade is reached).
  • Profits you earn from staking also remain staked until this unknown future date.
  • Validation is a responsibility that all stakers must undertake. By being offline, you will lose as much as you would have earned if you were available for validation.

Final Thoughts

The coming of Eth2 brings with it exciting investment opportunities. Other than the traditional trading and HODLing, Eth2 allows you to commit some funds to the network and join other validators and earn exclusive rewards from it. Risks, including early-adoption software bugs and slashing due to being offline, exist. However, all considered, staking is a worthy venture that ETH investors should consider. 

Forex Videos

Forex Tips For Newbie Traders!

cool tips for newbie traders

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video. 

In this session, we will be looking at how to stack the odds in the favour of consistent winning trades with a cool tip for newbie traders.

The number of retail traders who lose all of their deposited trading funds within the first 6 months is scary.

In the United Kingdom, retail brokers are required to have a financial health warning on the front page of their website.  This is one that we picked at random from a well-known UK retail broker. 

CFD’s are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 75% of retail investors’ accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.  You should consider how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Some brokers put the figure at over 80% but let’s not split hairs. This is still a worrying trend.  It must be worrying because governments have forced brokers to put the warning on these sites.

One of the biggest areas that new traders full down is because of a lack of knowledge about how the money markets, and where they lack consistency regarding the setting up and implementation of trades, and most of all; a total disregard for stop losses and their correct implementation and the setup of leverage which falls under risk management, perhaps the most important aspects of trading. 

One of the best ways to mitigate the risk of losing trades is to use a trading criteria checklist.

Here are some ideas about what you might put on that checklist.  The idea is that it is an assistant to help you in the early days on a trade by trade basis to make sure that you have everything in place to help to stack the odds of winning trades in your favor.

Before you do anything, you want to have adopted a trading style or plan and where you have consistently made money on a demo account before trying it with real money.


Is the market trending?

Does it have support and resistance?

Are all of your indicators confirming your trade entry?

Consider using a scrolling vertical line, which might help you cast your eyes down to all of the indicators rather than just focusing on price action and potentially missing something.

Set a tight stop loss for each trade, and don’t risk blowing your account balance on one single.  Trade spread the risk over several trades to give yourself a chance of making more money than you lose.

 You should aim for a minimum of a 2 to 1 risk to reward ratio.  That is to say, you want to win twice the amount that you are prepared to lose on each trade.  This will help to keep your account balance in a healthy state.

Decide your preferred time of day to trade.  Try not to trade at the end of a 1-hour time frame if you are an intraday trader.  These can often be the impetus or a change in the direction of trends, and you need to ascertain if this is the case on a trade by trade basis.  Try not to trade at the end of a one-time zone and the beginning of a new one because, often, you will find the different time zone traders have different sentiment with regard to a particular currency pair, and this may be the impetus for a change in direction.

Don’t tread over economic data releases, especially if these are marked as hi-impact, which can often cause extreme market volatility.  Wait until a trend has been identified after the release.

These are just a few ideas which you could put onto your trading criteria checklist.  Print one-off and keep it beside you and meticulously go through it every time before you pull the trigger on a trade.  Eventually, these things will become like second nature, but until they do treat the checklist like a friendly assistant.

 One of the biggest barriers to successful trading in the currency markets is a lack of consistency in one’s approach.  Something like this will go a long way to helping new traders to consistently make the right decisions on a trade by trade basis, and this will stack the odds in their favor.


Forex Videos

Market volatility continues into 2021, where next for Cable?


Market volatility continues into 2021, where next for Cable?


Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

In this session, we will be taking a look at how the pound is faring against the United States dollar as the UK leaves the European Union to go on its own way as an independent trading nation once again.

In this daily chart for cable, we can see a general trend higher from the 12th of May 2020, which culminated in a peak of 1.3700 at position A, which coincides with a future free trade agreement being announced between the United Kingdom and the European Union, which was generally seen by the market as going to happen, and which fuelled the bull rally as played out on the chart.

The pullback to the current level at 1.3558, at the time of writing, was to be expected, on the basis many traders work on the principle of buy the rumor and sell the fact, in which case we might naturally expect to see some traders exiting their long trades due to profit-taking, and a fear of a collapse due to this common market practice of buying the rumor and selling the fact. But the sell-off has been fairly muted, only flattening out to the current exchange rate.  

The real test here will be whether there is a move higher from position B to a retest of the 1.3700 line, which would then likely cause a push above it on towards 1.3800 and beyond, or a move lower towards the support line when longer-term institutional traders will be looking for the support line to breach, or price action to bounce higher and perhaps a retest of the 1.3700 figure from there.

Things to factor in are the extremely high rate of covid infections spreading through the United Kingdom and causing further lockdowns and loss of productivity within the UK, where long-term effects of this on the economy are not good.  The markets have been buoyed by the measures put in place by the government to protect businesses and inject money into the system.

