Forex Daily Topic Forex Price Action

Spot the Chart Accordingly before Triggering for an Entry

In today’s lesson, we are going to demonstrate an example of a chart, which may entice traders to take entry more than once. Some traders may get themselves engaged in taking entry. We find out why we price action traders skip taking those entries. Let us get started.

This is an H4 chart. The price makes a strong bearish move by producing three consecutive Marubozu bearish candles. The last candle comes out as a doji candle. The price may consolidate now. The sellers are to wait for a strong bearish reversal candle upon consolidation to go short in the pair. Let us proceed to the next chart.

The chart produces a bearish Marubozu candle again. As a reversal candle, it is a strong one. However, the price has not consolidated well. It has produced the bearish reversal candle upon having a shallow consolidation. Moreover, the last candle does not close below the level of support. Thus, the sellers may skip taking the entry but wait for the right time to come. The chart still looks good for the sellers.

The chart produces a bullish engulfing candle. The price may make a deeper consolidation this time. The sellers may keep their eyes on the chart again to go short in the pair. Let us proceed to the next chart to find out what happens next.

The price makes a deeper consolidation. Upon finding its resistance, it makes a bearish move. It seems that the price may make a breakout here. A question may be raised here whether the sellers on the H4 chart shall take the entry or not? We find out the answer in a minute. Meanwhile, let us proceed to the next chart.

The next H4 candle closes well below the level of support. The pair trades below the breakout level for one more candle as well. However, the sellers on the H4 chart may skip taking the entry. The reason behind that is the chart takes more than six candles (a day) to make the breakout. This level of support is a daily level of support now. Thus, the sellers may take the trading decision as far as the daily chart is concerned. If they take their trading decision by observing the H4 chart, it may not be that fruitful. The risk-reward may not be a good one. It may not end up being a daily breakout, but the price may come back in. Or, the daily chart may produce a bullish corrective candle next day, which makes the price hit the H4 sellers stop loss. Thus, in such cases, they might have to take losses only because the pair belongs to the daily chart. Thus, for better trading, traders shall take a closer look before taking entry on a chart to determine whether it favors their trading chart.

Forex Price-Action Strategies

The Longer It Ranges, The Harder It Breaks

Price action traders usually look for entries on the chart that has a clear trend. However, even a choppy chart end up providing good entry to the traders. In today’s lesson, we are going to show how a choppy chart ends up producing a good entry. Let us get started.

The chart shows that the price has been choppy. It bounces at a level of support three times. As far as resistance is concerned, the price has a rejection at a level once and comes back down. Then, it heads towards the upside and finds its resistance getting rejection twice. The level of support seems stronger than the resistance here.

The price finds its resistance, and at the second rejection, it makes a breakout. As mentioned, the price bounces three times at the level of support. Thus, the breakout is strong as well. The sellers are to wait for the price to be held by the breakout level and a bearish reversal candle to go short in the pair.

The next candle comes out as a doji candle closing within the breakout level. The breakout comes out as a valid breakout. The sellers are to wait for the level to create a bearish reversal candle to trigger a short entry.

Here it comes. The last candle on the chart comes out as a bearish engulfing candle closing well below the last swing low. The sellers may trigger a short entry right after the candle closes by setting stop loss above the resistance and by setting take profit with 1R. Let us proceed to the next chart to find out how the entry goes.

The price heads towards the South with good bearish momentum. The price hits the take profit (1R). The last candle suggests that the price may head towards the South further. Some traders may take partial profits and let the rest of the trade run to make more pips.

The chart produces a bullish inside bar. The chart still favors the Bear. However, it may be time for the sellers to give it a second thought to close the whole trade. If we look at the chart, the price heads towards the downside and hits the target without producing any bullish candle in between. This is how it usually goes if the price makes a breakout within a long choppy market. Thus, traders may keep their eyes on the choppy charts to see whether the price makes a breakout to offer them an entry. A breakout in a choppy market is often very rewarding.

Forex Course

50 – Basic Anatomy Of A Candlestick Chart


In the previous article, we have discussed the history, introduction, advantages, and disadvantages of using candlestick charts. Now, in this lesson, we will discuss how to read a typical candlestick chart.

