Crypto Guides

What Are Security Tokens & What Is Their Importance?


Security tokens provide the digital ownership of traditionally traded securities. The concept of security tokens is a genuinely revolutionary concept developed by the advent of blockchain. Tokens perform a wide variety of roles, depending on the ecosystem they are used in. Tokens may give voting rights, which may be used as a currency, to be used as a value exchange. The more roles the tokens have, the more useful it can be termed.

People often get confused with cryptocurrencies and tokens. Tokens and cryptocurrencies are fundamentally different. While cryptocurrencies can be used anywhere, I mean, depending on the people/business who accept them as a mode of payment. In contrast, tokens can only be used in the designated environment where they are intended to use. Tokenization, the issue of tokens, is a new concept that came up with the advent of blockchain and created new business models with security and utility tokens.

How are the Security tokens issued?

Security tokens are issued just like how cryptocurrencies are issued using ICO’s. ICO’s are Initial Coin Offerings offered by developers whenever a new DAPP is to be developed. The ICO will have a goal to aim for. Depending on the goal, if the people are interested, based on the platform, the DAPP is developed, they pay the local currency and take the ownership of the tokens. The token gains value depending on the functions, roles, and purposes.

Importance of Security tokens

Security tokens are essential because of the role they play in the securities. Utility tokens need not follow any rules and regulations of the real world since they are used in the intended environment only; everything works as per the rules and regulations formed by the creators. When it comes to security tokens, they are representing something that exists in the real-world in real.

The security tokens are a digital representation of real assets in blockchain so that the transfer of securities will be smooth, verifiable, and, most importantly, to eliminate paper documents. Hence Security tokens should follow all the rules and regulations even when the ICO is conducted, then only it is termed as a success. Therefore these tokens are essential in connecting the real-world assets to the blockchain. The impact of security tokens is as below:

🧾 Credibility

The ICO space is not credible enough at the moment, with a lot of failures. Since the ICO’s of security tokens follow all the existing rules and regulations, people are confident enough to invest in the ICO’s where they are interested instead of thinking about the credibility infrastructure and stuff.

🧾 Reducing the costs associated with traditional finance

In traditional finance, a lot of money is involved in the form of registration when you want to transfer money from one person to another. Lawyers are required, as well. In the case of security tokens, a lot of money can be saved. Smart contracts will even further reduce the complexity involved in the process.

🧾 Execution times

Since no third party is involved, execution times are very less compared to traditional finance.

🧾 Unlimited Market

People from different countries find it extremely difficult to invest in any foreign country. Security tokens ease out this difficult task. Because of this simple reason, investors across the globe can invest without worrying about paper documentation, rules, regulations, and stuff.

🧾 Easier Liquidation

With the available platforms, it will be easy to liquidate your token whenever and wherever required since only the internet is required to liquidate your funds.

Even though the security tokens are less popular than the utility tokens, people will start flocking towards security tokens due to its functionality. Most prominently, it follows all the rules and regulations of the governments; hence these adhere to the credibility of people which utility tokens lack in general.

Crypto Guides

Some Of The High Profile Crypto Exchange Hacks You Must Know!


Even though cryptocurrencies are secure, crypto exchanges are where hackers target to loot millions of dollars. No matter how big a cryptocurrency is with the hacks we have seen so far, the exchanges will inevitably be subject to hacks at some point in time. Even though it is 2020, almost ten years since the advent of bitcoin, the hacks have never been slowed down. This is why it is always advisable for the crypto investors to hold their assets in their personal wallets instead of storing them with the crypto exchange itself.

Let us look at some of the high-profile cryptocurrency hacks so far:

The Mt.Gox

Mt.Gox, a Japan-based cryptocurrency stock exchange, was the biggest and busiest of exchanges, with 70% of bitcoin transactions from all over the world was going in the platform back then in 2013-14. With cryptocurrency or cryptocurrency exchanges, there were no regulations. There were many loopholes in the company’s management, like there was no VCS, Version Control Software. The VCS mainly stores all the information of all the features, coding set up of a particular version of the software product.

Without proper VCS, we will not know what changes were made when and it would be practically impossible to go back to a particular version of the software if necessary. All the code changes were to be approved by the CEO himself, which is the biggest bottleneck. There was no testing policy; the developers develop code and deploy it without any particular testing, which is a disaster. All these underlying issues led to a massive hack amounting to $473 million worth of bitcoin in 2014, which eventually led to the closure of the exchange permanently.