We also have to consider a new United States president will be inaugurated in a couple of week’s time, and what effect this has on the United States dollar as he begins to introduce new legislation to raise income tax and increase red tape for businesses as he has pledged to do.

The recent pullback in the pound against the dollar has largely been a result of all of these factors and a slight improvement in US dollar sentiment. 

 Expect extreme volatility as we move in towards the middle part of January, especially around the time of the inauguration on the 20th of January.

Forex Videos

Trump Leaves Office! What Now For The Forex Space?


What to expect in the Forex space when Trump leaves office

Thank you for joining this Forex  Academy educational video.

In this session, we will be looking at the potential key moves in the forex space with Donald Trump leaves office in a few days’ time.

History will look back at Donald Trump’s presidency, and it looks like historians will likely give him a good kicking.

But, if we hark back 12 months, pre-pandemic, unemployment in the United States was at a record low, the gross domestic product was high, US stock markets were at all-time record highs: The United States economy had never been fitter, thanks to having him at the helm.

Donald Trump’s style of presidency will be seen as abrasive and belligerent. But we have to remember he was not a politician to start with. He was a tough businessman with a no-nonsense attitude, and that’s why people voted for him to become president in the first place. It was a poke in the eye for the political elite in an attempt to bring back wealth for ordinary people. It was his lowering of corporate taxation and red tape and policies to bring back manufacturing to the United States that lifted the US economy to retain its rank as the most powerful nation on the planet.

But, when push came to shove, Donald Trump fell on his own sword because of his mishandling of the coronavirus pandemic.  The bottom of his presidential world fell out because he buried his head in the sand and ignored all the warnings about the horrendous covid disease.  His lacklustre attitude, and slowness to respond to the crisis, created friction at every point between the democrats and republican parties instead of trying to pull both sides together for the sake of the nation, which did nothing to help while the economy as it  faltered with mass unemployment and the sharpest decrease in GDP in US history.

Financial traders won’t miss him; his use of Twitter affected the financial markets without warning, creating huge swings in stock indices, bond yields, and the forex space, only for him to reverse many of his Twitter comments later, creating more mayhem while commenting on highly sensitive foreign and economic policy decisions he planned to implement, while he fed such information into the market with no warning or embargo.  Many would say good riddance and be happy to get back to the old style of governance under a lifelong politician, Joe Biden.

Some analysts predict that President Trump will try and upset the apple cart before he leaves office, while the Democrats are threatening to impeach him and have him removed, the timing would suggest this is impossible with just 10 days until he leaves office, at the time of writing.  But it is said that fellow republicans are side-lining him with regard to policy decisions and are trying to keep him at arms-length until he has gone. 

Throw into the mix US stock markets at record highs, due to what they currently see as the new president having more clout due to the democratic party holding more power in Congress after the recent runoffs in Georgia, to be able to bring in more covid stimulus aid packages and roll out vaccines across the United States.

Certainly, the dollar index – seen here – seems to be trying to fight back to the 91.00 level at the time of writing, having almost hit 88.00 in the last few days at position B, having fallen from its high in march at position A of 103.00.  does this mean that the rot has stopped?  Possibly not, but with a president on the way out and a new one on the way in, we can certainly expect the unexpected.  

This might mean that the Eurodollar pair, which has been riding high, will take a breather, having found resistance at 1.2330, shown here on this daily chart at position A

And with cable failing to reach the key 1.3700 on this daily chart at position A,  this might also be a reason why the markets are taking a breather from shorting the US dollar.

In conclusion, expect the unexpected, expect volatility, and expect the fundamentals to take a side-line while the US transition between presidents is over and new policies are implemented by the incoming democratic party.

Crypto Videos

Is Bitcoin sucking the life out of the Forex market?

Is Bitcoin sucking the life out of the Forex market?

Thank you for joining this forex academy educational video.

In this session, we will be asking if bitcoin is having a negative impact on the forex market by reducing the volume of transactions?

In this daily chart of bitcoin to the US dollar, it was only back in October that we reported that bitcoin had found a support line at 10000, and at the time of writing, we suggested there could be a surge up to and above 12,000 by the end of 2020. A retest of the previous high in 2017 around the 19,500 level, shown here at position B, would have then been on the cards.

Here we can see a somewhat muted pullback to position C, but the 2017 crash to the 3,000 level was not repeated, and the price went on to find support above the key 20K exchange rate.

The acceleration during position d up to 42000 was a purely speculative fuelled bull run,  where most of this move can be put down to companies such as PayPal, the CME  clambering balls, the bitcoin euphoria bandwagon, and countries such as Switzerland  opening its arms too to companies in the bitcoin space.  These factors only go to legitimise bitcoin’s space in the investment market arena and where it has called a modern-day gold Rush with day traders in a spare room buying on the CFDs market, hedge funds, and banks and other institutions clamouring aboard the bull run in fear of missing out.