Every candlestick has a central portion which is referred to as the body of the candlestick. It shows the distance between the opening price and the closing price of the security that is being traded. The faint line between the top of the body and the high of the trading period is the upper shadow. Likewise, the thin line between the low of the body and the low of the trading period is known as the lower shadow.

The chart below is made up of lines going from top to bottom. These lines are known as candles. This vertical axis of this chart shows the price, whereas the horizontal axis shows the time.

(Chart Taken From Trading View)

Each of the candles in the above chart gives us four pieces of information.

Candlesticks always refer to the information for a specific unit of time. For example, in a daily chart, each candle represents one single trading day. Every single candle is comprised of the open, close, high, and low for that given trading period. The horizontal axis of the above chart can be used to know which day corresponds to which candlestick. Almost every candle has a wick (also known as shadow) that goes outside the body of the candle. They represent the highest and lowest price of a security during that period.


The color of the candle is the essential aspect of any candle. It determines if the opening price of a security was higher or lower than the closing price of a security. If the candle is Red, it is known as a bearish candle. Always remember that the opening price is higher than the closing price in a bearish candle. Contrarily, if the candle is Green in color, it is known as a bullish candle, and that means that the opening price is lower than the closing price.

Market Emotions & Candlesticks

The names given to candlestick patterns are a colorful way to describe the emotional sentiment of the market. When we hear words like ‘dark-cloud cover’ or ‘hanging-man,’ they easily indicate the unhealthy state of the market. We are not saying they provide proper trading signals, but they clearly indicate the negative market state.

Without even knowing the technicalities of these patterns, we get an idea of where the market is heading to just by hearing their names. For instance, consider the names like ‘morning star’ & ‘evening star’ candlestick patterns. The morning star essentially implies the bullish state of the market as the appearance of the morning star is just before the sunrise. Likewise, the evening star indicates a bearish signal because it comes out just before the sunset.

The other emotional price point that should be noted is the closing of any candle. If you recall the concept of Margin calls from brokers, they are based on the close of the candle alone. Thus we can expect emotional involvement when the market closes.

That’s about the anatomy of candlesticks. In the upcoming articles, we will be discussing many of such amazing candlestick patterns which are sure going to be very interesting.

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Candlestick patterns Forex Daily Topic

Candlestick Trading Patterns II – Everything you need to know about Single Candlestick Signals

This article is to be dedicated to single candlestick key figures. The majority of patterns are created by more than one candle, but some particular candlestick shapes are key figures to gauge the market sentiment and spot reversals.

In every one of them we will deal with the following aspects:

  • Identification of the candlestick
  • Marker psychology interpretation
  • Criteria and use

Key Single Candlestick Figures:

  • Doji
  • Spinning top
  • High Wave Candlestick
  • Hammer
  • Hanging man
  • Shooting star

The Japanese traders call the real body “the essence of the price action.” A scientist might call it the Signal part of the message, while the shadows are the nose of the market. The relation between the body and the shadows delivers unique insights into the sentiment of the traders. Shadows show the fight between buyers and sellers to control the price. A large body and small shadows denote that one of the sides has won the battle during that interval. A short body with large shadows after an extended trend indicates the winning herd is losing steam.

Spinning tops and high wave candles

Fig 1 – Spinning tops and High Wave candles

A spinning top is a visual clue for a candle with a tiny body. The color of the body does not matter.  A spinning top without a body is called Doji, such as the second one in the figure above. The fourth one is very close to it too.

Market sentiment in spinning tops

A the smaller the body, the larger the fight between bulls and bears. It shows that no one had control of the price during this period, as the sellers pressure the price down and buyers up, a small body means no one could outweigh the other party. The demand is counteracted by fresh supply,  and vice-versa, so the market is unable to move.

High Wave Candles

Steve Nison also mentions a close relative to the spinning top, called High Wave Candle. High Wave candles also have very small bodies, but to qualify as High Wave, the formation must also have large shadows on both sides. Shadows need not be of the same size, but they must be large.

