Crypto Guides

How Different Is Permissioned Blockchain From Permissionless Blockchain?


Blockchain has created ripples throughout many industries. Its security futures are ever essential now with increasing data due to IoT. Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning are used to analyze the data generated to find different patterns as per the requirement. Blockchain is essential to secure the data or transfer the data securely.

Different industries are trying to implement the blockchain technology to improve their business. Hence, it is essential to design the platform in terms of their requirement. To facilitate the same, we have different types of blockchain platforms available. They are as follows:

  1. Permissioned blockchain or Private blockchain
  2. Permissionless blockchain or Public blockchain.
  3. Hybrid blockchain.

Permissionless Blockchain

Cryptocurrency platforms are classic examples of permissionless blockchain platforms. As the name suggests, it is a public blockchain. Anyone can join the network to perform different activities in the network, like users, miners, developers, or community members. Since the network is transparent, anyone can have a look at the transactions getting confirmed in the network.

🔓 Permissionless blockchain networks follow all the underlying principles of a real blockchain network. These networks are genuinely decentralized.

🔓 Authorities cannot shut down the network as no single entity controls the network. People, regardless of nation, location can join the network from anywhere.

🔓 Mostly all public blockchains are linked to a token with some intrinsic value. Based on the network-specific number of coins are mined at the beginning itself, or new coins are mined after every block is confirmed.

🔓 Miners are rewarded with these tokens to keep running the network smoothly.

🔓 Bitcoin is an example of a permissionless blockchain network.

Permissioned Blockchain

Enterprise blockchains are an excellent example of permissioned or private blockchains. Permissions should be given for different entities to join the network.

🔐 Everyone should have valid credentials to join the network.

🔐 These networks are not genuinely decentralized as these networks are created for the purposes of enterprises.

🔐 Not all the members of the network can see the transactions unless they have appropriate permissions.

🔐 Different Hyperledger platforms developed for different enterprise use cases are good examples of permissioned blockchain networks.

🔐 These blockchains are often not associated with tokens as enterprises run these.

Consortium Blockchains

Consortium blockchains are nothing but private blockchains but run by different entities together. Blockchain, being niche technology, different companies, even rivals, are coming together as a consortium to develop the technology.

R3 Corda is one such example in the financial place formed to create the technology for Fintech purposes.

Hybrid Blockchain

Hybrid blockchains offer the functionalities of private and public blockchains together at the same time. The entities involved can choose which data should be open or closed, depending on their functionality. The users need not forgo one feature completely to utilize the other functionality.

🔐🔓 Interoperability is very much possible, enabling to form multichain because of the hybrid nature of the platform.

🔐🔓 Dragonchain is an excellent example of Hybrid blockchains.

These are different types of blockchains available as of now, enabling the adoption of various industries as per their requirement.

Crypto Guides

A Simple Guide To Cryptocurrency Fork & Its Types


We have discussed many topics concerning cryptocurrencies in our previous guides. Some of them are basic, and some belong to the intermediate and advanced category. If you have been following us, you would have realized that we have chronologically structured this Crypto Guide series. Because we want you to get a clear understanding of the entire crypto market from a very basic level. Since we have completed most of the basic concepts, let’s go a bit deeper to understand more complex aspects of this space. In our article today, let’s understand the concept of Forking in cryptocurrencies.

What is a cryptocurrency fork?

You must be aware of the software updates that we keep receiving in our smartphones. These software updates typically fix the reported bugs in the existing software version or may add many other features to it to make it more secure and robust. This applies the same for cryptocurrency networks as well. Every network needs an update, and that update is known as ‘Forks.’

However, this is only one of the reasons why Forking is done. There is another crucial reason behind every blockchain Fork that has happened until now. Before understanding that, let’s understand what a Protocol is. It is essentially a set of rules that must be followed by all the existing nodes in a crypto network. Some of the rules in a protocol include Block Size, Rewards, etc. Now, let’s see the actual purpose of a Fork.

The Purpose?