A potential side effect of this incredible move higher and interest in the bitcoin space may well be the reason why the currency markets seem to be flattening out. Certainly, cable,  seen here with its recent top of 1.3700, since leaving the European Union with an eagerly anticipated free trade agreements in place,  has flatlined since the beginning of January.  And while some of this might be attributed to the increased rates of Covid spreading through the United Kingdom, one has to wonder if some traders in the forex space are throwing caution to the wind to buy bitcoins while side-lining currencies.

The flatlining of the cable exchange rate also coincides with the most volatile period of buying activity for bitcoin, and this period is also reflected in this one-hour chart of the US dollar to Japanese yen, which is also trading within a fairly narrow range of just 146 pips during a similar timeline.

Again, this is repeated with the euro US dollar pair over the same timeline price is relatively flat and consolidating within a fairly narrow 145 pip range.

The similarity between the timelines of activity and flattening with the forex pairs while exponential growth in bitcoin to the upside cannot be ignored.  However, is this trend, if based on our hypostasis correct, likely to continue?

It is completely natural for professional traders to bail out of one asset class a jump into another if they see potential to make money.  This is what training is all about recognising opportunities and jumping aboard.

Before we consider if this is likely to continue, let’s go back to our bitcoin US dollar daily chart, where we have highlighted the most recent candlestick.

This one single daily candlestick on the 7th of January shows a range between 42,000 at the top and 36,500 at the bottom, which is a huge 5,500 dollar move in a single date.

If institutional or retail traders get it wrong, the consequences can be grave, with enormous losses piling up. The problem at these levels is that traders will be wondering if this incredible bull run has reached the top of the market and is due for a crash, with memories going back to 2017 where bitcoin to the dollar crashed from 19,500 to just above 3000 in a short space of time.  Here we are seeing swings of over 5,000 points in a single day,  which is unnerving,  making it dangerous to trade. 

And this is why many investors in bitcoin will be dubious about buying at the current levels, which might see some inflows back into the forex currency space, with other investors In digital currencies looking for more opportunities with potential for long-term growth.


A few months ago, we reported on a new digital coin with its own ecosystem: the AXIA Coin, which might be a front runner for alternative investments in digital currencies.  We understand that the company is close to launching, so please watch out for updates, which we will bring you soon. Meanwhile, you can find more details about the AXIA coin at  

 Meanwhile, watch out for extra volume creeping into the forex space, causing currencies to break from their current consolidation trends, as we have demonstrated here.

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design – The pathway to Success

This article outlines the steps needed to find, create, test, and verify a trading system. We have to bear in mind that there is no way to create a forex trading system with an equity curve straight upward. Well, yes, it can be made. I’ve made it, but only optimizing it so much that expecting it to continue performing like this under real trading would be silly. Most trading bots advertise curves like this. If you believe them, your money will be in jeopardy.

It would be best if you’re proficient in coding on a trading platform such as MT4/5, Ctrader, Tradestation, Multicharts, or Ninjatrader. Not all traders can do it, so we will approach this for anyone willing to create a DIY trading system without programming. It would take longer, but the added benefit is you will learn a lot while doing your testing. This methodology will also create simpler and less prone to over-optimization systems.

The results obtained will vary, and not always will we get sound systems. Of course, we should not expect great, drawdown-free equity curves. But, there is no need for that. We will show you that what is necessary is only long-term profitability.


The Idea


The first step to creating a trading system is an idea that will provide us with an edge. Among the most basic concepts are,



  • Breakouts from a range or Fading breakouts from a range


  • price above/below a moving average


  • Moving average crossovers


  • Overbought/oversold conditions using an indicator such as the MACD, the RSI, or the Stochastic



  • Volatility spikes



  • Support/resistance levels


Please bear in mind that the market already knows all these key concepts. Therefore, their direct application would probably fail.


Testing the Idea

The first step to see if the idea has merit is to test it in a historical sample under the market conditions it was supposed to operate. Of course, a trading idea is almost always referring to a market entry, as the concept is supposed to time the market. This entry is usually combined with a stop-loss and a take-profit to create a complete solution.

But, to test the efficacy of the idea, we should forget the stop-loss and take-profit and use a standard exit, be it,

  • After n bars
  • After a percentage profit
  • A random exit.

If you don’t have the means or skills to code, the best solution is closing after a determined number of bars. You can even register the results of closing after 5, 10, and 20 bars, so we test the predicting power at increasing time intervals.

You could also use to perform the test; therefore, we recommend you open a free account there. The free account gives most of the capabilities of a pro account but is limited to fewer indicators.

There are four kinds of testing:

  • Historical backtest
  • Out‐of‐sample test. Also called forward test
  • Walk‐forward test
  • Real‐time testing

Historical backtest

The Historical backtest is the simplest test. You will need to create a spreadsheet with the required fields and computations.