Market sentiment in a High Wave Candle

According to Mr. Nison, If indecision is the crucial sentiment on spinning tops, High Wave candles represent “downright confusion.” That is evident because, in the same period, the market goes from the euphory of an extended high to the fear of a large drop, and then to close very near to its opening value. That means total confusion.

Trends and spinning tops

A large white body is like a green light for bulls in an uptrend. A large red body is also a green light to sell. But finding a spinning top in an uptrend means that the buyers do not have the complete control of the price. Therefore, such tops are a warning sign that the trend might be ending. Spinning tops acquire more importance when the price is overextended or close to resistance levels.

Spinning tops during ranging markets do not have any power to warn a trend change, as these stages are too noisy, and filled with lots of small bodies, anyway. Therefore, spinning tops and high waves during horizontal channels have no trading value.

Hammers, Hanging Man, and Shooting stars

Three special cases of spinning tops are the Hammer, the Hanging Man, and the Shooting Star.


Fig 2 – Hammer

The hammer has a small real body and a large lower shadow. It is the equivalent of a reversal bar.  The price went from the open to the bottom, then it recovered and closed near or at the high of the session. The color of the body has less importance, although a close above the open has more upside implications. The signal is confirmed with a followthrough candle next to it.

  • The occurrence is after a lengthy downward movement, and the price is overextended.
  • The real body is at the upper top of the trading range
  • The shadow must be two times the length of the body. The longer, the better.
  • No upper or just a tiny shadow
  • Confirmation with a strong bullish candle, next
  • A large volume on the candle confirms a bottom.


Hanging Man

Fig 3 – Hanging Man

The hanging man has a similar shape of the hammer, but it shows up after an uptrend. The Japanese named that way because it is similar to the head and body of a man hanging by the neck.

  • The occurrence is after a significant upward move, and/or the price overextended.
  • The body is at the upper end of the trading range.
  • The lower shadow at least two times the height of the body. The color is not essential, but a bearish finish is preferred. the longer the shadow, the better
  • Tiny or no upper shadow.
  • Confirmation with a large bearish candle
  • High volume on the candlestick is indicative of a potential blowoff.
Shooting star

Fig 4 – Shooting Star

The shooting star is a top reversal candlestick and is the specular image to the hanging man.  In the case of a shooting star, it began great for buyers, but after the euphory of new highs, it came to the deception of the selling pressure with no demand to hold the price.  The close happens at the lower side of the trading range. A bear candle next confirms the trend change.

  • The upper shadow should be two times the height of the body. The larger, the better.
  • The real body is at the bottom of the trading range.
  • Color is less important, although a  red candle implies more bearishness.
  • Almost no lower shadow.
  • A large volume would give more credibility to the signal.
  • A  bear candle next is the confirmation of the change in the trend.


Reference: Steve Nison: The Candlestick Course

Profitable Candlestick Trading, Stephen Bigalow



Forex Chart Basics

An Inverted Hammer at a Double Bottom

The Double Bottom is a pattern, where the buyers eagerly wait to get a bullish reversal candle at. Typically, a Bullish Engulfing Candle, a Bullish Pin Bar,  a Bullish Truck Rail are considered the strongest bullish reversal candle pattern. Usually, a Bullish Inside Bar and an Inverted Hammer are the weakest reversal pattern. In today’s lesson, we demonstrate an example of how a Daily Inverted Hammer candle offers a long entry.

This is the daily chart. It shows that the price has been roaming around within two horizontal levels. It is at the support and produces an Inverted Hammer. An Inverted Hammer is a bullish reversal candle but not a very strong one. Look at the upper shadow. It suggests that the price has a strong rejection at a level of resistance.

To some extent, it signifies intraday buyers’ less confidence. However, it is the daily chart, and the bullish reversal candle forms right at a double bottom’s support. Thus, let us flip over to the H4 chart to find out whether it offers us an entry.

The H4 chart shows that the price is on consolidation. The last candle looks ominous for the buyers. Nevertheless, traders on this chart combination are to look for long opportunities as long as the support holds the price. Let us go to the next chart to find out what happens.