The DAO Hack

Before the 2019 Hack of Ethereum classic, DAO hack was the major one in the Ethereum platform. DAO, Decentralized Autonomous Organization, is a smart contract that was supposed to revolutionize the platform. The DAO acts as a decentralized venture capital fund for all the future DAPPS getting developed in the platform. Anyone can buy DAO for some ether and gain voting rights for any proposed app developed in the platform.

If one doesn’t wish to vote any further or doesn’t want to contribute to an app they are not interested in, they can opt-out of DAO. The opting-out part is where the hackers aimed and hacked 50 million dollars in 2016. The opting-out function has been made recursive by hackers. Hence instead of returning the funds once, the system kept returning the funds until it was noticed and stopped. Due to this issue, Ethereum was hard forked into Ethereum and Ethereum Classic.

The Bitfinex Hack

The Bitfinex exchange for increasing the security and ease the transactions for the users came up with multi-sig wallets with the collaboration of Bitgo. Multi-signature wallets are such wallets that have multiple keys. One key is owned and stored by the company.  While the owner of the wallet has two keys, he may give one key to his trustworthy friend/relative, so that even he loses his key, he has a backup. Generally, the multi-signature wallets need two keys to operate.

These wallets are hot, and this additional security feature ironically led to the hack. However, there are many theories on how and why the hack happened. Bitfinex rose to limelight and gained the credibility back. $72 million worth of bitcoin was hacked due to which 20% of the value of each bitcoin was eroded.

Later we saw many hacks in different exchanges like Bithumb where $30 million worth of cryptocurrency was stolen. Coinrail was hacked for $37.2 million, BitGrail for $195 million, and Coincheck for $534 million.


While cryptocurrencies are no doubt safe, but one has to do their homework on the exchanges, they are transacting. Always store your cryptocurrency in your own hot/cold wallets. Crypto exchanges will always be targeted if they are doing business for very high value. They should voluntarily show the security measures they are taking to avoid any potential hack. No matter which cryptocurrencies one is trading with, due diligence on the exchange is first and foremost.


Zilliqa Blockchain: What Is Ziliqa And How Is It Turning Blockchain Upside Down

Anyone that’s transacted on the Bitcoin blockchain is aware of how long transactions take to be confirmed. In fact, Bitcoin transactions can take anything from 10 minutes to one day, depending on traffic. One of the things a digital currency is supposed to accomplish is speed. This is one goal that’s yet to manifest for Bitcoin and, indeed, the majority of blockchains.

Many blockchains are remodeled after Bitcoin’s blockchain, one way or another. The result is the same, slow transactions and waiting times. Zilliqa changes this by deconstructing the current blockchain concept.

Let’s delve into the interesting way that it does this.

What’s Zilliqa?

Zilliqa is a scalable blockchain with the ability to process thousands of crypto transactions every second. This is made possible by its adoption of the sharding technique. Sharding is by no means a new concept, nor was it invented for blockchain. The technique has been around for a while and is majorly used to partition databases to make workloads more manageable.

Blockchain’s Scalability Problem

The current blockchain, as we know it, uses the consensus mode of transaction confirmation that has faced scalability issues since its inception. This is due to thousands of nodes in any blockchain network that makes it harder to reach consensus. The speed of a network is inversely related to how large it is. The bigger the network, the more nodes that have to reach a consensus on transactions, slowing their confirmation.

Consider Bitcoin’s blockchain. As more users use the network, confirmation time is slower, and the transaction fee increases. Moreover, those who want faster confirmation are forced to pay more in order to get first priority. This is not only expensive, but it also goes against the democratic nature and accessibility-for-all of cryptocurrency.

The Ethereum blockchain, the second most popular, also has an inherent scalability problem. This is best illustrated by the Cryptokitties fiasco, whereby the game’s developers had to increase the transaction fees in order to at least reduce network congestion. This demonstrated how the network couldn’t handle massive amounts of traffic.

Right now, both Bitcoin and Ethereum, with their transaction throughput of 7 and 15 transactions per second respectively, are unable to compete with traditional payment systems such as Visa, which handles as much as 1,700 transactions per second.

The problem with proposed scalability solutions

Now, solutions that have been proposed for the blockchain scalability issue are not sustainable for the long haul. One of these is moving part of the transaction data off the chain. Others are increasing the block size so that consensus can be established for each round of transactions.

These are band-aid solutions that don’t fix the fundamental problem. The ideal solution would be overhauling the entire architecture so that the rate of nodes giving consensus is positively correlated with the network size.

Zilliqa’s Scalability Answer

Zilliqa proposes to solve this problem by re-imagining the entire blockchain from the ground up. This new model involves implementing a hybrid consensus that will grow the network’s throughput with every 600 new nodes that join.