After defining the rules of the trading idea, you define a start date, for instance, one year ago. For initial testing, it is recommended not to register the trades with spreads and commissions. Just the brute profit.

  1.  Set the desired timeframe and move your chart so that the initial date is near the chart’s right end.
  2. From there, you shift your chart one by one.
  3. When you spot an entry point, you write it down in your trading log:
    1. Trade #
    2. Entry date and time
    3. Trade size: enter one lot
    4. Entry price
    5. Expected stop-loss: use a standard 2 ATR
    6. Expected target: use also 2ATR
    7. Exit price
    8. Exit date and time
    9. Maximum Adverse Excursion: Written down after the trade ended.
    10. Maximum Favorable Excursion: Write down the next pivot point higher/ lower than your exit.
    11. Compute the profit of the transaction.
  4. Continue the test until you reach at least 100 trades.
  5. Compute the statistical figures of your exercise
  6. Average profit: Sum of the profits / N, the number of trades
  7. The standard deviation of the profit = STD (profits)


After 100 backtested trades, the developer has enough information to detect the basic mistakes of the strategy. Maybe the entry has a large lag that hurts profits, or, worse, it is too early, thus triggering the stop-loss too often.

We could also spot if the stop-loss can be improved. Maybe it’s too close, so the percent winners are low or too far. The use of the Maximum Adverse Excursion info will surely help in deciding the best placement.

On the profit side, we can use the Maximum Favorable Excursion to check if the system is leaving money on the table. The idea is to adjust the profit target, so most of the trades end close to the MFE level.

Walk-forward Test / Real-time trading

After optimizing the strategy’s main parameters, we could begin a forward test, using a demo account and live market data. We should proceed as if it was a real trade. In this stage, if we use a demo account, you’ll be able to add the costs of the trade: Spread, slippage, and commissions.

This last stage before committing real money should last at least one month, preferably two or three months, during which you should continue detecting errors, improving the strategy, and having a feel of its behavior. In this stage and the coming use with real money, the trader needs to be disciplined and accept all signals the system delivers. You cannot cherry-pick the trades because this introduces a random factor that will change your system’s parameters, so you’re losing information about it.

Changing the parameters of the system

When trading it live for several trades, you may feel you need to optimize your system. This is wrong. Of course, you may adapt the system to the market, but modifying it too often is a mistake. You need to have statistical evidence that something has changed and the system is now underperforming. Therefore, at least 30 trades must occur before doing a change. In fact, since the distribution of results is not normally distributed, it would be optimal to wait for about 60-100 trades for a measure with statistical significance.

Starting light

That means you need to start slow, risking no more than 0.5 percent on every trade, or whatever you consider is small for you. That way, you won’t be affected psychologically, follow the system for the required time to have propper stats, and get a grip on the normal behavior of your strategy.

Crypto Daily Topic

What is coin burning all about?

The crypto adoption juggernaut rolls full steam ahead. You need only look at the increasing number of outlets accepting crypto payments to prove this. Even governments that once approached them with cynicism have caught on to the act. The big migration to CBDCs is now a matter of time.

Whereas the growing acceptance is positive, it comes with its misgivings. Although the proliferation of coins and tokens expands choices, it raises concern about sustaining cryptos’ value within the cryptosphere.

Cryptos are good at mitigating inflation, but they’re not immune to it. Crypto projects have had to devise the means of controlling this. As such, coin burns have been the tool of choice. But what are coin burns? How does one execute them? Importantly what is their value? Stick around as we go deep into the subject. 

What Is Coin Burning?

Coin burning is the process of removing a set volume of cryptos from circulation.  In doing so, developers and miners reduce their total supply. 

Eater Addresses/ Blackholes

Coin burning entails sending cryptos to public addresses with unobtainable private keys. Also known as eater addresses or blackholes, these addresses render the coins useless. Nevertheless, they allow for their public viewing and peer verification on the blockchain.

Coin Burning Varies With The Project

Depending on the frequency of the coin burning process, we can classify it into two broad categories:

  • One time burns – are one-off coin burns popularly embraced by  ICO projects to clean the market of unsold coins.
  • Periodic Burns- these are undertaken repeatedly at either fixed or varying intervals; Binance holds quarterly coin burns while Tether does so per withdrawal or collection

What are The Approaches to Coin Burning?

There are two major approaches to coin burning. These are:

  • Mechanisms relating to the token’s blockchain protocol
  • Mechanisms driven by economic sense

Protocol Related Mechanisms

In this category, we have coin burning mechanisms embedded in the project’s core protocol layer. We may divide these into two main groups.