The price finds its support and produces two consecutive bullish candles. One of them breaches the resistance and closes well above the resistance. A long entry may be triggered here by setting the Stop Loss below the consolidation support.

The price heads towards the North with good bullish momentum after triggering the breakout. The last candle on this chart comes out as a bearish candle with some gap. The buyers may consider closing the entry and come out with the total profit. On the other hand, some traders may want to take partial profit and ride on the wave up to the resistance. Have a look at the chart below.

The price may go up to the marked resistance level since this is the last swing high. If we consider the risk-reward, it is an amazing trade. The reward is about five times the risk. Do you remember how it started, though? It began with a Daily Inverted Hammer Candle (relatively weaker bullish reversal) at a Double Bottom’s support. Yes, this is what support of Double Bottom can do.

Forex Price-Action Strategies

When A Breakout Occurs by More than One Candle

Price action traders’ main job is to watch the price action and find out the message out of it. The message comes from candles, various charts, momentum, as well as the attributes of breakouts. In this lesson, we are going to demonstrate an example of a breakout, which occurs with more than one candle. Let us find out whether a breakout with multiple candles gives us any message or not.

The price finds its support at the marked level and heads towards the North with good buying pressure. Price action traders start eyeing on the pair to go long on the pair. The first thing they would want is consolidation. Let us proceed to the next chart.

It seems that the price may have started having a pullback. The price is to come about 38% of the trend’s length to attract the buyers to watch for an upside breakout. Let us see what happens next.

The last candle seems to have covered a good distance. The buyers are going to be keen to get a bullish reversal candle on the chart now. If a reversal candle makes a breakout itself, it attracts traders more. Eventually, it pushes the price towards the trend’s direction at a good pace. Let us find out what happens here.

Here it comes. The bullish reversal candle is here. It is a ‘Track Rail,’ which is the second strongest reversal candle after the Engulfing candle. Traders are to wait for an important event. You know what that is, right?

‘The Breakout’!

The breakout occurs here by a Marubozu candle. Price action trader shall trigger a long entry right after the candle closes. Before triggering the entry, a trader must know where to set his Stop Loss and Take Profit. Stop Loss level is obvious here, which is below the support of the consolidation zone. Where the Take Profit level is to be set? Ideally, a 1:1 risk-reward ratio is the first target in any entry. However, there seems to be enough space for the price to travel. We may go for 1:2 risk-reward here. Does a trader go for a 1:3 risk-reward ratio or even more here? We get the answer later. Meanwhile, let us continue watching the drama.

The plan seems to be working amazingly well. The price heads towards the North with good buying momentum. 1:1 risk and reward ratio is easily achieved within the next candle. 1:2 risk-reward is achieved as well. Some may start splitting the hair for not setting the target with a 1:3 risk-reward ratio. Let us proceed.

The price has produced an Evening Star. This surely is not a good sign for the buyers. Those who set their Take Profit with a 1:3 risk-reward ratio must be in a pensive mood.

The price does not hit the Stop Loss, but there is no profit left for the buyers that are holding the positions. Targeting a 1:3 risk-reward ratio does not bring more pips. It rather makes them lose some pips that they could have earned.

Price Action breakout attributes suggest that if a breakout occurs with multiple candles, the trend often loses its impetus early. Thus, it is best to target 1:1 (in most cases), 1:2 (if there is enough space) risk-reward ratio when a breakout occurs by more than one candle.

Forex Candlesticks

Ideas that can be Blended with Candlestick to Trigger Entries-Part4

In this article, we are going to demonstrate how a Morning Star offered us an entry. We know Morning Star is a strong bullish reversal candle, which is a combination of three candlesticks. There are two types of Morning Star.

  1. Morning Star
  2. Morning Doji Star

Here is how Morning Star looks like

And this is how Morning Doji Star looks like

The example we are going to demonstrate is a Morning Doji Star. Let us get started.

The price was down-trending and produced a Doji Candle on a support level where the last bearish candle closed within. Look at the very last candle. It came out as a Bullish Marubozu Candle closing above the 2nd last candle’s open. This is a typical example of Moring Star upon which buyers shall start integrating other equations to go long.