When a significant part of the existing stakeholders like Miners, Developers, etc. do not agree with the updated protocols, the need for the fork arises. In simple words, when a set of important individuals in the network are not ready to follow the newly updated rules, the entire network is forked, and the process is known as Forking. Once the fork is done, a part of the network follows the new rules, and the other set follows the previously existing rules. Now, let’s understand the different types of Forks that occur in a blockchain.

Types of Forks

There are two types of Forks in the world of cryptocurrencies – Hard Fork & Soft Fork.

🍴 Hard Fork

This kind of fork results in the permanent splitting between the existing blockchain. Meaning, the network is completely divided into two and results in two different cryptocurrencies altogether. In a Hard Fork, the old nodes that resist upgrading won’t be able to process the new transactions or add new blocks to the blockchain.

For instance, let’s say after the upgrade, the new block size is changed from 4 MB to 8 MB. If the new node, which is upgraded, processes a block of 6MB, the old nodes consider them as incompatible and reject the block altogether. Each of these blockchains will have a separate community, and developers altogether. One important thing to remember is that all the transactions for the parent blockchain are copied to both of the newly formed ones. That is, if you were a part of a cryptocurrency’s original blockchain, you would be getting cryptos of newly formed ones as well.

To explain this, we would like to take one best example of a hard fork which is the Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. Since Bitcoin is the original blockchain, and the hard fork occurred, if you were holding 10 Bitcoins, once the fork is done, you will be receiving ten coins of Bitcoin cash as well.

🍴 Soft Fork

Unlike hard fork, the old nodes that aren’t updated with the new rules can still process the new transactions and add new blocks to the network. Hence there is no need for dividing the entire network into two different networks. The older nodes can upgrade to the new ones whenever they want to, or they can remain the same way. Also, the transaction history will remain intact until the time of the fork.

The only rule here is that the old nodes must not violate the new rules after the soft fork is done. For instance, let’s say a soft fork is done in a blockchain, and the block size is decreased from 8MB to 4 MB. The older nodes can process new transactions and add newer blocks to the network, which are only of size less than 4 MB. If the older nodes try to add a block that is of 6MB, the new nodes will reject it as the updated rules aren’t followed.

That’s about Forking and types of forks in the world of cryptos. These forks are and will continue to be an integral part of the crypto space as the adoption is increasing with time.

Crypto Guides

Beginners Guide to Cryptocurrency Mining


There is a significant difference in how cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies are generated and issued to the ecosystem. Fiat currencies are created and printed by the government bodies in response to orders by the state authority. At the same time, cryptocurrencies are issued to the public by going through the blockchain network according to a preset algorithm. There are different schemes assigned for mining, such as the Proof of Work, Proof of Stake, Proof of Authority, etc. These are referred to as consensus algorithms. The in-depth working of these processes is complicated. So, we shall stick on the basic working of it.


Cryptocurrency mining is the procedure to bring up new coins into the current flowing supply, by verifying the coins through a system. The ones that mine these coins are called miners.

Procedure to Mine Cryptocurrency

  • When a transaction is performed over the blockchain network, i.e., when a user sends coins to another address, the transaction information is recorded and put onto a block.
  • This block must be encrypted and made secure. This is where the miners come in.
  • To encrypt a blockchain, miners solve a complicated cryptographic puzzle to find the appropriate cryptographic hash for the code. For this, miners typically make use of large rigs of application-specific hardware to increase their chances of being the first one to verify and secure the block.
  • Once the block is successfully secured, it is then added to the blockchain, where other nodes on the blockchain network verify it. This verification process is known as consensus.
  • When the block successfully clears through the nodes in the network, the block is officially said to be verified and secured. And for securing a block, the miner is rewarded new-created coins. Hence, the complete above procedure of work is called Proof of Work.

Reward system in Cryptocurrency mining

Mining is a complicated process. Each day, miners commit a thousand watts of electricity towards mining cryptocurrencies. People mine coins though it is an expensive process because they receive a good number of Bitcoins for it, which has value in various markets.