  • Proof of Burn Mechanisms
  • Anti Spam mechanisms
i) Proof of Burn Mechanisms

These use the  Proof of Burn (PoB) consensus that requires miners to prove that they’ve burnt some of their coins. PoB has several variants:

  • Burning Native Coins for Mining Rights- miners must burn some of their coins to acquire block mining rights;  an example is Slimcoin.
  • Burning Bitcoins to Create New Native Coins- projects like  Counterparty (XCP) use PoB that burns BTC in exchange for a similar value of coins in the native currency, XCP
  • Burn-And-Mint Equilibrium: an advanced version of PoB used by  Factom (FCT) that burns native tokens in return for Entry Credits for storing data on its blockchain
ii) Anti Spamming Mechanisms

Introducing a cost to transactions prevents spamming and DDOS attacks that compromise the network. Projects like  Ripple (XRP) and Request Network (REQ) integrate a burning mechanism for every transaction on their network. Though indirectly, their Users ‘incur’ the cost of trading on them. The ecosystem gains in value resulting from a reduced supply of native coins. 

Mechanisms Driven By Economic Sense

These are mechanisms informed by a project’s economic considerations. They may be one-offs or periodic.

i) Mopping up of The Unsold ICO Tokens

At times ICOs fail to meet their hardcaps. Consequently, remain with unsold tokens. The projects may decide to destroy these to maintain their credibility.

ii) Paying out Dividends to the Coin Holders

Profitable projects may use their profits in buying back their native coins from the public. They then destroy the repurchased coins, thus paying them some dividend, which increases the value to coin holders.

What are the Steps Followed in a Coin Burning Event?

The coin burning event follows a sequence of four steps. Here’s its breakdown:

  • Institution of the burn function- the coin holder starts by calling the burn function, indicating the number of coins they intend to burn.
  • Verification of the coins  for burning- The contract proceeds to determine the ownership and validity of the selected coins, considers positive numbers only
  • Abortion of the burn function- The process aborts if the instigator has fewer coins or uses a negative value or zero.
  • Execution of the Burn function- the smart contract withdraws  the sums from the instigator’s wallet, permanently cutting them from circulation 

Why do Crypto Project’s Institute Coin Burns?

You’d think that coin burning is beneficial. Wouldn’t you? After all, you have Key players like Binance and Tether performing them. What then are its benefits

i) Appreciation in the Crypto’s Value

Cryptos are decentralized. In essence, market forces determine their prices. Coin burning depletes the sum of coins serving the market. As a result, their value rises to attain equilibrium. The attainment of market equilibrium is essential in stabilizing the price(value) of the crypto.

ii) Ensuring Network Stability

As stated elsewhere in this article, coin burning is key to eliminating Spam and DDOS. Accordingly, the network becomes stable.

iii) To Mop Up The Unsold Tokens From an ICO or Token sale

Crypto projects initiate ICOs to get public buy-in. Towards these, they set aside a certain percentage of the coins hoping that the investors will acquire the whole lot. However, things don’t always go that way, resulting in a remnant of those coins.

iv) Winning Investors’ Trust

The token insurer burns the coins remaining unsold from the ICO. They do this to ensure a level playing field for all investors. Were the issuer to keep the unsold coins, they’d have a massive advantage over other investors. Coin burning helps win the trust of other investors and incentivizes their stay within the project. 

A case in point is the Neblio cryptocurrency. Its team burned 122 million tokens that remained from their ICO. It sent them to an unspendable NEBL address.

v) Correcting Errors in Coin Issuance

At times projects realize errors in the creation of their tokens or coins. As such, they turn to coin burns to remedy this situation. A case in mind is Tether. The company realized that it had erroneously produced $ 5 Billion USDT. It resorted to a coin burn to maintain its 1:1 peg to the USD. Allowing the extra coins to stand would have destabilized the ratio.

vi) Guaranteeing The Developers’ Commitment to the Project

Coin burning signals the Developers’ commitment to the project. Look at it this way: the coin burn reduces their supply. At the same time, it increases the value of the coin or token in question. Burning is indicative of the developers’ desire to see the project grow in value and network function.

vii) Reduction of The Competition Between Miners

The Proof of Burn (PoW)  consensus is a popular offshoot of coin burning. Through it, a user destroys their coins to gain mining rights.

Managing Mining

PoB matches the number of blocks a miner can verify to the volume of coins they burn. This way, one’s mining ability increases with increased burning. Thus it reduces the number of miners and competition for resources between them.

Leveling the Playing Field Through Decay Rates

Since PoB favors the large-scale miner, they employ decay rates. This feature reduces one’s mining capacity with every verification. For them to remain profitable, it compels them to invest in more tokens to burn.

Final Thoughts

Although touted as the fix against inflation, cryptos aren’t immune to the same. Consequently, projects have had to find ways of guarding against it. Their default method has been the institution of coin burning: the deliberate removal of a given amount of coins from the market. It may be a one-off event or a periodic undertaking. Additionally, it could be a procedure hardwired into the project’s core protocol layer or driven by economic consideration. Whatever the cause, coin burning is an essential undertaking that, among other positives, infuses stability and confidence in any crypto project.