Let us have a look at those equations.

At first, we have to draw a level of resistance here. Let us draw it.

We draw the resistance line right where the candle closes. Since we do not have any down-trending Trend Line or a Double Bottom’s neckline here, thus we must wait for a trigger candle to close above the bullish candle on the trading chart.  We now have to flip over to the trigger chart. This is an H4 chart, so let’s flip over to the H1 chart to get correction/consolidation and breakout.

This is how the H1 chart looks. The first H1 candle came out as a bearish corrective candle, and the very next one closed above the bullish H4 candle’s close. A perfect trigger candle, we shall wait for. We sometimes may not get the corrective candle here. The very next H1 candle may breach the resistance line and offer us the entry.

In our previous article, we demonstrated an example of how a Bearish Engulfing Candle offered us an entry. Have you spotted out the difference between a single candlestick pattern and a combination of candlesticks pattern’s entry?

On a single candlestick entry, we had to wait for a neckline breakout (it may be trend line breakout), consolidation (on the trading chart), bearish reversal candle (on the trading chart), then the breakout (trigger chart). With Morning Star, we did not have to wait for consolidation on the trading chart. Once the combination pattern (Morning Star) was evident, we flipped over to the trigger chart; waited for a candle to make a new higher high to take an entry.

It may sound so many things to be remembered and integrated with candlesticks trading. However, once we practice and try to understand the market psychology that goes with those patterns, things will get as easy as you may like.


Forex Chart Basics

Ideas that can be Blended with Candlestick to Trigger Entries-Part 3

In Part 2, we learned how important a breakout is for taking an entry. Even the strongest reversal candle itself is not enough to create a new trend. In this article, we are going to learn other steps that we need to maintain for taking an entry in case of engulfing candlestick.

Let us have a look at the chart below.

After producing the engulfing candle,

  1. The price breached through a support level.
  2. The breakout candle looks very strong.

First two equations have been met. Shall we take the entry right now? The answer is “NO”. We must wait for an upward correction/consolidation. A correction/consolidation gives us another level of support/resistance (in this case resistance). It offers a better risk and reward ratio as well as a better winning percentage. Thus, correction/consolidation is considered one of the most vital components of trading.

Let us have a look at how consolidation took place here.

Pay attention to those candles after the breakout. The pair produced one more bearish candle. Many traders may think an opportunity missed here. Look at the very next candle. That came as a Doji Candle followed by a bullish one. Be very careful. The market often keeps having a correction and changes the trend even by making new higher highs. Thus, a bearish reversal candle we must wait for.

We got one and luckily, it was a bearish engulfing candle. Candle Stick Pattern is being used here again to show us selling sign. What do we have to do now?

We have to wait for another breakout. This time we have to flip over to our Trigger Chart. This is an H4 chart. Thus, our trigger chart is H1 Chart. Let us flip over to the H1 Chart.

The price came out with the last candle from the consolidation zone. A Marubozu Bearish Candle made the breakout. A less low spike indicates that the sellers are very confident. Look, Candle Stick Pattern is being used here again. Here we go. This is the point where we trigger out short (sell) entry.

Let us have a look at the chart below how our trade would play.

Wow, it played well. Though it had consolidation on the minor time frames later, however, this should not be our concern. We followed our trading chart’s trend, breakout, consolidation (H4) and the H1 breakout. By setting our Stop Loss and Take Profit, we shall forget the entry. This is another thing of trading called “Set and Forget” that need to be integrated.

In this article, we learned these are the things to be integrated as well.

  1. Consolidation/ Correction on the trading chart.
  2. Reversal candle to be formed on the trading chart.
  3. Flipping over to the trigger chart and waiting for a breakout.

In the next article, we are going to demonstrate an example of how a Morning Star offered us entry with the integration of consolidation, breakout, and breakout candle with a Morning Star. Stay tuned.

