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What causes spread in forex?

The forex market is the largest financial market in the world, with an estimated daily turnover of over $5 trillion. A crucial aspect of forex trading is the spread, which is the difference between the bid and ask prices of a currency pair. The spread is the primary source of revenue for forex brokers, and it affects the profitability of traders. In this article, we will explore the factors that cause spread in forex.


Liquidity is the ease of buying and selling an asset without affecting its price. In forex, liquidity refers to the availability of buyers and sellers in the market. A high liquidity market has many participants, leading to narrow spreads. On the other hand, low liquidity markets have few participants, leading to wider spreads. Liquidity is affected by many factors, including economic events, market sentiment, and trading volumes.


Economic events

Economic events, such as central bank decisions, GDP releases, and employment reports, have a significant impact on the forex market. These events affect the supply and demand of currencies, leading to volatility and wider spreads. For example, if a central bank announces an interest rate cut, the currency of that country may weaken, leading to wider spreads.

Market sentiment

Market sentiment refers to the overall attitude of traders towards the market. If traders are optimistic, they are more likely to buy currencies, leading to higher demand and narrower spreads. On the other hand, if traders are pessimistic, they are more likely to sell currencies, leading to lower demand and wider spreads. Market sentiment is affected by various factors, including news events, economic data, and geopolitical risks.

Trading volumes

Trading volumes refer to the amount of currency being traded in the market. Higher trading volumes lead to narrow spreads, while lower trading volumes lead to wider spreads. Trading volumes are affected by various factors, including market sentiment, economic events, and trading activity in other markets.

Currency pairs

Different currency pairs have different spreads. Major currency pairs, such as EUR/USD and USD/JPY, have narrow spreads due to their high liquidity. On the other hand, exotic currency pairs, such as USD/BRL and USD/TRY, have wider spreads due to their low liquidity. The spread also varies depending on the broker and the trading platform used.

Broker commissions

Forex brokers charge commissions on each trade, which affects the spread. Some brokers offer zero commissions but charge wider spreads, while others charge lower spreads but higher commissions. Traders should consider the commission structure of their broker when choosing a trading platform.


The spread is an essential aspect of forex trading, and it affects the profitability of traders. The spread is affected by various factors, including liquidity, economic events, market sentiment, trading volumes, currency pairs, and broker commissions. Traders should consider these factors when choosing a trading platform and managing their trades. By understanding the factors that cause spread in forex, traders can make informed decisions and improve their trading performance.


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