Forex Course

208. Using Yuppy (EUR/JPY) As A Leading Indicator For Stocks!


EUR/JPY is among the most popular pairs in the international foreign exchange market. In fact, it indicated approximately 3% of the overall daily transaction. Moreover, it is indicated as the seventh-highest traded currency pairs in the forex market. Both traders and investors can leverage the potentials of the EUR/JPY currency pair as they both carry a high degree of volatility.

Best Time To Trade in EUR/JPY

Although you can trade EUR/JPY at any time of the day, to leverage the most benefit, you must trade when the pair is most volatile. Between 7:30 and 15:30 is the time when the currency pair trade is the busiest.

Factors Impacting EUR/JPY Rate

When it comes to making the most lucrative trade with this pair, it is important to understand what influences its rate.

Prominence Of EUR

Like many modern currencies, the prominent factors that impact the Euro price flow are financial, political, and economic. For instance, many trade decisions regarding the Euro are backed by the European Central Bank’s monthly reports.

These reports can influence the fluctuations in the Euro’s rates, and traders and investors promptly leverage the details as quickly as they are released to determine the flow of the Euro rates.

In economic terms, news releases focusing on employment can also play an important role in the fluctuations of euro rates. These details are easily accessible and offer vital insights into the economic condition of the Euro and the movement of Euro prices.

The Prominence of JPY

Japan’s economy has more factors that play an important role in determining the flow of currency. The basic health of the economy will play a significant role in involving a high rate of export and import trading. One uncommon factor that impacts the flow of the country’s currency is situations such as a natural disaster.

The Right Way To Trade EUR/JPY

In terms of speculative trading, CFDs provide traders and investors with easy access to a plethora of markets. They like to transact with CFDs as derivatives trading implies that buying the actual currency is unnecessary. When trading, investors and traders like to harness technical analysis and assess the EUR/JPY chart. This is done to determine the relationship of the pairing and forecast the highs and lows of the markets.

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Crypto Videos

Bitcoin Price Dump Shakes Investors!

Bitcoin price dump! was the writing on the wall?

Thank you for joining this Forex Academy educational video.

In this session, we will be looking at the recent bitcoin US dollar price dump and what might have been the possible contributing factors.

In this daily chart of bitcoin to the US dollar, we can see a steady bull run, as highlighted in section A, with a critical area of support on the $10 k line, which lends itself nicely for a price action move up to the resistance line, which was breached in section B, which coincides with the all-time high of around $19.5K from 2017, and where eventually price reaches the key $20K figure, and from there on over the Christmas period and into the new year, we see exponential growth, where bitcoin skyrockets to $42k.
With market analysts and investors talking up the value of bitcoin from anywhere in the region of $30 to 40K and even 140k, it’s hardly surprising that euphoria crept in and where everybody was buying, especially in the CFDs market.
This was a gold rush in all but name. And one has to ask oneself a question; when assets are being talked up by investors, or even talked down, what are the real motives behind this? Are they simply looking for a market reaction in favour of their own investment strategy, for example? This is a question for another day.
Getting back to the issue, was the writing on the wall all for a price collapse? Yes, it was, and for a number of reasons:
Firstly, when a market is moving steadily as in a trend, it is less likely to see extreme volatility unless there are fundamental reasons behind it. And because bitcoin is essentially a speculative instrument, fundamentals can be set aside in favour of a trending market.

The problem with this, as highlighted here, is that this is unchartered territory. We are looking at a $20,000 price increase in just a few days, which is almost unheard of. Technical analysis becomes difficult to gauge, and professional traders don’t know where to get in on the trend or place stops. Many are forced into buying for fear of missing out, and this is extremely dangerous.

Certainly, the writing was on the wall when on the 4th of January, we see a $6K price range move on this bearish daily candlestick. However, volatility continued with the bulls regaining control taking bitcoin to a record high of around $42,000.
Professional traders will know from history that a correction was on the cards, and with the UK FCA warning retail traders about the potential of losing all of their money trading bitcoin assets, it very likely contributed to price action hitting a brick wall all and to the collapsed….

Of around $12K in 24 hours. Many investors and retail traders were still buying well above $40,000, while the price was tanking, causing billions of dollars to be wiped off of the price, and where billions were lost in margin calls, with accounts being liquidated, because of the massive move lower.
Bitcoin should have a health warning on it, buyer beware, and with more and more weekend traders getting involved in this market, which operates 7 days a week, and where these part-time traders in there are spare rooms have a punt, with many losing their cash deposits, it is not a surprise that the FCA have banned retail traders from trading cryptocurrencies in the UK from the 6th of January this year, and where the EU are now calling for tighter regulation in this space.
Weekend bitcoin traders will be licking their wounds. But let’s not forget that a lot of people are still in the money and sitting back waiting to see if the price steadies itself and then continues to move higher, or if it will continue to slide.
Advice on this one would be too to look at trends on lower time frames…..