Forex Candlesticks

Morning Star: A Strong Bullish Reversal Candlestick Pattern

The Morning Star is a bullish reversal pattern that occurs at the bottom of a downtrend. A Morning Star is a combination of three candlesticks: The first candle shows the continuation of the downtrend. The second candle shows the weakness, and the third candle shows the strength of the bull.

There are two types of Morning Star:

  1. Morning Star
  2. Morning Doji Star


Morning Star

The Morning Star starts with a strong bearish candle followed by a gap down. The star candle may have a little bullish or bearish body. However, the third candle is to be a strong bullish candle closes at the above of the first candle’s open.

Have a look at this.

See the first candle, which is a strong bearish candle. The next candle starts with a gap closing as a little bearish candle. This one may have a small bullish body in some cases. The third candle starts with another upside gap. It is to be a strong bullish candle closing at the above of the first candles’ open. This states that the bull has taken control of the bear.


Morning Doji Star


Let us have a look at the Morning Doji Star

In this case, the star candle comes out as a Doji candlestick. The first candle comes as usual as a strong bearish candle. The third candle opens right at the support level and finishes above the first candle’s open. It states that buyers have started dominating the market.


In both cases, the first and third candles’ attributes are the same. The second candle varies. However, both types explain the psychology of the market, showing that the existent downtrend has come to an end, and an uptrend has been formed.

The Morning star is a visual pattern that is spotted out by the traders easily. It is the preferred pattern among all kinds of traders from price action traders to traders based on indicators.

How Traders Based on Indicators/Price Action Use the Morning Star

Traders based on indicators may use the Morning Star when it is produced at the Supply/Support zone. Moving Average, RSI, Bollinger Band, Parabolic SAR indicate Supply/ Support zone. If a Morning Star is produced at the zone that is a supply/support zone of those indicators, an entry may be triggered at the close of the third candle.

The price action traders may use horizontal, Trend Line, Fibonacci Support/Supply zone to take en entry on the Morning Star. If a Morning Star is produced at the supply/support zone of a horizontal/Trend Line/ Fibonacci levels, an entry may be triggered right after the close of the third candle.





Forex Candlesticks

Types of Bullish Candlesticks

In this article, we are going to get acquainted with some of the Bullish Candlesticks that the financial markets produce. Let’s get started.


Bullish Trackrail

Bullish Trackrail candlestick indicates that the market has been dominated strongly by the buyers. It is a combination of two candlesticks. The second candle is to be bullish and the length is very similar to the first candle. Both candles are with a long and solid body having tiny spikes or no spike at all.

Image: Bullish Trackrail

Bullish Engulfing

Bullish Engulfing Candle is formed with a combination of two candles. The second candle is to engulf and close above the first candle to be considered as a Bullish Engulfing candle. Some analysts/traders do not want to take first candle’s wick into account. However, if the second candle closes above the first candle’s wick, that is one good Bullish Engulfing Candle. A Bullish Engulfing Candle is considered as the strongest bullish reversal candle.


Image: Bullish Engulfing

Bullish Hammer

Bullish Hammer Candle is created when a candle closes with a small body with a long lower shadow. The body has to be tiny and it can be bullish or bearish. However, a little bullish body instead of a bearish body is more preferable among the buyers.

Image: Bullish Hammer

Spinning Top      

Spinning Top has a short body found in the middle with upper and lower wicks. The body can be bullish or bearish.

Image: Spinning Top

Bullish Pin Bar

Bullish Pin Bar is similar to Bullish Hammer. The only difference is a Bullish Pin Bar does not have any real body whereas a Bullish Hammer has a tiny body. Since a Pin Bar does not have a body, it has more rejection from the downside. Thus, Bullish Pin Bar is considered one of the most powerful bullish reversal candlesticks in the financial market.

Image: Bullish Pin Bar

Bullish Inside Bar

Bullish Inside Bar is produced with a combination of two candles. The second candle is to be bullish but shorter than the first candle. It is just the opposite of Bullish Engulfing Candlestick. A Bullish Inside Bar is considered the weakest bullish reversal candlestick.

Image: Bullish Inside Bar


A Doji Candle is formed where the price finishes very close to the same level. Thus, the candle has no body or a very tiny body. A Doji Candle itself is not a strong bullish reversal candle. However, if it is produced at a strong level of support, the market often reverses and goes towards the North.