Theoretically, for every 600 new nodes, Zilliqa’s throughput increases by dividing the work. In practice, an ever-increasing network (let’s say 1 million nodes) can present broadcast issues.

However, no network as yet has reached 1 million nodes. Both Bitcoin and Ethereum currently have tens of thousands of nodes. Even with that number, they’re still only able to process an average of 3-15 transactions per second (TPS). By contrast, with only 1800 nodes, Zilliqa has a throughput of 1218 TPS. When this number is doubled to 3,600 nodes, Zilliqa can handle up to 2, 488 TPS.

Zilliqa’s Sharding Protocol

So, what’s Zilliqa’s plan to achieve this scalability? It does this by utilizing a process known as sharding. The Zilliqa protocol divides the nodes on the network into groups of 600 each. Each group is called a shard. For instance, if a network has 2400 nodes, the nodes will be divided four times, with each group getting 600 shards.

Zilliqa Sharding_Forex Academy

So, as more nodes join the network, they are automatically distributed to create shards. Each shard will process a small part of each transaction. For instance, if there are ten shards on the network, each processes a tenth of the total transaction. Thus, the more shards you get, the more work you have, the faster the workload, and the faster the transaction throughput.

Every shard processes the transaction the parallel shard is working on. A parallel process is known as a ‘DS epoch.’ After every epoch, the blocks will come together and form a full block.

The DS Committee

Zilliqa has a “DS committee” that manages shard allocation. For each DS epoch, nodes are randomly selected to manage the shards. These nodes are the ones known as the DS committee, and they decide which shards the nodes are allocated to.

Finding Consensus: Proof-of-work and Byzantine Fault Tolerant Mechanism

Zilliqa utilizes a hybrid consensus mechanism that works as follows:

The first stage of the mining process involves proof-of-work (PoW). The PoW involves completing a hash to prove and establish identity, making it impossible for a bad actor to create multiple identities and overwhelm the network. After a node’s identity is proven, it’s assigned to a shard.

In the shards, Zilliqa applies a Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance consensus (PBFT). Now, this mechanism has a finality, meaning the majority of the nodes in a shard must reach consensus on a mini-block. Once a block is verified by the shards and the DS committee, it becomes the only block that can be linked to the one before it.

Zilliqa’s Scilla

The Zilliqa team has developed a new programming language known as Scilla. Scilla is an intermediate-level language that separates the programming and communication aspects of smart contracts. It helps to differentiate between functional contracts compatible with Zilliqa’s blockchain, and state-dependent contracts that are not yet supported by Zilliqa.

Zilliqa Token

Zilliqa has a native token known as ZIL. ZIL token acts as an incentive for miners, gas for fueling smart contracts, and for covering transaction fees.

As of May 8, 2020, Zilliqa is trading at $0.006985 and ranks at #75. It has a market cap of $101,107,215, and a 24-hour trade volume of $23, 583, 984. A total of 10 billion ZIL tokens are in circulation. The coin has a total supply of 13 billion and a maximum supply of 21 billion. ZIL’s all-time high was 0.231489 on May 19, 2018, and its all-time low was $0. 002477 on March 13, 2020.

Who’s the Team Behind Zilliqa?

The Zilliqa team mainly comprises of people with a computer science background. CEO Xinshu holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the National University of Singapore. Chief Scientific Advisor Prateek Saxena holds a Ph.D. in the same field form the University of California, Berkeley. Head of Research Amrit Kumar has a Ph.D. from Université Grenoble-Alpes, France, as well as an Engineer’s diploma from Ecole Polytechnique, France.

The project’s advisory board comprises of notable figures in the blockchain sphere. These are Loi Luu, co-founder of Kyber Network; Vincent Zhou, founding partner of digital asset management firm FBG Capital; Nicolai Oster of Bitcoin Suisse AG, and Strong Hold Labs CEO – Alexander Lipton.

Where to Buy and Store Zilliqa

You can find Zilliqa at any popular exchanges, including Binance, Huobi, Coinbase Pro,, Kucoin, BitFinex, Coinswitch, OKEx, and YoBitNet.

Zilliqa recommends the following trusted wallets for storing your ZIL: Ledger, Trust Wallet, Zillet, ZilPay Wallet, Infinito Wallet, Math Wallet, Atomic Wallet, Zil Cli, and the Zil Wallet. Different wallets exist in different forms, such as iOs, Android, web browsers, and hardware.

Final Thoughts

Despite the current proliferation of blockchains, Zilliqa managed to come up with a unique solution for a persistent problem in the blockchain. While many existing blockchains scramble to integrate sharding, Zilliqa has the headstart of implementing it from scratch. We can expect to see many more blockchains being launched with this technology in the future.