Such as this one-hour chart, while looking for support and resistance lines, and pick out trends that are set by big money investors, such as institutional traders, where they typically operate Monday to Friday. Be ultra-cautious when going long during aggressive rallies and around huge candlesticks, especially the bearish ones, as highlighted, which represents an overall move of $4000 dollars. They spell out danger. And set tight stop losses.

Crypto Daily Topic Crypto Videos

Pension Funds Are Investing In Bitcoin!

“Pension Funds are Investing in Bitcoin” – Grayscale


Grayscale’s newly-appointed CEO, Michael Sonnenshein, told Bloomberg that pension funds and endowments are actively investing in the Grayscale family of funds. Sonnenshein’s interview with Bloomberg came on Jan 7.

He further explained the statement: “We have started to see participation not just from the hedge funds, which we’ve seen participation from for a long time now, but now it’s recently coming from other institutions, pensions, and endowments. The sizes of allocations that they are making are also growing rapidly.”

Grayscale has been at the forefront of the recent Bitcoin buying spree, and its holdings now account for roughly 3% of the circulating Bitcoin. The fund manager continues to increase its position by buying even more cryptocurrencies as more institutional investors seek exposure to Bitcoin and other digital assets. 

Grayscale’s total assets under management, or AUM for short, have eclipsed $27 billion across ten different investment products. The Grayscale Bitcoin Trust remains its most popular product by far, with over $23 billion in AUM. Its Ethereum trust is the second most popular product, and it is currently valued at around $3.7 billion, while its Digital Large Cap Fund holds somewhere in the ballpark of $340 million.

Pension funds are starting to follow a hoard of institutional buyers that started to enter the Bitcoin and crypto market in 2020. A survey conducted by Fidelity Investments in late 2020 found that 36% of financial institutions across both the United States and Europe said they own cryptocurrencies or derivatives. Over 25% of the respondents reported holding Bitcoin, while 11% said they own Ether.

According to Grayscale Investments, the institutional interest for cryptocurrency and Bitcoin is intensifying at an alarming rate, with pension funds and endowments being the most recent entrants into the space.

The company’s aggressive Bitcoin buying is likely contributing to the digital currency’s rapid price increase. With more Bitcoin taken out of circulation and miners not being able to produce as much Bitcoin as it is requested, the already scarce asset is becoming even more difficult to get at current prices. Sonnenshein stated:

“This is a verifiable scarce asset, so when there are mechanisms that are removing Bitcoin from circulation, that’s inherently making it an even more scarce asset.”

Forex Daily Topic Forex System Design

Trading System design – Basic Concepts

In previous articles, we explained the importance of a plan to succeed in Forex and described its general features. In this article, we will describe the concepts that need to be considered when designing a trading system.

A trading strategy is what most traders call a trading system, but it is not. A trading strategy is just a set of loose rules discretionary traders use to trade. A trading system is a set of closed rules used to systematically trade the market, usually through a computer EA, although a disciplined trader could also use it.

Traders, especially novice traders, get emotional and lose money because their emotions interfere and stop making rational decisions in the battle’s heat. Thus, the first thing to avoid is discretionary trading. Please read the article Know the Two Systems Operating inside Your Head. That’s why what we aim to create is a trading system that should be systematically traded.

Price imbalances

There are plenty of criteria to find these imbalances. There are two visual clues we can think of. The first one is a rubber band. The rubber band idea describes the price as if it was a rubber band or spring. When it moves far away from equilibrium, we expect the force to pull it to its center to increase and eventually drive it back to equilibrium.

The second visual clue is looking at the price moving in waves. Since there are numerous traders, their goals set in different timeframes, we can expect waves of different periods and amplitudes. A trend form when the combination of different waves are in sync, and chaotic moves occur when waves desync.

The main idea of a trading system is to find imbalances in the price and profit from it. Essentially, it takes the form of “buy low and sell high,” “sell high to buy back low,” or its variants “buy high sell higher,” “sell low, sell lower.”

The Effect of timeframes and a portfolio in the trading results

In their book Active portfolio management, Grinold and Kahn described the fundamental law of active management. The formula has two variables: The manager’s skill (IC) and the number of investments performed (N).

We could think of IR ( Information Coefficient) as a quality index of the results.

If we analyze the equation, we see that IC measures a trader’s ability to produce profits, since if N is constant, IR grows if IC grows.

But, if we keep the IC constant, we see that IR grows with the number of trades (N).

This explains that a portfolio of assets will be more profitable than only one asset. It also explains why shorter trading timeframes would produce higher results. Of course, with very short timeframes, the trading costs would eat a growing portion of the profits, so there is a limit to how short we could go.