Image: Doji

Bullish Spinning Top and Doji look very similar to the Bearish Spinning Top and Doji. The only difference between a Bullish Doji and Bearish Doji is a Bullish Doji is produced at a Support Level whereas a Bearish Doji is produced at a resistance level. The same goes for Spinning Top as well. All other bullish reversal candles’ are to be formed at a significant level of support as well. Their appearance is very different than the bearish reversal candles. Stay tuned with us to learn more about Candlestick.



Forex Candlesticks Forex Daily Topic

Three Facts about Candlesticks you Never Knew About

Candlesticks are great because it makes trends visual at first glance. But most candlestick users stay just with that trait and don’t go more in-depth.

Of course, everybody knows some candlestick patterns such as Morning and Evening Stars, Haramis, Dojis and Shooting stars, but what’ is hiding inside the candlestick?. How to extract market sentiment from its shape or pattern?

So, let’s begin!

1 – Unwrapping a Candlestick

A candlestick is condensed information of the price action within its timeframe. The corollary is that if we go to a shorter timeframe, the candlestick now is a pattern of several candlesticks.

In the chart here we see the unwrapping of a 4H candle into 30-min parts

Three Facts about Candlesticks you Never Knew About

Chart 1 – 4H Hammer Candlestick unwrapped into 30-min candles.


We notice that the candle has one segment dominated by sellers and the other part controlled by buyers.

Which sentiment dominates in sellers at the bottom?

  • To the first class belong those traders who could no longer hold the pain of being long and close their position.
  • The second class is made of those who came late to the trend and sold believing the trend will last forever, or quite so.

Which sentiment dominates in the way back up?

  • Late sellers realized that they were in the losing side, so they needed to close their shorts. That meant, they have to buy, adding to the bullish fuel
  • Longs that were taken out of their position see frustrated how the price moves up without them. Hence, some of them retake their longs, while others don’t dare, afraid this is going to be another bull squeeze.

2.- Impulse or correction?

There are only two stages in the market: Impulses and corrections of previous impulses. So how to spot the price is in an impulsive or corrective phase?

Three Facts about Candlesticks you Never Knew About II

Chart 2 – Candlesticks: impulses and corrections.

Impulses break resistances and move with a clear direction. Impulses are what make trends. Corrections move in ranges, lack direction, and usually retraces some or all the advances of the previous impulse.  People usually think in trends as composed by many candlesticks or bars, but we now know that a single candlestick is composed by many shorter-timeframe candlesticks. Therefore, we cannot be surprised if we state that a trend can be made of a single candlestick. That applies also to corrective movements. A corrective movement can be summarised in a single candlestick.

How to know if a candle is impulsive or corrective?

To spot an impulse look for a candlestick with a large body and almost no wicks or shadows. To spot a corrective movement look for small-bodied candles with or without wicks ( usually with wicks).  Sometimes we find both characteristics in a candlestick. That may mean it is a combination of impulse and correction. That is ok since there is no law that forbids the start of a correction or impulse in the middle of the timeframe of a candle. Sorry, the universe is not perfect!

3.- Who is in control?

Once we know facts 1 and 2, we are in the position to spot who controls the price action: buyers or sellers.

One clue is, of course how the candlestick closes, but the other clue is where are and how long are wicks. If we spot several candlesticks with large lower wicks we could reason that the buyers are pushing the price above the bottom of the candlesticks. If wicks happen on top we could deduct the opposite: Sellers selling the rally.

Three Facts about Candlesticks you Never Knew About III

Chart 3 – Candlesticks: Wicks show who controls the price action

A downward trend with a lot of lower wicks is weak. That applies to an upward trend with lots of upper wicks.  Therefore, we can detect the market sentiment by just observing the wick appearance on the candlesticks.


Final words

So now we know that there is much more than just fancy colors and trend visualization. We have to inspect and pay attention to body and wicks, also called shadows by Steve Nison. The information provided by a single or a group or candlesticks is worth the time spent.