As mentioned above, the reward is released to the miners when they successfully solve a block in the blockchain. The compensation received is pretty decent; in fact, it compensates a thousand watts of electricity. Having that said, the reward cannot be very high, as it could cause an oversupply in the market and depreciate the value of the currency.

Supply and Demand of a Cryptocurrency

Buying and selling cryptocurrencies is different from buying and selling of stocks, bonds, etc. Also, unlike investing in traditional currencies, cryptocurrencies are not issued by the central banks. Therefore, the monetary policy, inflation rates, and other economic factors do not apply to the cryptocurrencies. They are influenced majorly by factors such as the supply of the coins and the demand for it, the number of competing coins, and also the exchanges it trades on.

The supply of cryptocurrencies is impacted by the cryptocurrency protocol, which permits the creation of a new coin (same type) at a fixed rate. A number of coins are introduced into the market when miners verify the blocks of transactions. And the rate at which these new coins are introduced is designed such that it slows down over time. This is done to create a scenario in which the demand for coins increases faster than the supply, which hence causes the prices to shoot up.

Hence we can say that mining & miners have a crucial role in maintaining the supply & demand of any cryptocurrency!

Crypto Guides

How Does A Cryptocurrency Work? (Example – Bitcoin)

In the previous articles, we have learned the definition, properties, and purpose of cryptocurrency. But it is vital for us to know how cryptocurrencies work. In this article, let us find out that by taking the example of Bitcoin.

Below are some of the important terminologies you should know before going further.

Peer to Peer Network (P2P) – The networks where computational devices are joined together with the internet instead of using a central server are called peer to peer networks. Hence there is less chance of a network failure than the standard server model to form a network.

Miners – Miners are the participants in the network who validate transactions. Thus, the creation of new Bitcoins is often referred to as the mining of bitcoins.

Nodes – The individual computational devices in the network are called nodes. The nodes are joined to form a P2P network.

Consensus algorithms – To validate the transactions, the miners in the network should agree whether a transaction is valid or not. The blockchain network uses consensus algorithms to get this job done.

How does the Bitcoin network work?

The blockchain network is set up in a peer to peer way, enabling decentralization of the network effectively, removing the server model. Bitcoin network bundles a certain number of transactions into a block, and these blocks are linked using cryptographic hashing techniques. The miner should validate these blocks for the authenticity of the transactions. To confirm them, the system proposes a challenge to the miners, and the first miner to solve the problem, propagates the message throughout the network. The solution to the challenge is called ‘nonce.’ The complexity of finding this nonce increase as the number of blocks keeps increasing in the system. The other miners validate and approve the transactions if the transactions are not fraudulent.

Bitcoin as reward

The miner who achieves the solution first gets rewarded in the network in the form of Bitcoins. This is how and why the Bitcoins are generated in the network. The miners should be rewarded to keep them motivated and committed to the network. Without miners, the network wouldn’t be sustainable.

To transact Bitcoins in the network, users must pay transaction fees as well. These transaction fees are also in Bitcoin. Hence these transaction fees and Bitcoins generated are paid as a reward to the miners for validating the transactions.

POW as a consensus algorithm

Bitcoin uses Proof of Work (POW) as a consensus algorithm. POW proposes a challenge to the network, which is to be solved to validate the transactions. But why is it necessary? Because POW discourages denial of service. Below are the steps involved in POW in general.

  • The service requester requests service from the service provider.
  • The service provider gives a challenge that should be a bit complex for the service requester to resolve but easy enough for the service provider to check.
  • The service provider proposes this challenge to avoid the exploitation of the service from the service requester.

The exact same concept is used in the Bitcoin network, as well. The miner must expend a considerable amount of computational energy and electricity to solve the challenge. Because by doing this, he/she will not validate fraudulent transactions to be accurate. If they do validate fake transactions, they will lose all the time and computational power they spent and also the chance of gaining a reward. POW is the most efficient consensus algorithm so far, and it makes the Bitcoin network efficient.

We hope you understood the working of Bitcoin. Cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin with different blockchains and consensus work in a different way. You will know about each of them in the upcoming articles. Let us know if you have any questions in the comments below. Cheers!