Diversification is a key concept to reduce the overall risk in trading. The idea is simple. Let’s say we have a long position the EURUSD with an overall dollar risk of 10 pips. If the dollar moves up and drives the pair southwards, we lose $100 on every lot. If we have an equivalent long position on the USDJPY, we will cover the risk on the EURUSD with the gains on the USDJPY, driving it to zero or, even, being positive overall.

If the assets are uncorrelated and the risk on each trade is similar on all trades, the overall basket’s risk will less than 50% of the sum of all open trades risk.

The profitability rule

Two parameters define the profitability of a system: the percent winners and the reward risk ratio.

The formula that tells the minimum percent winners (P) required with a determined reward/risk ratio (Rwr) for the system to be profitable is:

P > 1 / (1+Rwr) 

Conversely, below is the formula of the minimum reward/risk ratio needed with a determined percent winners figure on a profitable system:

Rwr > (1-P)/P

If you play with the second formula, you will see that at reward/risk ratios below one, the system should grant winners higher than 50 percent. Furthermore, Systems with high reward risk ratios would need less than 50% winners to be profitable.

The conclusion is we must look for systems with high reward/risk ratios to protect us from periods of low winner’s percent.

Assessing the quality of a trading system

There are several methods to measure the quality of a trading system. We propose the use of Van Tharp’s SQN, which is a variation of the chi-square test, a well-known method to evaluate the goodness of a sample against a random distribution. The SQN test is a Chi-square test that is capped to 100 samples so that the length of the sample does not modify its value.

  SQN = 10 x E / STD(E)

Where E is the expected profit on each trade, which is the sum of all profits divided by the number of trades, and the denominator is the standard deviation of E.

But if the sample is less than 100 instead of 10, the multiplier is the square root of N, the number of trades.

SQN = √N x E / STD(E)

Systems below 1 are bad. systems of 1.5 to 2 average, and from 2 to 3 good and over 3 excellent.

Elements of a Trading System

We can decompose a trading system into its several elements, although not all of them need to be present.  We have already discussed this, but let’s describe its basic elements.

A Setup: The setup is a market state where we think there is an imbalance in the price, or a condition we expect can be resolved with a price move, for example, the price reaching a top or a bottom of a channel.

A permissioning filter: This forbids trading under specific market conditions: Low volume, extreme volatility, particular hours or days.

Entries: This the stage that times the market. It can be a breakout, a candlestick pattern, or an indicator signal.

Stop-loss: This defined an invalidation level, under which the trade is likely no longer profitable. This level will limit our losses and save our capital for further trades.

Take-profit: It defines our planned profit. It may be set using support/resistance levels or any other sign the current trade movement is over, such as a reversal signal or the crossover of averages.

Re-entry rule: You may also consider this rule in your findings. For instance, a market failing to do something, for example, continue moving up, may signify it will move down. Thus, you could stop and reverse instead of close the position. Also, if you got out of a position, you could consider re-entry if the market flags a continuation of the previous movement. That way, you could tight your stops keeping most of your profits and reenter instead of loose stops, which may eat a large portion of your hard-earned profits if the market does not recover.

Forex Course

207. The Affects Of Stock Market On The Foreign Exchange Market


The impact of the stock market on the flow of the forex market is quite significant. In fact, the foreign exchange market reflects the performance of the stock market. For instance, when the US stock market with Dow Jones, or NASDAQ, S&P 500 on the upward showing gains, the similar is likely to happen to the USD pairs in the foreign exchange market.

Rising Stock Market’s Impact

When the stock market is booming, investors from around the world will run to invest their money in the rising stocks of the nation as they are looking to obtain higher returns on the investment. With more investors demanding the currency, its value will increase significantly.

This is because if the investors want to put the money on, say, the US market, they have to convert their local currency into the US dollar. This significantly raises the demand for the dollar, hence makes the forex market perform better.

Falling Stock Market’s Impact

If the stock market is performing badly, the investors are likely to take their money out. This means that the investors will convert the currency back into the domestic ones or invest in some other country or asset. Subsequently, this will decrease the value of the concerned currency. This is something that all economies do in terms of investments.

Decision Making Based On Stock Market’s Performance 

Foreign exchange traders can leverage this information to assess the situation and predict the market. If you assess the stock of a particular currency and witness that they are moving up, then evaluate it against the currency, you will be able to make a prediction.

An increasing stock market will be influencing a boost in the value of the currency of the country. So you can base your trading decision on the same. At the same time, when the stock market is performing inadequately, you can sell the currency of that country. This is because the value of the currency will be falling in the market.

This correlation between the stock market and the foreign market can alter based on the global financial marketplace condition. The financial landscape is interconnected to different elements. Policies of central banks, political events, changes in the environment, everything affects how the trades are performed worldwide. The reason why stock influence forex is because stock includes companies that drive the economy of the country.

We hope you find this course article informative. Please let us know if you have any questions in the comments below. Cheers.

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